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VICTORIA   UNIVERSITY    LIBRARY 


This  book  is  purchased  from 

The  Schofield  Fund 

given  in  memory  of 

William  Henry  Schofield 

Victoria  College,  B.A.  1889 

Harvard  University,  Ph.  D.  1895 

Professor  of  Comparative  Literature 

Harvard  University,  1906-20. 

Harvard  Exchange  P  rofessor  at 

University  of  Berlin,  1907 

Lecturer  at  the  Sorbonne  and 

University  of  Copenhagen,  1910. 

Harvard  Exchange  Professor  at 

Western  Colleges,  1918. 


illim  0 


€arlg  €nglis 

^rrits.     |to.  1. 
1867. 


' 


'•  '•'•  V 

BERLIN:  ASHER  &  CO.,  13,  UNTER  DEN  LINDEN. 

NEW  YORE-:  C.  SCRIBNER  &  CO.:  LEYPOLDT  &  HOLT. 

PHILADELPHIA :  J.  B.  LIPPINCOTT  &  CO. 


THE  ROMANCE  OF 


tltiara  0f  Jalem: 


(OTHERWISE  KNOWN  AS 

THE  ROMANCE  OF  "WILLIAM  AND  THE  WERWOLF") 

TRANSLATED   FROM   THE    FRENCH   AT    THE    COMMAND    OF 
SIR   HUMPHREY   DE    BOHUN,    ABOUT   A.D.    1350; 


TO   WHICH   18  ADDED   A   FRAGMENT 

OF  THE  ALLITERATIVE  ROMANCE  OP 


TRANSLATED    FROM   THE   LATIN    BY   THE    SAME   AUTHOR, 
ABOUT  A.D.  1340  ; 


THE  FORMER   RE-EDITED   FROM  THE  UNIQUE  MS.   IN   THE   LIBRARY   OF  KING'S 
COLLEGE,    CAMBRIDGE  ; 

THE  LATTER   NOW   FIRST  EDITED   FROM   THE   UNIQUE   MS.    IN   THE 
BODLEIAN  LIBRARY,    OXFORD; 

BY  THE 

REV.  WALTER  W.  SKEAT,  M.A., 

LATl  FELLOW  OP  CHEIST'S  COLLEGE,  CAMBRIDGE  ;  AUTHOR  OF  "  A  M<ESO-GOTHIC  GLO8SART," 
EDITOR  OF  "PIERS  PLOWMAN,"  ETC. 


LONDON : 
PUBLISHED  FOR  THE   EARLY  ENGLISH  TEXT  SOCIETY 

BY  KEGAN  PAUL,  TRENCH,  TRUBNER  &  Co, 

PATERNOSTER  HOUSE,    CHARING-CROSS   ROAD,   W.C. 

MDCCCLXVII. 

[Reprinted  1890,  1898.} 


PR 

1119 

Es 
no.  i 


ZZ-l-31 


CLAT  &  SONS,   LIMITED,    LONDON  <t  BUNOAT. 


CONTENTS. 


PREFACE. 

INTRODUCTION  TO  "WILLIAM  OP  PALERNE:" 

§  1.  The  "  Extra  Series  "  of  the  E.  E.  T.  S.     §  2. 
"William  and  the  Werwolf;"  edition  of  1832.     §  3. 
Missing  portions  supplied  from  the  French.     §  4.  The 
story.     §  5.  Description  of  the  MS.  ...  ...  i 

Preface  to  the  edition  of  1832  •  by  Sir  F.  Madden.     (Ke- 

printed.)  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...         vii 

Note  on  the  word  "  Werwolf ; "  by  Sir  F.  Madden          ...       xxv 
INTRODUCTION  TO  "  ALISAUNDER  :  " 

§   1.   Alliterative  Eomances  of  Alexander.     §  2.  The 
Alisaunder  in  MS.  Greaves  60,  by  the  author  of  William 
of  Palerne.     §  3.  Description  of  MS.  Greaves  60.     §  4. 
The  Story.     §  5.  Its  origin.     §  6.  On  the  dialect  of  the 
poems.     §  7.  On  the  distinction  between  "  thou "  and 
"ye."  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...      xxix 

WILLIAM  OP  PALERNE  ...  ...  ...  1 

THE  GESTES   OP   THE  WORTHIE   KING  AND  EMPEROUR,  ALI- 
SAUNDER OP  MACEDOINE  .  .  ...  ...       177 

Notes  to  "  WiUiam  of  Palerne  "  ...  ...  ...       219 

Notes  to  "  Alisaunder "  ...  ...  ...  ...       236 

Glossarial  Index      ...  ...  ...  ...       250 

Index  of  Names  ...  ...  •••  •••       324 


PREFACE. 


INTRODUCTION  TO  "  WILLIAM  OF  PALERNE." 

§  1.  THE  "Extra  Series"  of  the  publications  of  the  Early  English 
Text  Society,  of  which  this  is  the  first  volume,  is  intended  to  he  sup- 
plementary to  the  ordinary  series  in  such  a  way  as  to  expedite  the 
printing  of  the  whole  quantity  of  work  to  he  printed.  It  has  been 
proposed  that  it  shall  "be  reserved  entirely  for  reprints  and  re-editions, 
and  this  rule  will  in  general  he  adhered  to.  At  the  same  time,  a 
little  laxity  of  definition  must  be  allowed  as  to  what  constitutes  a 
reprint.  Thus,  the  editions  of  "  Piers  Plowman "  (Text  A)  and  of 
"  Pierce  the  Ploughmans  Crede,"  being  entirely  new,  and  from 
entirely  new  sources,  have  been  issued  with  the  ordinary  Series, 
though  both  have  been  edited  before  more  than  once ;  whilst,  on  the 
other  hand,  more  than  a  thousand  lines,  never  before  printed,  have 
purposely  been  included  in  the  present  volume,  as  belonging  to  the 
same  date,  and  as  having  been  written  by  the  same  author  as  the  rest. 

§  2.  Of  the  two  poems  here  printed,  it  is  the  former  that  has  been 
edited  before,  in  a  volume  of  which  the  title  is — "The  Ancient  English 
Romance  of  WILLIAM  AND  THE  WERWOLF  ;  edited  from  an  unique  copy 
in  King's  College  Library,  Cambridge;  with  an  introduction  and 
glossary.  By  Frederick  Madden,  Esq.,  F.RS.,  F.S.A.,  M.R.S.L., 
Assistant-Keeper  of  the  MSS.  in  the  British  Museum.  London : 
printed  by  William  Nicol,  Shakspeare-Press.  MDCCCXXXII."  It  forms 
one  of  the  "Roxburghe  Club"  series,  and  only  a  limited  number 
of  copies  were  printed. 


li  INTRODUCTION    TO    "  WILLIAM    OF    PALERNE. 

The  thorough  excellence  of  both  the  text  and  glossary  of  this 
edition  is  known  to  all  who  have  had  the  opportunity  of  access  to  it, 
and  it  has  always  ranked  as  a  contribution  of  great  importance  to  our 
knowledge  of  Early  English  literature.  Sir  F.  Madden  justly  claims 
to  have  been  one  of  the  first  editors  who  insisted  on  the  necessity  of 
strict  and  literal  accuracy,  and  it  is  impossible  to  say  how  much  we 
owe  to  him,  directly  and  indirectly.  Ilis  edition  is,  in  fact,  almost  a 
facsimile  of  the  MS.,  being  printed  in  black-letter,  and  with  all  the 
contractions  of  the  original,  a  table  of  these  being  added  to  explain 
them  to  the  reader.  A  copy  of  it  having  been  provided  for  my  use, 
it  was  sent  to  the  printer,  after  I  had  expanded  all  the  contractions 
by  the  use  of  italic  letters,  numbered  the  lines,  inserted  marks  of 
punctuation,  and  added  side-notes.  Had  the  proof-sheets  been  cor- 
rected by  this  only,  the  volume  would  have  contained  no  error  of  im- 
portance ;  but  I  judged  it  to  be  due  to  Sir  F.  Madden  and  to  sub- 
scribers to  make  it  absolutely  correct  (as  I  hope  it  now  is,  in  the 
text  at  least,)  by  reading  the  proof-sheets  with  the  MS.  itself,  to 
which  I  had  ready  access  through  the  kindness  of  Mr  Bradshaw, 
Fellow  of  King's  College,  and  our  University  Librarian.1  I  have  also 
added  a  few  words  within  square  brackets  where  there  are  obvious 
omissions  ;  they  are  chiefly  taken  from  Sir  F.  Madden's  notes.  As 
his  glossary  contained  references  to  the  pages,  and  our  object  is  to 
have  references  to  the  lines  of  the  poem,  I  have  re-written  it  entirely, 
incorporating  with  it  the  more  difficult  words  in  the  fragment  of 
"  Alisaunder."  For  the  sidenotes,  most  of  the  notes  at  the  end,  and 
indeed  for  the  whole  volume  in  its  present  state,  I  am  altogether  re- 
sponsible ;  but  I  consider  it  as  no  little  gain  that  Sir  F.  Madden, 
with  very  great  kindness,  has  looked  over  the  re  vises  of  the  whole  work, 
and  I  am  much  indebted  to  him  for  his  suggestions.  The  glossary  is, 
of  course,  copied  from  his  almost  wholly ;  but  to  some  illustrative 
notes  that  are  left  entirely  in-  his  own  words  I  have  drawn  special 
attention  by  attaching  to  them  the  letter  "  — M."  He  has  also  per- 

»  May  not  some  of  the  alleged  difficulty  of  the  study  of  Old  English  be  fairly 
attributed  to  the  shameful  inaccuracy  of  some  of  the  texts  ?  The  portion  of 
"  William  and  the  Werwolf"  printed  by  Hartshorne  is,  in  places,  simply  inex- 
plicable. 


INTRODUCTION    TO    "WILLIAM    OF    PALERXE.  ill 

mitted  the  reprinting  of  his  preface  to  the  former  edition,  and  of  his 
note  on  the  word  "  Werwolf  "  (with  fresh  additions). 

§  3.  We  are  also  under  great  obligations  to  M.  Michelant,  of  the 
Bibliotheque  Imperiale  at  Paris.  To  him  we  owe  the  transcript  of  a  con- 
siderable portion  of  the  beginning  of  the  French  version  of  the  poem, 
enabling  me  to  supply  the  missing  portions  of  the  English  version  at 
pp.  1 — 6  and  19 — 23,  and  further  to  compare  the  French  with  the 
English  throughout  the  first  500  lines ;  some  of  the  results  of  which 
comparison  will  be  found  in  the  "  Notes."  He  even  did  more ;  for 
he  secured  for  us  the  accuracy  of  the  portions  printed  by  comparing 
the  proof-sheets  with  the  MS.  Bibl.  de  L' Arsenal,  Belles  Lettres,  178, 
from  which  his  transcript  was  made. 

§  4.     THE   STORY. 

Most  of  the  details  of  the  story  can  be  gathered  from  the  "  Index 
of  Names  "  at  the  end  of  the  volume,  and  from  the  head-lines  and 
side-notes,  but  a  brief  sketch  of  it  may  be  acceptable. 

Embrons,  King  of  Apulia,  by  his  wife  Felice,  daughter  of  the  Em- 
peror of  Greece,  had  a  fair  son  named  William.  The  brother  of  Embrons, 
wishing  to  be  heir  to  the  throne,  bribed  two  ladies,  Gloriande  and 
Acelone,  to  murder  the  child.  But  at  this  very  time,  as  the  child  was 
at  play  (at  Palermo),  a  wild  wolf  caught  him  up,  ran  off  with  him,  swam 
the  Straits  of  Messina,  and  carried  him  away  to  a  forest  near  Rome,  not 
injuring,  but  taking  great  care  of  him.  But  while  the  wolf  went  to  get 
some  food  for  him,  the  child  was  found  by  a  cowherd,  who  took  him 
home  and  adopted  him.  (Now  you  must  know  that  the  wolf  was  not  a 
true  wolf,  but  a  werwolf  or  man-wolf /  he  had  once  been  Alphouns,  eldest 
son  of  the  King  of  Spain,  and  heir  to  the  crown  of  Spain.  His  step- 
mother Braunde,  wishing  her  son  Braundinis  to  be  the  heir,  enchanted 
him  so  that  he  became  a  werwolf.)  One  day  the  Emperor  of  Rome, 
going  out  a-hunting,  lost  his  way,  and  met  with  the  boy  William,  with 
whom  he  was  much  pleased,  and  took  the  child  from  the  cowherd  behind 
him  on  his  horse  to  Rome,  and  committed  him  to  the  care  of  his  own 
daughter  Melior,  to  be  her  page.  William,  growing  up  beloved  by 
everybody,  attracted,  as  might  have  been  expected,  the  love  of  Melior  in 
particular  ;  who,  in  a  long  but  amusing  soliloquy,  concludes  that,  though 
she  is  degrading  herself  to  think  upon  a  foundling,  she  finds  it  harder 
still  not  to  think  of  him,  and  seeks  the  advice  of  her  dear  friend  Ali- 
saundrine,  a  daughter  of  the  Duke  of  Lombardy.  This  young  damsel 
bids  her  be  at  ease,  and,  having  some  slight  knowledge  of  witchcraft, 
causes  William  to  dream  of  Melior,  and  to  fall  in  love  with  her  hope- 


IV  INTRODUCTION    TO    "  WILLIAM    OF   TALERNE. 

lessly.  All  his  consolation  is  to  sit  in  Melior's  garden,  and  he  considers 
himself  sufficiently  fed  by  gazing  at  her  window  the  whole  day.  Worn 
out  by  this,  he  falls  asleep  there,  and  is  found  by  the  two  ladies,  and,  by 
Alisaundrine's  devices,  the  young  couple  are  soon  betrothed  ;  but  it  has 
to  be  kept  a  great  secret,  lest  the  emperor  should  come  to  hear  of  it. 
About  this  time  the  emperor's  lands  are  invaded  by  the  Duke  of  Saxony. 
William,  knighted  for  the  occasion,  is,  by  his  prowess,  the  chief  instru- 
ment of  the  invader's  defeat ;  a  defeat  which  the  duke  takes  so  much  to 
heart  that  he  shortly  dies  of  grief.  The  emperor  thanks  and  praises 
William  greatly,  very  much  to  his  daughter's  delight.  But  the  next 
circumstance  is  untoward  enough.  The  Emperor  of  Greece  (who  be 
it  remembered,  is  William's  grandfather)  sends  an  embassy,  headed  by 
Lord  Koachas,  to  ask  the  hand  of  Melior  for  his  son  Partenedon.  The 
emperor  at  once  accepts  the  proposal,  and  the  Emperor  of  Greece  and 
Prince  Partenedon  set  out  for  Rome.  William  falls  ill  at  the  news,  but  is 
soon  recovered  by  the  expressions  of  devoted  constancy  which  he  re- 
ceives from  Melior.  The  Greeks  arrive  at  Rome,  and  great  preparations 
are  made  ;  what  is  to  be  done  ?  Melior  and  William  consult  their  un- 
failing friend  Alisaundrine,  who,  not  knowing  what  eke  to  do,  steals  the 
skins  of  two  white  bears  from  the  royal  kitchen,  sews  her  friends  up  in 
them,  and  lets  them  out  by  a  postern-gate  from  Melior's  garden,  and 
bids  them  a  sad  farewell.  But  they  had  been  observed  ;  for  a  Greek, 
walking  in  this  garden,  had  seen,  to  his  great  astonishment,  two  bears 
walking  off  on  their  hind  legs,  and  tells  his  companions  of  his  adventure, 
for  which  he  is  well  laughed  at,  nothing  more  being  thought  of  it  at  the 
time.  The  lovers  hurry  away  till  they  find  a  den,  wherein  they  conceal 
themselves,  but  fear  to  die  of  hunger.  In  this  strait  the  werwolf  finds 
them,  and  brings  them  sodden  beef  and  two  flasks  of  wine,  having 
robbed  two  men  whom  he  met  carrying  them.  Meanwhile,  great  are  the 
preparations  for  the  wedding,  which  is  to  take  place  at  St  Peter's  church. 
But  at  the  last  moment,  where  is  the  bride?  The  Emperor  of  Rome, 
frantic  with  rage,  questions  Alisaundrine,  who  evades  his  questions,  but 
at  last  avows  her  conviction  that,  if  William  cannot  be  found,  neither  will 
Melior.  William  is  indeed  missing,  and  the  Greek's  story  about  the  two 
white  bears  is  at  once  understood,  and  a  hue  and  cry  is  raised  after  them. 
They  are  not  found,  and  the  Greeks  return  to  their  own  country.  The 
lovers,  still  disguised  as  bears,  and  guided  and  fed  by  the  werwolf,  flee  to 
Benevento,  where  they  are  nearly  caught,  but  escape  by  the  werwolf  s  help. 
Finding  their  disguise  is  known,  they  dress  up  as  a  hart  and  hind,  and  at 
last,  after  a  strange  adventure  at  Reggio,  cross  the  Straits  of  Messina  to 
Palermo,  the  werwolf  still  guiding  them.  Palermo  is  in  a  state  of  siege. 
King  Embrons  is  dead,  and  Felice  is  queen,  but  is  hard  pressed  by  the 
Spaniards,  as  the  King  of  Spain  has  asked  the  hand  of  her  daughter  Florence 
(William's  sister)  for  his  son  Braundinis,  and,  on  her  refusal,  has  come 
to  enforce  his  claim.  Queen  Felice  has  a  dream  of  happy  omen,  and, 
perceiving  the  hart  and  hind,  dresses  herself  also  in  a  hind's  skin,  and 
goes  to  meet  them,  welcoming  them  and  offering  them  protection,  if 


INTRODUCTION    TO 

William  will  deliver  her  from  the  Spaniards.  Rejoiced  at  this,  William, 
on  Ernbrons'  horse,  and  with  a  werwolf  painted  on  his  shield,  performs 
marvels,  and  takes  both  the  King  and  Prince  of  Spain  prisoners,  never  to 
be  released  till  the  wicked  Queen  Braunde  shall  disenchant  the  werwolf. 
She  is  sent  for,  and  arrives,  and  reverses  the  charm,  restoring  Alphouns 
to  his  right  shape,  for  which  she  is  pardoned  ;  and  the  Prince  Alphouns 
receives  great  praises  for  his  kindness  to  William,  it  being  now  seen 
that  he  did  but  steal  him  away  to  save  his  life  from  the  plots  of  King 
Embrous'  brother.  By  way  of  further  reward,  he  is  to  marry  Florence, 
and  William  is,  of  course,  to  marry  Melior.  William  sends  a  message 
to  this  effect  to  Melior's  father,  who,  for  joy  to  hear  that  she  is  alive, 
promises  to  come  to  the  wedding,  and  to  bring  Alisaundrine  with  him. 
At  the  same  time  the  Emperor  of  Greece,  Queen  Felice's  father,  sends 
Partenedon  his  son  to  Palermo  to  help  the  queen  against  the  Spaniards  ; 
but  the  prince  is  not  a  little  chagrined  at  finding  that  he  has  come  to  see 
Melior,  whom  he  once  wooed,  and  whom  he  lost  at  the  last  moment, 
married  to  the  husband  of  her  own  choice.  Seeing  no  help  for  it,  however, 
he  submits  as  well  as  he  can.  But  there  is  another  disappointed  suitor, 
Prince  Bratmdinis ;  can  nothing  be  done  for  him  ?  It  is  at  once  arranged 
that  he  can  marry  Alisaundrine,  and  the  triple  wedding  of  William 
and  Melior,  Alphouns  and  Florence,  Braundinis  and  Alisaundrine,  is 
celebrated  in  one  day ;  after  which,  Partenedon  returns  to  Greece,  and 
the  Spaniards  return  to  Spain.  The  Emperor  of  Rome  dying,  William 
is  elected  to  succeed  him  as  emperor,  and  is  crowned  at  Rome  ;  and 
Alphouns,  his  steadfast  friend,  who  has  become  King  of  Spain  on  his 
father's  death,  is  present  at  the  joyful  ceremony.  And  thus  the  Queen  of 
Palermo  lived  to  see  her  dream  come  true,  that  her  right  arm  reached 
over  Rome  and  her  left  arm  lay  over  Spain  ;  for  her  son  was  the 
emperor  of  the  former  country,  and  her  daughter  queen  of  the  latter  ; 
nor  was  the  kind  cowherd  forgotten,  for  his  adopted  son  gave  him  an 
earldom,  and  brought  him  out  of  his  care  and  poverty. 

It  ought  to  be  remarked  that  the  curious  fancies  about  the  enchant- 
ment of  Alphouns  into  a  werwolf,  and  the  dressing  up  of  William  and 
Melior,  firstly  in  the  skins  of  two  white  bears  and  afterwards  in  the 
skins  of  a  hart  and  a  hind,  as  also  the  wearing  of  a  hind's  skin  by 
the  Queen  of  Palermo,  form  the  true  groundwork  of  the  story,  and  no 
doubt,  at  the  time,  attracted  most  attention.  To  a  modern  reader 
this  part  of  the  narrative  becomes  tedious,  and  one  wonders  why  the 
disguises  were  kept  on  so  long.  But  as  a  whole,  the  story  is  well 
told,  and  the  translator  must  have  been  a  man  of  much  poetic  power, 
as  he  has  considerably  improved  upon  his  original.  For  further  re- 
marks upon  him,  see  Sir  F.  Madden's  preface,  and  the  "Intro- 
duction to  Alisaunder." 


Vi  INTRODUCTION    TO    "  WILLIAM    OF    PALERXE. 

§  5.       DESCRIPTION    OF    THE    M:S. 

In  addition  to  Sir  F.  Madden's  remarks,  I  may  observe  that  the 
size  of  the  pages  of  the  volume  is  about  12  inches  by  8,  and  the  class- 
mark  is  No.  13.  The  folios  have  been  renumbered,  it  being  ascertained 
that  the  missing  leaves  are  the  first  three  and  the  tenth.  Thus  fol.  1 
of  the  former  edition  is  now  called  fol.  4,  and  fol.  7  is  now  fol.  1  1  . 
With  this  slight  change,  the  numbering  of  the  folios  in  the  margin 
furnishes  a  ready  way  of  comparing  the  two  editions.1 

The  volume  consists  of  two  MSS.  :  — 

I.  William  of  Palerne,  here  printed  ;   containing  86  leaves  (of 
which  three  are  lost)  ; 

II.  An  imperfect  copy  of  the  Lives  of  the  Saints,  &c.,  attributed 
to  Robert  of  Gloucester,  and  containing  — 

1.  A  description  of  bible-subjects  for  Lent,  with  the  passion  of 
Christ,  &c.  :  Begins  (fol.  1)— 

"  Ssint  marie  dai  in  Leinte  •  among  of  er  daies  gode  "  — 

ends,  "  Now  ihesu  for  f  e  swete  crois  •  fat  f  ou  were  on  ydo 

Bring  [vs]  to  f  e  blisse  of  h[e]uene  *  fat  f  ou  vs  bou^test  to. 
AMEN." 


2.  Judas.    Begins  (fol.  32)  —  "  Ivdas  was  a  luf  er  brid  •  fat 
solde  to  fe  rode;  "  ends  —  "  fer  we  wenej)  fat  he  be." 

3.  Pilate,  (fol.  34).    "  Pilatus  was  a  luf  er   man  •  and   come  of 
a  lufer  more  ;"  ends  —  "fram  so  deolfol  cas." 

4.  Seint  Marie  Egiptiak,  (fol.  37  b).     "  SEint  Marie  Egipciake  • 
in  egipte  was  y-bore  ;  "  ends  —  "  f  oru  penauwce  fat  heo  gan  lede." 

5.  Seint  Alphe,   (fol.  40  l>).    "SEint  alphe  fe  martir  •  fat  good 
man  was  ynow  ;  "  ends  —  "  to  f  e  blisse  of  heuene  Avende.  AMEN"." 

6.  Seint  George,  (fol.  43).     "  Sfiint  George  f  e  holi  man  *  as  we 
findef  of  him  y-write  ;"  ends  —  "lete  vs  alle  fider  wende.  AMEN." 

7.  Seint  Dunston,  (fol.  44  b).    "  Sfiint  Dunston  was  in  Engelonde  . 
icome  of  gode  more  ;  "  ends  —  "  fat  auragles  f  i  soule  to  bere.  ALIEN." 

8.  Seint  Aldelme,  (fol.  4G  b).     "  SEint  Aldelnie  f  e  confesso?^r 
was  man  of  good  line  ;  "  ends  —  «'  fat  he  is  on  ido.  AMEN." 

1  See  also  the  Note  at  the  end  of  the  Glossarial  Index. 


PREFACE    TO    THE    EDITION    OF     1832.  vii 

9.  Seint  Austyn,  (fol.  47  b).    "  Sfiint  Austyn  J>at  brou^te  •  cn'sten- 
dom  to  Engelonde  ; "   ends — "  ^if  we  were  wel  vnderstonde." 

The  last  poem  is  imperfect,  but  has  lost  only  four  lines,  which  I 
venture  here  to  transcribe  from  MS.  Laud.  108,  fol.  31  b,  to  complete 
it:— 

41  His  day  is  toward  ]>e  ende  of  May  •  for  in  J>at  day  he  wende 
Out  of  f  is  lijf  to  ihefu  crift  •  pat  after  him  J>o  sende 
Bidde  we  ^eorne  feint  Auftin  •  J>at  cn'ftindom  so  broujte 
Jjat  we  moten  to  Jmlke  loye  come  •  to  3 wan  ore  louerd  uf  bou^te." 

The  Lives  of  Judas,  Pilate,  and  Seint  Dunston  have  been  printed! 
for  the  Philological  Society,  ed.  F.  J.  Furnivall,  M.A.  1862. 

Of  the  names  scribbled  on  the  margins  of  the  MS.,  the  one  which 
occurs  most  frequently  is  that  of  Nicholas  Williams,  to  whom  it 
must  have  belonged  in  the  sixteenth  century.  We  find,  on  fol.  45, 
the  entry,  "Nicholas  Williams  was  poysond,  but  by  God's  grace 
escaped  it.  Gloria  patri,  Amen,  by  lacon  in  Salop."  .  Lacon  is  a 
township  in  the  parish  of  Wem,  some  ten  miles  due  N.  of  Shrewsbury. 
For  remarks  upon  the  dialect  of  the  poems,  see  the  end  of  the 
"  Introduction  to  Alisaunder,"  p.  xxxvii. 


PEEFACE  TO  THE  ORIGINAL  EDITION  OF  1832. 

BY  SIR  FREDERICK  MADDEN. 

The  Romance  of  "  William  and  the  Werwolf,"  contained  in  the 
present  volume,  is  printed  from  an  unique  MS.  preserved  in  the 
Library  of  King's  College,  Cambridge,  and  its  literary  history  renders- 
it  of  more  than  common  interest  to  the  poetical  antiquary.  It  is 
to  the  memorable  Rowleian  controversy  we  are  indebted  for  the 
first  notice  of  this  poem  in  its  English  dress.  F  In  that  singular  dis- 
pute, in  which  Jacob  Bryant,  Fellow  of  King's  College,  and  the  Rev. 
Jeremiah  Milles,  D.D.,  Dean  of  Exeter,  so  notably  distinguished 
themselves  in  defence  of  the  pseudo-Rowley  and  his  writings,  the 
former,  by  a  piece  of  good  fortune,  stumbled  on  the  Romance,  and, 
still  more  fortunately  for  us,  resolved  to  force  it  into  his  service- 


Viii  PREFACE    TO    THE    EDITION    OF    1832. 

in  support  ofv  the  antiquity  of  Chatterton's  forgeries.  Accordingly, 
in  his  "  Observations,"  8vo.  Lond.  1781,  pp.  14 — 23,  he  gives  a 
short  account  of  the  poem,  with  a  few  extracts  from  it.  His  argu- 
ment tends  to  prove  it  written  in  a  provincial  dialect,  and  for  this  pur- 
pose he  produces  a  list  of  words,  which  he  pronounces  of  a  local 
nature.  But  however  profound  Bryant  may  have  been  as  a  classic 
scholar,  he  possessed  very  little,  or  rather,  no  knowledge  of  the  form- 
ation or  genius  of  the  old  English  language.  Indeed,  his  attempt  to 
prove  Chatterton's  poetry  the  production  of  the  15th  century,  is  quite 
sufficient  to  acquit  him  of  any  such  pretensions.  The  consequence 
is  natural.  Nearly  all  the  words  considered  by  him  provincial,  are 
to  be  met  with  in  every  other  writer  of  the  period,  and  even  those  of 
rarer  occurrence  are,  for  the  most  part,  found  in  the  Scottish  alliter- 
ative Eomances  of  the  same  century.1  But  the  citations  made  by 
Bryant  from  this  MS.  were  sufficient  at  a  somewhat  later  period  to 
attract  the  attention  of  the  kennel  of  *  black-letter  hounds  '  then  in 
full  cry  after  the  pothooks  of  Shakspeare's  prompter's  book,  and 
George  Steevens,  T  believe,  applied  for  permission  to  inspect  it.  The 
volume  was  then  in  the  hands  of  Dr  Glynne,  Senior  Fellow  of  King's 
•College,  who,  like  Bryant,  was  a  sturdy  Kowleian,2  and  he,  fancying 

1  Bryant's  blunders  in  explaining  these  words  are  marvellous.     A  few  instances, 
which  may  be  compared  with  the  Glossary  at  the  end  of  this  volume,  will  serve  to 
show  how  little  he  understood  the  subject.  Thus,  he  interprets  arnd,  around  ;  bourde, 
a  public  house  or  shop;  bretages,  bridges;  kud,  good;  kinne,  can;  maid,  madam;  welt, 
held;  warder,  further;  boggeslyche,  boyishly  !      Many  are  also  copied  so  incorrectly 
that  they  can  scarcely  be  recognised,  as  eni  for  em,  asthis  for  aschis,  gemlych  for 
gamlyche,  kevily  for  kenely,  komchaunce  for  konichaunce,  wlouJce  for  wlonke,  satheli 
for  scathli,  neege  for  neize  \nety~],  henden  for  hiezeden  [hie%eden~\.  feyful  forfeizful 
[fei$ful],  wyeth  for  wyez,  fayte  for  fayre,  path  for  paye.     And  yet  this  is  the  man 
who  pretended  to  judge  of  Chatterton's  forgeries,  and  even  correct  them  by  his  own 
notions  of  Rowley's  fancied  original.    We  may  truly  apply  to  him  some  of  the 
precious  lines  he  wastes  his  commentary  on  : 

"  "Wordes  wythoute  sense  fulle  groffyngelye  he  twynes, 
Cotteynge  his  storie  off  as  wythe  a  sheere  ; 
Waytes  monthes  on  nothynge,  &  hys  storie  donne, 
Ne  moe  you  from  ytte  kenne,  than  gyf  you  neerebegonne." 
p.  69.  Ed.  Tyrwhitt. 

2  Dr  Glynne  bequeathed  to  the  British  Museum  the  original  parchments  fabri- 
cated by  Chatterton,  which  now  remain  a  '  damning  proof,'  were  any  wanted,  of  the 
imposture.     They  present  a  series  of  the  most  contemptible  and  clumsy  forgeries. 


PREFACE   TO    THE   EDITION    OF    1832.  ix 

that  an  examination  of  the  book  might  not  assist  the  claims  of  Rowley 
to  originality,  very  prudently  locked  the  treasure  up,  and  there  if 
slumbered  till  it  was  once  more  brought  to  light  by  the  Rev.  C.  H. 
Hartshorne,  about  the  year  1824.1  By  permission  of  the  Provost, 
about  560  lines  of  the  commencement  were  copied,  and  they  form  a 
portion  of  a  volume  intitled  "  Ancient  Metrical  Tales,"  published  in 
1829,  8vo.,  pp.  256 — 287.  Of  the  inaccuracy  of  this  transcript  I 
shall  say  nothing,  as  it  will  sufficiently  appear  by  comparison  with 
the  text  now  printed. 

Having  thus  briefly  stated  the  mode  in  which  this  MS.  became 
known  to  the  public,  the  next  point  of  inquiry  will  be  the  author  of 
the  poem  in  its  present  shape  }  and  here,  I  regret  to  add,  no  inform- 
ation can  be  gained.  All  we  know  on  the  subject  is  derived  from 
the  writer  himself,  who  tells  us,  he  translated  it  from  the  French  at 
the  command  of  Humphrey  de  Bohun,  Earl  of  Hereford.  These  are 
his  words,  at  the  end  of  the  first  fytte  or  passus  : 

Thus  passed  is  the  first  pas  of  this  pris  tale, 
And  36  that  loven  and  lyken  to  listen  ani  more, 
Alle  wi^th  on  hoi  hert  to  the  hei}  king  of  hevene, 
Preieth  a  pater  noster  prively  this  time, 
For  the  hend  Erl  of  Herford,  sir  Humfray  de  Bowie, 
The  king  Edioardes  newe,  at  Glouseter  that  ligges, 
For  he  of  Frensche  this  fay  re  tale  f erst  dede  translate, 
In  ese  of  Englysch  men,  in  Englysch  speche. —  (fol.  3.) 
And  at  the  end  of  the  poem,  in  similar  but  in  fuller  terms  : 
In  thise  wise  hath  William  al  his  werke  ended, 
As  fully  as  the  Frensche  fully  wold  asJce, 
And  as  his  witte  him  wold  serve  though  it  were  febul 2  .  .  .  . 
But  faire  frendes,  for  Goddes  love,  and  for  ^our  owne  mensk, 

MSS.  Add.  5766.  A.B.C.  Alas,  for  the  shade  of  Rowley !  [For  specimens  of 
these  poems,  and  critical  remarks  upon  them,  see  Warton,  Hist.  English  Poetry. 
§  xxvi.— W.  W.  S.] 

1  Weber  has,  indeed,  pointed  it  out  as  one  of  those  Romances  worthy  of  public- 
ation, but  he  never  saw  the  MS.  itself.  See  Metr.  Rom.  Introd.  p.  Ixviii. 

[2  Sir  F.  Madden  did  not  quote  these  first  three  lines  in  this  place  (though  he 
quoted  them  farther  on,  see  p.  xxii) ;  but  it  is  worth  while  to  observe  that  they  tell 
us  the  poet's  own  Christian  name,  which  (like  his  hero's)  was  William. — W.W.S.] 


X  PREFACE   TO    THE    EDITION    OF    1832. 

3e  that  liken  in  love  swiche  thinges  to  here, 

Prei^eth  for  that  gode  Lord  that  gart  this  do  make, 

The  hende  Erl  of  Hereford,  Hum/ray  de  Boune  ; 

The  gode  king  Edwardes  doubter  was  his  dere  moder  ; 

He  let  make  this  mater  in  this  maner  speche, 

For  hem  that  knowe  no  Frensche,  ne  never  understood]  : 

Biddith  that  blisful  burn  that  bou^t  us  on  the  rode, 

And  to  his  moder  Marie,  of  mercy  that  is  welle, 

3^/'  the  Lord  god  lif,  ml  he  in  erthe  lenges, 

And  ivhan  he  wendes  of  this  world,  welthe  with-oute  ende, 

To  lenge  in  that  liking  joye,  that  lesteth  ever  more. — (fol.  82.) 

It  has  been  the  more  necessary  to  quote  these  passages  at  length,  in 
order  to  correct  the  absurd  mistakes  of  Bryant,  who,  not  understand- 
ing the  phrases,  " at  Glouseter  that  ligges"  and  " ferst  dede  trans- 
late," nor  the  import  of  the  line,  "  }if  the  Lord  god  lif,"  &c.,  has 
supposed,  first,  that  the  Earl  himself  had  made  a  prior  translation  to 
the  one  before  us,  and  secondly,  that  he  was  dead  and  buried  at  Glou- 
cester, when  the  second  version  was  undertaken  !  It  is  scarcely 
necessary  to  point  out,  that  the  words  "  ferst  dede  translate,"  only 
mean  first  caused  to  be  translated,  and  are  strictly  synonymous  with 
"  gart  this  do  make,"  and  "  let  make."  Then,  as  to  the  Earl's  lying 
dead  at  Gloucester,  the  Poet  can  have  no  such  meaning,  for  at  the 
conclusion  of  the  Eomance  he  begs  his  hearers  to  pray  to  God  and 
the  Virgin  to  give  the  Earl  "good  life,"  and  after  his  decease, 
eternal  felicity.  The  line  simply  means,  resident  or  dwelling  at 
Gloucester,1  and  although  the  term  to  ligge  was  in  subsequent  times 
more  often  used  in  the  sense  understood  by  Bryant,  yet  there  is  no 
reason,  in  the  above  instance,  to  depart  from  its  original  and  obvious 
meaning. 

1  In  the  21  Edw.  3,  Humphrey  de  Bohun,  Earl  of  Hereford,  obtained  the  royal 
license  to  embattle  his  Manor- Houses  in  the  Counties  of  Gloucester,  Essex,  Middle- 
sex, and  Wiltshire.  In  the  former  of  these  only  one  mansion  is  mentioned,  that  of 
Whitenhurst,  or  Wheatenhurst,  situated  about  eight  miles  south  from  Gloucester, 
and  it  is  very  probable  that  this  is  the  spot  alluded  to  in  general  terms  by  the  Poet. 
"We  know,  moreover,  that  the  Earl  was  not  buried  at  Gloucester,  but  at  the  Augus- 
tine Friars,  in  London,  which  he  had  himself  re-edified  in  1354.  See  Dugdale, 
Baron,  i.  184  ;  Rudder's  Gloucest.  p.  813;  and  Stowe's  Survey,  p.  185. 


PREFACE    TO    THE    EDITIOX    OF    1832.  XI 

The  nobleman  thus  alluded  to  was  the  sixth  Earl  of  Hereford  of 
the  name  of  Bohun,  and  third  son  of  Humphrey  de  Bohun,  fourth 
Earl  of  Hereford,  and  Elizabeth  Plantagenet,  seventh  daughter  of 
King  Edward  the  First ;  consequently  he  was  nephew  to  King  Edward 
the  Second,  as  intimated  in  the  poem,  and  first  cousin  to  King  Edward 
the  Third.  He  succeeded  to  the  earldom  at  the  age  of  twenty-four,  on 
the  death  of  his  brother  John  without  issue,  20th  Jan.,  1335-6,  and 
died,  unmarried,  15th  Oct.,  136 1.1  We  are,  therefore,  enabled  to  fix 
the  date  of  the  composition  of  the  English  Eomance  with  sufficient 
accuracy,  nor  shall  we  greatly  err,  if  we  refer  it  to  the  year  1350. 
This  will  agree  extremely  well  with  the  scanty  notices  transmitted  to 
us  of  De  Bohun's  life,  which,  like  most  of  those  relating  to  the 
belted  barons  of  this  chivalric  period,  are  chiefly  of  a  military  char- 
acter.2 Yet  it  may  be  doubted  whether,  as  a  soldier,  the  Earl  of 
Hereford  was  at  any  time  distinguished,  and  whether  he  may  not 
have  been  confounded  by  Eroissart  with  his  brother,  the  Earl  of 
Northampton.  And  this  conjecture  corresponds  with  the  instrument 
preserved  in  Rymer,3  dated  12th  June,  1338,  by  which  the  King 
ratifies  Humphrey  de  Bohun's  resignation  of  his  hereditary  office  of 
Constable  of  England,  in  favor  of  his  brother,  "  tarn  ob  corporis  sui 
iribecillitatem,  quam  propter  infirmitatem  diuturnam  qua  detinetur,  ad 
officium  Constabularia^  exercendum"  &c.  We  may,  therefore,  with 

1  Dugd.  Baron,  i.  184.  ;  Milles,  p.  1072. 

2  In  1337,  he  was  entrusted  with  the  guard  of  the  important  garrison  of  Perth 
in  Scotland.  (Dugd.  Baron,  i.  184).  Three  years  afterwards  he  is  said  to  have  taken 
a  part,  together  with  his  warlike  brother,  "William  de  Bohun,  Earl  of  Northamp- 
ton, in  the  battle  of  the  Sluys,  fought  in  the  King's  presence,  (Froissart,  by  Lord 
Berners,  f.  30.  Ed.  1525),  and  commemorated  by  Laurence  Minot,  a  contemporary 
poet.     The  next  year,  1341,  we  meet  with  him  in  the  magnificent  feast  and  jousts 
held  by  the  King  at  London  in  honor  of  the  Countess  of  Salisbury — the  same  to 
whom  the  noble  Order  of  the  Garter  is  said  to  owe  its  origin  (Froissart,  f.  46).     In 
1342,  he  was  ordered  to  provide  forty  men  of  arms  and  sixty  archers  for  the  King's 
service  in  Britanny,  and  to  attend  the  Council  at  London,  to  treat  concerning  their 
wages.  (Dugd.  Baron,  i.  184).     In  1346  he  accompanied  the  King  into  France  to 
relieve  the  town  of  Aguillon,  then  besieged  by  the  French,  (Froissart,  f.  59  b) ;  but 
it  is  not  stated  by  our  historians  whether  he  was  present  at  the  famous  battle  of 
Cressy,  fought  shortly  after.     In  1359,  he  again  attended  the  King  on  a  similar 
expedition,  (Froissart,  f.  100),  and  nothing  further  is  recorded  of  him  till  his  death, 
which  took  place  two  years  afterwards. 

3  Vol.  v.  p.  52. 


xii  PREFACE   TO   THE   EDITION    OF    1832. 

great  probability  conclude,  that  the  Earl's  weak  state  of  bodily  health 
exempted  him  from  taking  an  active  part  in  the  warfare  of  the  time, 
although  he  might  have  assisted  the  King  with  his  counsels.  To  the 
same  cause  we  may  doubtless  ascribe  that  love  for  literature  which 
induced  him  to  cause  the  Eomance  of  William  and  the  Werwolf  to 
be  translated  from  the  French, — not,  as  is  evident,  for  his  own  use, 
since  French  was  then  the  language  of  the  Court,  but  for  the  benefit 
of  those  persons  of  the  middle  class,  to  whom  the  French  language 
was  unknown.  By  the  influence  of  a  similar  motive,  we  possess  the 
translations  made  by  Eobert  of  Brunne  at  the  commencement  of  this 
century : 

"  Not  for  the  lerid  bot  the  lewed, 

For  tho  that  in  this  land  wonn, 

That  the  Latyn  no  Frankys  conn, 

For  to  haf  solace  and  gamen, 

In  felawschip  whanne  thai  sit  samen."1 

Higden's  testimony  to  the  prevalence  of  French  in  the  education  of 
gentlemen's  children  at  that  period  is  very  precise,  and  it  became  so 
much  the  fashion  towards  the  middle  of  the  century,  that  a  proverb 
was  made  of  inferior  persons  who  attempted  to  imitate  the  practice 
of  the  higher  classes  :  "  Jack  wold  be  a  gentylman  yf  he  coude  speke 
Frensshe."2  Trevisa  adds,  that  "this  was  moche  used  tofore  the 
grete  deth  [1349],  but  syth  it  is  somdele  chaunged;"  which  was, 
doubtless,  accelerated  by  the  Act  passed  in  1362,  ordering  all 
pleadings  to  be  in  the  English  tongue,  and  much  more  by  the 
popular  compositions  of  Gower,  Chaucer,  and  the  author  of  Piers 
Plouhman.  From  all  these  circumstances  it  wpuld  seem  most  pro- 
bable that  the  work  was  executed  after  the  Earl's  return  from  France, 
in  1349,  between  which  year  and  his  second  expedition  in  1359,  he 
appears  to  have  resided  on  his  estates.  That  this  style  of  composi- 
tion was  much  admired  and  encouraged  in  England  during  the  14th 
century  is  apparent  from  the  alliterative  Romances  still  extant  of  the 
period.  But  it  is  very  seldom  we  are  indulged  with  the  names  of 
the  persons  by  whom  or  for  whom  these  poems  were  written,  and,  in 

1  Prol.  to  Chron.  ap.  Hearne,  Pref.  p.  xcvi. 
2  Dcscr.  of  Brit.  c.  15.  Ed.  1515.     Jul.  Notary. 


PREFACE    TO    THE    EDITION    OF    1832.  xiii 

that  respect,  the  present  poem  becomes  more  intitled  to  notice,  from 
its  introducing  us  to  a  nobleman,  whose  claims  to  biography  are  so 
very  feeble,  and  who  would  never  otherwise  have  been  known  as  a 
patron  of  literature. 

The  history,  however,  of  the  Romance  does  not  conclude  here. 
We  must  next  trace  it  in  its  original  form  ;  and  here,  also,  we  shall 
find  some  circumstances  which  render  it  worthy  of  attention.  The 
origin  and  progress  of  French  poesy,  both  of  the  Trouveres  and 
Troubadours,  have  been  successfully  illustrated  by  Fauchet,  Roque- 
fort,1 De  la  Rue,  Raynouard,  and  others,  but,  more  particularly,  by 
the  authors  of  the  Histoire  Litteraire  de  la  France.  From  these 
authorities  we  know  that  many  Romances  were  composed  by  the 
Norman  poets  previous  to  the  year  1200,  which  subsequently  became 
the  text-books  of  the  English  versifiers  of  the  14th  century.  Most 
of  these  were  founded  on  the  two  great  sources  of  fiction  throughout 
Europe ;  the  exploits  of  Charlemagne  and  his  Douze  Pairs,  and  of 
Arthur  and  the  Knights  of  the  Round  Table,  amplified  from  the 
fictitious  histories  of  Turpin  and  Geoffry  of  Monmouth.  The  chief 
exceptions  to  this  cycle  of  poetry  at  the  period  we  are  treating  of,  are 
the  Romances  of  Havelok,  Horn,  Benoit's  Guerre  de  Troie,  Garin  le 
Loherain,  Alexander,  Athys  et  Porfilias,  Florimond,  Gerard  de 
Rousillon,  and,  perhaps,  some  few  others  composed  by  Raoul  de 
Houdane,  and  Thiebaut  de  Mailli,  all  of  which  come  under  the  class 

1  When  speaking  of  our  English  Romances,  Roquefort  is  by  no  means  to  be 
relied  on.  Thus,  describing  the  English  Kyng  Horn,  he  says  it  was  composed  in 
the  8th  or  9th  century.  He  then  confounds  it  with  the  Frankish  fragment  of  Hilde- 
brand  and  Hathubrand,  published  by  Eckard,  and  takes  Ritson  to  task,  for  saying 
that  the  French  text  was  the  original ;  who  would  not,  he  writes,  have  committed 
such  an  error,  if  he  had  consulted  MS.  Harl.  2253,  where  the  Romance  exists  in 
Anglo-Saxon  ! ! !  The  reply  is  easy.  The  copy  of  Kyng  Horn  in  the  Harleian  MS. 
was  written  about  the  year  1300,  and  it  was  from  this  very  MS.  Ritson  published 
his  text.  The  editor  of  the  present  volume  [i.  e.  of  the  edition  of  1832]  was  fortunate 
enough  to  discover  another  copy  of  Kyng  Horn  in  the  Bodleian,  of  the  same  age, 
which,  in  many  respects,  gives  preferable  readings.  M.  Roquefort  goes  on  to  call 
the  Auchinleck  MS.  a  collection  of  French  poetry,  &c.  See  his  Dissertation  "  De 
I'etat  de  la  Poesie  Franqoise  dans  les  xii.  et  xiii.  siecles."  8vo.  Paris,  1815,  pp.  48, 
49.  [NOTE.  There  is  a  still  better  copy  of  Kyng  Horn  in  the  Cambridge  University 
Library,  first  printed  for  the  Bannatyne  Club  by  Mr  T.  Wright,  and  reprinted  by 
Mr  Lumby  in  his  edition,  published  for  the  E.  E.  T.  S.  in  1866.— W.  W.  S.j 


XIV  PREFACE    TO    THE    EDITION    OF    1832. 

of  Romans  mixtes.  Among  these  also  we  are  intitled  to  place  our 
Romance  of  William  and  the  Werwolf,  the  title  of  which  in  the 
original,  is,  Roman  de  Guillaume  de  Paler ne.  The  popularity  of  this 
singular  tale,  (which  one  would  suppose  was  formed  on  some 
Italian  tradition,  picked  up  by  the  Norman  adventurers  in  Apulia 
and  Sicily),  must  have  been  considerable,  since  in  the  ancient  in- 
ventories of  the  libraries  of  the  Dukes  of  Burgundy,  taken  in  1467 
and  1487,  we  find  no  less  than  three  copies  of  it.1  At  present,  the 
catalogues  of  MSS.  in  England  have  been  searched  in  vain  for  the 
poem,  and  in  Trance,  on  a  similar  inquiry  being  made,  only  one  copy 
has  been  discovered,  preserved  in  the  Bibliotheque  de  F  Arsenal,  at 
Paris,2  and,  to  all  appearance,  is  the  same  MS.  which  was  formerly 
at  Brussels.3  By  the  obliging  attentions  of  M.  Van  Praet,  the  dis- 
tinguished Librarian  of  the  Bibliotheque  Royale,  the  Editor  is 
enabled  to  give  some  account  of  this  unique  volume.  It  is  a  vellum. 
MS.  of  a  small  folio  size,  consisting  of  157 leaves,  and  written  in 
double  columns  of  31  lines  each,  towards  the  close  of  the  thirteenth 
century.  It  contains  the  Roman  d'  Escouffle  (fol.  1 — 77),  and  the 
Roman  du  Guillaume  de  Palerne.  The  latter  commences  thus  : 

Nus  ne  se  doit  celer  ne  taire,  &c.,4 
and  ends  in  the  following  manner  : 

Del  roi  GuilKawme  et  de  sa  mere, 

De  ses  enfans  et  de  son  guerre,  (?) 

De  son  empire  et  de  son  regne, 

Trait  li  estoires  ci  a  fin. 

Gil  qwi  tos  iors  fu  et  sans  fin 

Sera,  et  pardoune  briement, 

H  gart  la  contesse  Yolent, 

La  bonne  dame,  la  Icial, 

Et  il  descort  son.cors  de  rnal. 

-  See  a  curious  volume,  intitled  "Bibliotheque  Protypographique."    4to.   Paris, 
1830,  pp.  199,  302,  323. 

2  Marked  JBelles  Lettres,  178. 

3  See  the  work  just  cited,  p.  323.     It  is  there  called  of  the  fourteenth  century. 
[4  Here  Sir  F.  Madden  quotes  the  first  24  lines,  which  I  omit,  as,  by  the  great 

kindness  of  M.  Michelant,  of  the  Bibliotheque  Imperiale,  I  am  enabled  to  give  much 
longer  extracts;  see  pp.  1—6,  and  19—23,  of  this  book.—  W.  W.  S.] 


PREFACE    TO    THE    EDITION    OF    1832.  XV 

Gest  liure  Jist  diter  et  faire, 

Et  de  Latin  en  Roumans  traire. 

Proions  dieu  por  la  bonne  dam[e] 

Qwen  bon  repos  en  mete  lame, 

Et  il  nous  doinst  ce  deseruir, 

Q?^a  boine  fin  puissons  venir.     Amen. 

Explicit  li  Roumans  de  Guilliaume  de  Palerne. 

The  lady  here  referred  to  can  be  no  other  than  Yoland,  eldest  daughter 
of  Baldwin  IV.,  Count  of  Hainault,  and  Alice  of  Namur.  She  was 
married,  first,  to  Yves,  or  Yvon,  Count  of  Soissons,  surnamed  le  Viel, 
who  is  characterised  by  an  old  Chronicler  as  a  nobleman  "  de  grande 
largesse,  et  sage  sur  tous  les  Barons  de  France."  !  On  his  death, 
without  issue,  which  took  place  in  1177,  she  married,  secondly,  Hugh 
Candavene  IV.,  Count  of  St.  Paul,  by  whom  she  had  two  daughters, 
the  eldest  of  which  carried  the  title  into  the  family  of  Chastillon. 
By  the  union  of  Judith,  daughter  of  Charles  the  Bold,  with  Baldwin 
I.,  Count  of  Flanders,  the  Countess  Yoland  claimed  descent  from  the 
blood  of  Charlemagne,  and  by  the  marriage  of  her  brother  Baldwin 
the  Courageous  with  Margaret  of  Alsace,  heiress  of  Flanders  and 
Artois,  she  became  aunt  to  Baldwin  VI.,  Count  of  Hainault  and 
Flanders,  who  in  1204  was  elected  Emperor  of  Constantinople,2  and 
to  Isabel  of  Hainault,  who,  in  1180,  shared  the  throne  of  Philip 
Augustus,  King  of  France.  Such  was  the  splendid  alliance  of  the 
lady  to  whom  our  poem  owes  its  origin.  In  accordance  with  the 
prevailing  taste  of  the  age,  we  find  the  Counts  of  Hainault  and 
Flanders  distinguished  patrons  of  poesy.  Chrestien  de  Troyes  is  said 
to  have  dedicated  several  of  his  Romances  to  Philip  of  Alsace,  Count 
of  Flanders,  who  died  in  1191,3  and  Baldwin  V.,  Count  of  Hainault, 

1  Du  Chesne ;  Hist,  de  la  Maison  de  Chastillon,  fol.   Par.  1621.   Preuves,  p.  33. 

2  The  author  of  the  analysis  of  this  Romance,  in  the  Nouv.  Bibl.  des  Romans,  t.  ii. 
p.  41,  who  copies  from  the  printed  prose  version,  hereafter  to  be  noticed,  makes  a 
singular  mistake,  by  confounding  the  Countess  of  St.  Paul  with  Yoland,  sister  of  the 
Emperor  Baldwin,  and  wife  of  Peter  de  Courteney,  who  was  subsequently,  in  her 
right,  Emperor  of  Constantinople,  and  died  in  1221.     He  says  also,  that  the 
Countess  Yoland  found  the  Romance  among  the  papers  of  her  nephew  after  his 
death  [1205],  but  this  is  a  mere  invention  of  the  writer  himself,  and  contradicted 
by  the  original  text.  3  Hist.  Litt.  de  la  France,  sin.  193. 


xvi  PREFACE    TO    THE   EDITION    OF    1832. 

having  found  at  Sens,  in  Burgundy,  a  MS.  of  the  Life  of  Charlemagne, 
gave  the  work  at  his  death  [1195]  to  his  sister  Yoland  (the  same 
lady  above  mentioned),  who  caused  it  to  be  translated  into  French 
prose. l  We  have  once  more  to  lament  that  the  author  of  our  original 
(most  probably,  a  native  of  Artois,)  should  have  concealed  his  name, 
but  the  time  of  its  composition  may  be  assigned  between  1'178,  the 
probable  date  of  her  marriage  with  the  Count  of  St.  Paul,  and  the 
year  1200.  The  Count  died  at  Constantinople  before  1206,  and 
Yoland  did  not,  in  all  probability,  survive  him  long.  She  was,  cer- 
tainly, alive  in  1202,  as  appears  from  an  instrument  in  Du  Chesne. 
This  Eomance  may  therefore  be  ranked  among  the  earliest  of  those 
composed  at  the  close  of  the  12th  century,  and  it  is  surprising  it  should 
have  been  overlooked  by  Roquefort  and  the  Benedictines. 

At  a  much  later  period,  apparently,  at  the  beginning  of  the  16th 
century,  this  poem  was  converted  into  French  prose.  Three  editions 
of  it  are  known  to  book-collectors  ;  the  first  printed  at  Paris,  by 
Nicolas  Bonfons,  4to  Hit.  goth.  ;2  the  second  at  Lyons,  1552,  by 
Olivier  Arnoult,  4to  ;3  and  a  third  at  the  same  place  (probably  a  re- 
print) by  the  widow  of  Louis  Coste,  s.  a.  about  1634.  The  '  traduc- 
teur,'  in  a  short  preface,  tells  us  he  obtained  the  original  by  gift  of  a 
friend,  and  finding  the  language  to  be  "romant  antique  rimoye,  en 

1  Ib.  xiii.  386.  Fauchet,  Eecueil  de  1'Origine  de  la  Langue  Fran9oise,  fol. 
Par.  1581 ;  p.  34. 

3  Copies  of  this  exist  in  the  British  Museum,  and  in  Mr  Douce' s  library.  In 
the  former  there  is  a  note  in  the  handwriting  of  Kitson,  who  supposes  it  to  have 
proceeded  from  the  press  of  Nicholas,  the  father  of  John  Bonfons,  whose  son  Nicholas 
printed  from  about  1550  to  1590.  The  title  is  as  follows :  "  L' Historic  du  noble 
preux  $  vaittant  Cheualier  Guillaume  de  Palerne.  Et  de  la  belle  Melior.  Lequel 
Guillaume  de  Palerne  fut  filz  du  Roy  de  Cecille.  Et  par  fortune  $  merueilleuse 
auenture  deuint  vacher.  Et  finablement  fut  Empereur  de  Rome  souz  la  conduicte  dun 
Loupgaroux  filz  au  Roy  Dtspagne."  The  text  is  accompanied  with  wood-cuts.  This 
volume  is  noticed  both  by  Du  Verdier,  t.  iv.  p.  169,  Ed.  Juvigny,  and  Bibl.  des 
Romans,  t.  ii.  p.  245,  but  neither  of  these  writers  mention  the  author.  [NOTE. 
Besides  these  three,  there  is  a  fourth  edition,  printed  at  Rouen  by  Louys  Coste 
(about  1620  ?),  of  which  there  is  now  a  copy  in  the  British  Museum  (class-mark 
125130).  It  is  in  Roman  type,  not  black-letter,  and  seems  to  be  merely  copied 
from  the  first  edition.  A  search  for  a  particular  passage  shewed  that  both  prose 
versions  omit  the  portion  contained  in  11.  2449 — 2567. — W.  W.  S.] 

3  See  Dr  Dibdin's  Tour,  vol.  ii.  p.  337,  who  describes  a  copy  of  this,  and  the 
later  edition,  in  the  Bibliotheque  de  1' Arsenal. 


PREFACE    TO    THE    EDITION    OF    1832. 


XV 11 


sorte  non  intelligible  ne  lisible,"  lie  turned  it  into  modem  French,  with 
some  additions  of  his  own,  for  the  assistance  of  those  who  might  wish 
to  read  it :  "  Car  en  icelle  lisant,"  he  adds,  "pourra  Ton  veoir  plu- 
sieurs  faictz  d'armes,  d'arnours,  &  fortunes  innumerables,  &  choses 
admirables,  q'  aduindrerct  au  preux  &  vaillant  cheualier  Guillaume 
de  Palerne,  duquel  1'histoire  port  le  nom."  He  afterwards  adverts  to 
the  Countess  Yoland,  and  her  nephew  Baldwin,  Emperor  of  Constan- 
tinople, who  was  slain  by  the  infidels  at  the  siege  of  Adrianople,  in 
1205.  And  adds  :  "Pour  1'hoTmeur  de  laquelle  &  de  si  haut  empereur 
pouuows  facillement  accroistre  les  choses  au  present  liure  contenues." 
Whether  the  story  will  appear  quite  so  credible  at  the  present  day  is 
rather  questionable.  The  French  bibliographers  are  silent  as  to  the 
author  of  this  prose  version,  and  Dr  Dibdin's  sagacity  seems  to  have 
failed  him  here.  But  at  the  end  of  the  volume  is  an  acrostic  of 
twelve  lines,  the  first  letters  of  which  form  the  name  of  Pierre 
Durand,  who,  no  doubt,  is  the  compiler.  Any  further  information 
respecting  him  I  have  been  unable  to  obtain,  unless  he  is  the  same 
with  the  Pierre  Durand,  Bailli  of  Nogent  le  Rotrou,  en  Perche,  men- 
tioned by  Lacroix  du  Maine,  who  adds,  that  he  was  an  excellent 
Latin  poet,  and  composed  many  inedited  verses  both  in  Latin  and 
French. !  No  notice  is  supplied  of  the  period  at  which  he  lived.  It 
was,  most  likely,  from  this  prose  translation,  that  the  imperfect  analysis 
of  the  Romance  was  borrowed,  printed  in  the  Nouvelle  Bibliotlieqiie 
des  Romans,  torn.  ii.  pp.  41 — 68,  12mo.  Par.  an.  vi.  [1808]  where  it  is 
placed  in  the  class  of  "  Romans  de  Feerie,"  although  professedly  ex- 
tracted from  a  MS.  of  the  14th  century. 

By  the  assistance  of  Durand's  version  we  are  enabled  to  judge  of 
the  accuracy  of  the  English  versifier,  since  they  both  translate  from 
the  same  text,  and  it  is  surprising  how  closely  the  latter  has  adhered 
to  his  original.  Another  advantage  gained  from  it  is  to  supply  the 
hiatus  which,  unfortunately,  occur  in  tbe  English  poem.  To  avoid 
the  prolixity  of  the  prose  author,  the  substance  of  the  passages  want- 
ing, is  here  annexed : 2 

1  Bibl.  Francises,  torn.  ii.  p.  272;  ed.  1772.  He  is  said  also  to  have  had  an 
(enigma  or  rebus  in  the  front  of  his  house,  which  seems  to  indicate  the  same  taste 
•which  prompted  the  composition  of  the  acrostic  cited  above. 

[2  These  missing  passages  are  supplied  in  this  re-edition  from  the  original  rimed 
French  version.— W.  W.  S.] 


Xviii  PREFACE    TO    THE    EDITION    OF    1832. 

"  There  was  formerly  a  King  of  Sicily,  named  Ebron,  who  was 
also  Duke  of  Calabria  and  Lord  of  Apulia  ;  rich  and  powerful  above 
all  other  princes  of  his  time.  He  married  Felixe,  daughter  of  the 
Emperor  of  Greece,  and  not  long  after  their  union,  they  were  blessed 
with  a  son  named  William,  the  hero  of  the  present  story.  The  infant 
was  intrusted  to  the  care  of  two  sage  and  prudent  ladies,  named 
Gloriande  and  Esglantine,  who  were  chosen  to  superintend  his 
nurture  and  education.  But  the  brother  of  King  Ebron,  foreseeing 
that  his  succession  to  the  throne  would  be  now  impeded,  soon  formed 
a  resolution  to  destroy  the  boy,  and,  by  means  of  promises  and  bribes 
so  wrought  on  the  governesses,  that  they  at  length  consented  to  a  plan 
by  which  both  the  Prince  and  King  were  to  be  put  to  death.  At  that 
time  the  Court  was  held  at  the  noble  city  of  Palerne  [Palermo],  ad- 
joining to  which  was  a  spacious  garden,  abounding  with  flowers  and 
fruits,  in  which  the  King  was  often  accustomed  to  take  his  recreation. 
But  one  day,  when  Ebrons  was  walking  here,  accompanied  by  the 
Queen  and  the  Prince  (then  about  four  years  old),  attended  by  the 
two  governesses,  an  event  took  place  which  turned  all  their  joy  into 
the  deepest  consternation  and  grief.  For,  whilst  the  King's  brother 
and  the  two  ladies  were  holding  a  secret  conference  how  to  carry 
their  project  into  execution,  a  huge  werwolf,  with  open  jaws  and 
bristled  mane,  suddenly  rushed  forth  from  a  thicket,  at  which  the 
ladies  were  so  terrified,  that  they  swooned  away,  and  the  rest  fled, 
leaving  the  child  alone,  who  was  immediately  carried  off,  without 
injury,  by  the  beast.  The  King  ordered  pursuit  to  be  made,  but  in 
vain,  for  the  swiftness  of  the  animal  soon  enabled  him  to  distance 
his  pursuers ;  to  the  great  distress  of  the  monarch  and  his  court.  The 
Aver  wolf  bore  the  child  away  to  a  place  of  safety,  and  thence,  pursu- 
ing his  course  night  and  day,  at  length  conveyed  him  to  a  forest,  not 
far  from  the  city  of  Borne,  where  he  remained  some  time,  taking  care 
to  provide  what  was  necessary  for  his  sustenance ;  and  having  dug 
a  deep  pit,  and  strewed  it  with  herbs  and  grass  for  William  to  sleep 
on,  the  beast  was  accustomed  to  fondle  the  boy  with  his  paws  in  the 
same  manner  a  nurse  would  have  done." 

Here  commences  the  English  Eoniance,  which,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  a  folio  (or  72  lines)  missing  between  ff.  6 — 7,  proceeds 
regularly  to  the  end.  This  second  defect  occurs  at  the  close  of  the 
Emperor's  speech  to  his  daughter  Melior,  and  the  text  again  begins 
with  Melior's  reproaches  to  herself  for  loving  William.  What  in- 
tervenes may  be  easily  supplied,  even  from  fancy,  but  in  the  prose 
Romance  we  read  as  follows  : 

"The  Emperor's  daughter  received  the  infant,  which  proved  of  so 
gentle  a  disposition,  that  it  seemed  to  have  been  bred  at  court  all  its 
fife-time.  It  was  soon  clothed  in  dresses  of  silk  and  velvet,  and 


PREFACE    TO    THE    EDITION    OF    1832. 


XIX 


became  the  plaything  of  the  fair  Melior.  '  Et  alors,'  says  the  writer, 
*  le  faisoit  mout  beau  veoir  :  car  en  toute  la  court  ny  auoit  si  bel  en- 
fant que  luy,  ne  si  aduenant.  Sobre  estoit  en  son  manger  &  boire, 
facilemens  fut  apprins  a  seruir  les  dames  a  tables ;  a  tons  ieux,  &  a 
deuiser  &  a  dire  ioyeuses  sornetes  a  tous  propos.'  But  above  all, 
William  studied  how  best  to  serve  his  lady  and  mistress  Melior, 
whom  he  loved  above  every  one  else.  As  he  advanced  in  age  he 
began  to  share  in  the  chivalrous  exercises  of  the  time ;  to  bear  arms, 
ride  on  the  great  horse,  and  practise  various  feats  of  strength,  all  for 
the  love  of  Melior,  his  *  mie ' ;  and  so  great  a  favourite  was  he  with 
all  the  ladies  and  demoiselles,  that  Melior  heard  of  nothing  but  his 
praises.  The  Emperor,  too,  was  so  fond  of  William,  as  to  keep  him 
constantly  by  his  side.  In  the  mean  time,  the  Princess  would  often 
withdraw  to  her  chamber  to  dwell  secretly  on  the  personal  attrac- 
tions and  graceful  demeanor  of  William,  and  was  at  length  so  pierced 
by  love's  keen  arrow,  that  she  could  not  refrain  from  sighing,  and 
desiring  to  hold  him  in  her  arms.  But  then  again,  considering  with 
herself,  that  a  lady  of  her  noble  birth  ought  not  to  bestow  her  affec- 
tion on  any  one  but  a  Knight  of  her  own  rank,  she  often  vainly 
endeavoured  to  drive  William  from  her  thoughts." 

The  remaining  part  of  la  belle  Melior's  soliloquy  will  be  found  in 
our  poem,  and  the  translation  is  sufficiently  naive  to  be  interesting 
even  to  those  who  may,  in  general,  despise  the  simple  language  of 
our  old  Eomances. 

The  tradition  developed  in  this  story,  and  which  forms  its  chief 
feature,  namely,  the  transformation  of  a  human  being  into  a  wolf, 
but  still  retaining  many  of  the  attributes  of  his  nature,  has  been  so 
learnedly  and  ably  discussed  by  the  author  of  the  Letter  annexed  to 
the  present  remarks,1  as  to  render  any  additional  illustration  unneces- 
sary. But  it  may  not  be  improper  here  to  suggest,  that  the  belief  in  this 
notion  in  the  southern  provinces  of  Europe  may  have  been  partly 
derived  through  the  medium  of  the  Northmen,  among  whom,  as  ap- 
pears from  various  authorities,  it  was  very  general.  A  curious  story 
of  a  were-bear  in  Eolf  Kraka's  Saga  is  quoted  by  Sir  Walter  Scott,2 
which  has  some  slight  features  of  resemblance  with  our  werwolf,  and 
it  is  singular,  that  this  metamorphosis  should  have  been  accomplished 
by  striking  the  person  transformed  with  a  glove  of  wolf-sldn.  In  the 

1  [In  the  Edition  of  1832,  a  Letter  by  the  Hon.  Algernon  Herbert,  addressed  to 
Lord  Cawdor,  on  the  subject  of  "Werewolves,  was  annexed  to  the  Preface. — W.  "W.  S.] 

2  Border  Minstr.  ii.  110,  ed.   1803.      [The  story,  condensed,  is  given  in  S. 
Baring-Gould's  Book  of  Werewolves,  pp.  21— 27.— W.  W.  S.] 


XX 


PREFACE    TO    THE   EDITION    OF    1832. 


Volsunga  Saga,  also,  cap.  12,  we  read  of  the  similar  change  of  Sig- 
m  und  and  Siufroth  into  wolves.1  In  general,  the  transformation  was 
supposed  to  be  accomplished,  as  in  our  Romance,  by  the  aid  of 
certain  magical  unguents.2  With  regard  to  the  supposed  form  of 
these  werwolves,  and  whether  they  differed  from  those  of  natural 
wolves,  I  have  searched  many  writers,  without  much  success,  but 
Boguet  informs  us,  that  in  1521,  three  sorcerers  were  executed,  who 
confessed  they  had  often  become  Loupsgaroux,  and  killed  many 
persons.3  A  painting  was  made  to  commemorate  the  fact,  in  which 
these  werwolves  were  each  represented  with  a  knife  in  his  right  paw. 
This  picture,  we  are  told,  was  preserved  in  the  church  of  tke  Jaco- 
bins, at  Pouligny,4  in  Burgundy.  One  distinctive  mark,  however,  of 
a  werwolf  is  said  to  have  been  the  absence  of  a  tail,5  yet  this  does 
not  seem  to  correspond  with  the  vulgar  notions  on  the  subject,  since 
in  the  wooden  cut  prefixed  to  the  prologue  of.  the  prose  translation 
of  this  Romance,  representing  the  werwolf  carrying  off  the  infant 
Prince  of  Palermo,  there  certainly  appears  a  tail  of  due  proportions. 
On  the  style  in  which  this  poem  is  written,  and  its  peculiarities  of 
language,  it  is  needless  to  dwell  long.  The  history  of  our  allitera- 
tive poetry  has  already  been  illustrated  by  Percy,  Warton,  and  Cony- 
beare,  and  the  principle  on  which  it  was  composed,  even  to  so  late  a 
date  as  the  middle  of  the  16th  century,  is  sufficiently  known.6  The 

1  Biorner's  Kampa-Daeter,  fol.  1737.      [See  S.  Baring-Gould's  Book  of  Were- 
wolves, p.  18.— W.  W.  S.] 

2  See  Discours  des  Borders,  par  Henry  Boguet,  12mo.  Lyon,  1608.     2de  ed.  pp. 
363,  369;  Verstegan's  Restitution  of  Decayed  Intelligence,  4to.  Antv.  1605,  p.  237; 
Jamiesorfs  Dictionary,  in  v.  Warwolf,  and  Nynauld's  treatise  De  la  Lycanthropie, 
8vo.,  Par.  1625,  where  several  of  these  ointments  are  described. 

[3  Another  account  says  two  sorcerers,  named  Pierre  Bourgot  and  Michel  Ver- 
dung.     See  A  Book  on  Werewolves,  by  S.  Baring-Gould,  p.  69.] 

4  Boguet,  p.  341.    Wierus  de  Prastigiis,  lib.  v.  c.  10. 

5  Boguet,  pp.  340,  361.     [A  little  girl  described  a  werwolf  as  "resembling  a 
wolf,  but  as  being  shorter  and  stouter ;  its  hair  was  red,  its  tail  stumpy,  and  the 
head  smaller  than  that  of  a  genuine  wolf."     See  the  story  in  S.  Baring- Gould's 
Book  on  Werewolves,  p.  91.— W.  W.  S.] 

6  See  Essay  in  the  "Reliques  of  English  Poetry,  vol.  ii. ;  Warton' s  Hist,  of 
Engl.  Poetry,  vol.  ii.  §  10,  8vo.  ed. ;  Whitaker's  Introductory  Discourse  to  Piers 
Plouhman,  and  Conybeare's  Essay  on  Anglo-Saxon  Metre,  prefixed  to  the  Illustra- 
tions of  Anglo-Saxon  Poetry,  8vo.,  Lond.  1826.     [In  the  new  edition  of  Bp  Percy's 
Folio  MS.  by  Hales  and  Furnivall,  Percy's  Essay  has  been  replaced  by  a  fuller  and 
longer  one  by  myself,  to  which  I  beg  leave  to  refer  the  reader.— W.  W.  S.] 


PREFACE    TO    THE    EDITION    OF    1832.  XXI 

lines  in  the  poem  consist  of  an  indeterminate  number  of  syllables, 
from  eleven  to  thirteen,  but  sometimes  more  or  less,  which,  like  Piers 
Plouhman,  and  other  compositions  of  this  class,  may  be  .divided  into 
distichs,  at  the  caesural  pause,  so  as  to  give  them  the  Saxonic  char- 
acter on  which  they  are  all  formed.  Thus,  for  instance  : 

Hit  bi-/el  in  that  /orest, 

there /ast  by-side, 
There  woned  a  wel  old  cherl, 

that  was  a  couherde, 
That  /ele  winterres  in  that  /orest 
jfoyre  had  kepud,  &c. 

It  adds,  however,  to  the  value  of  this  Romance,  that  we  havo  ill  it 
the  earliest  specimen  of  unrimed  alliterative  metre  yet  discovered ; 
for  of  the  other  pieces  of  this  kind  extant,  there  is  not  one  which 
may  not  be  placed  subsequent  to  Piers  Plouhman,  composed  after 
the  year  1362.1  It  is  also  matter  of  satisfaction  to  be  able  to  fix  the 
date  of  this  work  prior  to  the  period  which  produced  such  writers 
as  Gower  and  Chaucer.  We  can  now  trace  the  English  language 
step  by  step  from  the  year  1300,  since  the  writings  of  Robert  of 
Gloucester,  Robert  of  Erunne,  Robert  Davies,  William  of  Shore- 
ham,2  Robert  Rolle,  and  Laurence  Minot,  lead  us  up  to  the  precise 
period  when  our  poem  was  composed,  and  which  forms  the  connect- 
ing link  with  Langland  and  the  subsequent  writers.  Without  decid- 
ing with  Bryant,  that  our  Romance  betrays  very  distinctly  a  provincial 
dialect,  we  may  accede  to  his  conjecture  of  its  author  being,  probably, 
a  native  of  Gloucestershire,  or  an  adjoining  county ;  although  the 
orthography  by  no  means  betrays  that  decided  western  pronunciation 

1  Mr  Conybeare  is  certainly  mistaken  in  assigning  the  Romances  of  Sir  Gawayn 
and  Alexander  to  the  13th  century,  as  I  shall  endeavour  to  show  in  another  place. 
[See  Sir  F.  Madden's  notes  to  Sir  Gawayn.     See  on  the  other  hand  my  "Intro- 
duction to  Alisaunder,"  (p.  xxx),  which  poem  is  now  found  to  be  somewhat  earlier 
than  "William  of  Palerne."— W.  W.  S.] 

2  The  poems  of  this  writer,  who  nourished  from  1320  to  1340,  are  preserved  in 
an  unique  MS.  belonging  to  Alexander  Henderson,  Esq.,  of  Edinburgh,  who  in- 
tends, at  some  period  or  other,  giving  them  to  the  public.     \The  Religious  Poems  of 
William  de  Shoreham  were  edited  for  the  Percy  Society  by  T.  Wright,  M.A.,  Lon- 
don, 1849.     The  MS.  is  now  MS.  Additional  17376  in  the  British  Museum.— 

w.  w.  s.i 


XX11 


PREFACE    TO   THE    EDITION    OF    1832. 


which  characterises  the  poems  ascribed  to  Robert  of  Gloucester.  Of 
his  ability  as  a  poet  we  ought  on  the  whole  to  form  a  favorable 
judgment;  and  when  we  consider  the  fetters  imposed  on  him  by  the 
metre  he  adopts,  and  by  the  closeness  of  his  translation,  we  may 
readily  forgive  the  repetitions  he  abounds  in,  as  well  as  the  somewhat 
tedious  minuteness  of  his  narrative.  There  are  some  lines,  such  as 
for  instance  these  : 

And  than  so  throli  thou^tes  thurlen  myn  herte, 
That  I  ne  wot  in  the  world  where  it  bi  comse ; 

and  again, 

So  many  maner  minstracie  at  that  mariage  were, 

That  when  thei  made  here  menstracie,  eche  man  wende 

That  heven  hastili  and  erthe  schuld  hurtel  to  gader  ; 

which  would  seem  to  mark  the  author  capable  of  better  things.  But 
the  poet  shall  plead  his  own  apology,  in  some  lines  at  the  close  of  the 
.Romance : 

In  this  wise  hath  William  al  his  werke  ended, 

As  fully  as  the  Frensche  fully  wold  aske, 

And  as  his  witte  him  wold  serve,  though  it  were  febul ; 

But  though  the  metur  be  nouyt  mad  at  eche  marines  paye, 

Wite  him  nouyt  that  it  wrou^t,  he  wold  have  do  beter 

$if  is  witte  in  eny  wei^es  wold  him  have  served. 

It  would  seem  from  this,  as  if  the  alliterative  form  of  alexandrine 
verse  had  not  yet  become  popular,  and  was,  in  fact,  but  lately  intro- 
duced. It  is  worth  observing  also,  that  the  number  of  French  words 
here  introduced,  will  serve  to  exonerate  Chaucer  from  the  charge 
made  against  him  of  debasing  the  English  language  by  Gallicisms. 
Such  a  remark  could  only  have  come  from  one  ignorant  of  what 
early  English  literature  owes  to  our  continental  neighbours. 

There  are  some  minuter  details  respecting  the  grammatical  con- 
struction of  the  poem,  which  perhaps  deserve  notice,  such  as  the  use 
of  the  present  tense  for  the  past,  as  ashes,  arise,  bere,  seweth,  &c.,  for 
asked,  arose,  bore,  sewede,  &c.,  the  use  of  the  singular  for  the  plural 
(if,  indeed,  it  be  not  a  contracted  form  of  the  plural,  which  I  am  in- 
clined to  believe,  like  childer  from  childereri),  in  the  instances  of  daie, 


PREFACE    TO    THE    EDITION    OF    1832. 

dede,  burgeys,  bere,  &c.,  for  dates,  dede-s,  burgeyses,  beres,  &c. ;  but 
the  fact  is,  these  are  not  peculiarities,  but  authorised  by  usage,  and 
many  similar  forms  are  retained,  even  at  present,  in  familiar  convers- 
ation, particularly  among  the  lower  classes. 

It  only  remains  to  give  a  brief  description  of  the  MS.  from  which 
the  present  poem  has  been  transcribed.  It  is  a  moderate-sized  folio, 
written  on  vellum  soon  after  the  middle  of  the  14th  century,  and 
consisting  of  130  folios,  82  of  which  are  occupied  by  the  Romance. 
A  quire  is  wanting  at  the  commencement,  and  a  single  leaf  shortly 
after.  The  text  is  disposed  in  single  columns,  of  3  6 'lines  in  a  page, 
and  the  writing  is  in  a  remarkably  distinct,  but  rather  thick  and 
inelegant,  letter,  with  small  blue  and  red  initials.1  .... 

At  the  conclusion  of  the  Romance,  f.  86,  is  written  in  a  hand  of 
the  early  part  of  the  16th  century  as  follows  : 2  "  Praye  we  all  to  that 
heaven  kinge  that  made  all  ye  world  off  nowght  to  pardon  the  solle 
of  humfray  boune,  that  was  erlle  of  herford,  for  hys  grete  dylygens 
and  peyns  takynge  to  translate  thys  boke  owt  off  freynche  In  to 
englys ;  to  y*  entent  to  kepe  youythe  from  ydellnes,  [he]  hathe  sete 
furthe  thys  goodly  story,  wher  apon  we  showld  bestow  our  tym  apon 
the  holy  day,  &  suche  other  tymes  when  we  haue  lytle  or  nothynge 
a  doyng  elles,  &  In  so  doynge  ye  may  put  awey  all  ydell  thowghte-5 
&  pensyffnes  [of]  harte,  for  the  wyche  traueyll  pray  we  all  to  that 
heuyw  kynge  to  graunt  hym  eternall  lyf  for  hys  good  wyll."  The 
rest  of  the  volume  is  occupied  by  a  portion  of  the  Metrical  Lives  of 
the  Saints,  composed  in  the  reign  of  Edward  the  First,  and  written 
in  a  different  and  rather  earlier  hand.  The  lives  are  those  of  Judas, 
Pilatus,  Seint  Marie  JEgiptiak,  Seint  Alphe,  Seint  George,  Seint 
Dunston,  Seint  Aldelme,  and  Seint  Austyn?  There  are  several  other 

p  I  here  omit  the  words  "  A  fac-simile  of  the  first  seven  lines  is  subjoined," 
•which  are  followed  by  the  fac-simile  itself.  The  marks  of  abbreviation  are  ex- 
plained further  on ;  see  p.  xxiv.  A  peculiarity  of  the  MS.  is  that  the  initial  letter  of 
every  line  is  separated  from  the  rest  by  a  slight  space,  as  in  Sir  F.  Madden' s  edition. 
The  central  metrical  pause  is  nowhere  marked  by  a  dot.  I  am  responsible  for  the 
insertion  of  these,  which  will,  I  believe,  be  found  to  assist  the  reader.— W.  W.  S.] 

[2  These  words  were  clearly  suggested  by  the  concluding  lines  of  the  poem, 
and  it  was  hence,  perhaps,  that  Bryant  adopted  the  idea  that  Sir  Humphrey  trans- 
lated the  French  himself.— W.  W.  S.] 

[3  There  is  a  poem  preceding  Judas,  and  belonging  to  the  same  series.  See  the 
first  lines,  &c.,  on  p.  vi.— W.  W.  S.] 


MARKS    OF    ABBREVIATION. 

perfect  copies  of  these  curious  legends  in  existence.  With  respect 
to  the  history  of  this  MS.  volume  before  it  was  presented  to  King's 
College  Library,  I  could  gain  no  information,  nor  even  the  name  of 
the  donor.  There  are  several  names  scribbled  on  the  margins,  but 
all  of  a  late  period,  and  of  no  importance. 

The  Romance  has  been  printed,  as  nearly  as  possible,  in  exact  ac- 
cordance with  the  MS.,  and  not  the  slightest  liberty  has  been  taken, 
either  with  the  punctuation  or  the  orthography.  It  is,  in  short,  as 
near  a  fac-simile  of  the  original  as  could  be  imitated  by  typography. 
But  for  the  convenience  of  those  unacquainted  with  the  mode  of 
contracting  words  in  old  MSS.,  a  list  of  the  abbreviations  is  placed 
at  the  end  of  these  remarks.  The  Glossary  has  been  compiled  with 
much  care,  and  rendered  as  comprehensive  as  possible,  but  with  all 
due  regard  to  avoid  unnecessary  prolixity.  Only  those  words  are 
illustrated  which  appeared  absolutely  to  require  it :  it  being  deemed 
in  other  cases  sufficient  to  mark  the  immediate  derivation  of  the  term. 

The  Editor,  in  conclusion,  has  to  express  his  thanks  to  the  Rev. 
George  Thackeray,  D.D.,  Provost  of  King's  College,  for  his  permis- 
sion to  copy  the  MS. ;  and  also  to  Martin  Thackeray,  Esq.,  M.A., 
Vice  Provost;  John  Heath,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Dean;  and  George  Crauford 
Heath,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Bursar  of  the  College,  for  their  very  obliging 
attentions  during  the  residence  made  among  them. 

FREDERICK  MADDEN. 

British  Museum,  January  6th,  1832. 


MARKS  OF  ABBREVIATION. 

Q  ,  con  or  com,  as  Qseil,  Qfort — [conseil,  comfort]. 

?,  er,  above  the  line,  as  J)id'e,  daungf,  man',  s'ue,  wint'res,  ]>'e, 
gou'ne,  v'aly — [jridere,  daunger,  maner,  seme,  winterres,  J?ere,  gouerne, 
veraly].  After  p',  re,  as  p'stely — [prestely]. 

ihc,  Ihesus.* 

p,  per  or  par,  as  pile,  ptizes,  spe — [perile,  parties,  spere]. 

[*  See  note  to  L  692.     W.  W.  S.] 


NOTE    ON    THE    WORD    "  WERWOLF."  XXV 

«p,  pro,  as  ^fite,  «pue — [profile,  proue]. 

q,  quod — [qwoo1]. 

!,  ri,  above  the  line,  as  p^ice,  cjft — [prmce,  cn'st]. 

w,  ra,  above  the  line,  as  fm,  gee,  py — [fram,  grace,  pray] — some- 
times a,  as  Willm — [WilKam].  * 

f^,  ur,  above  the  line,  as  mjje,  tne,  6 — [nmrfe,  twrne,  our]. 

The  simple  stroke  over  a  letter  denotes  the  absence  of  m  or  n,  as- 
su,  hi,  houd — [sum,  hiw,  hoiwd]. 


NOTE  ON  THE  WORD  "WERWOLF." 

(Reprinted,  with  additions,  from  the  edition  of  1832.) 

BY    SIR    FREDERICK    MADDEN. 

THIS  term  has  the  same  meaning,  and  is  compounded  of  the  same- 
elements,  as  the  \vK-av6p<DTroG  of  the  Greeks.  From  the  high  antiquity 
of  the  tradition  respecting  werewolves,  and  its  having  been  current 
among  the  Celtic  as  well  as  Gothic  nations,  we  find  the  expression  in 
most  of  the  dialects  formed  from  each  of  the  parent  languages,  and  all 
corresponding  to  the  signification  above  affixed  of  man-wolf,  i.  e.  a  wolf 
partaking  of  the  nature  of  man,  or,  in  other  words,  a  man  changed,  by 
magical  art,  into  the  temporary  form  of  a  wolf.  All  the  northern  lexi- 
cographers agree  in  this  interpretation,  as  applied  to  the  Su.-G.  warulf, 
Teut.  werwolf j  wahrwolf,  Sax.  werewulf,  Dan.  varulf,  Belg.  waer  wolf,weer 
wolf,  Scotch,  warwolf,  werwouf,  &c.,  but  as  the  very  learned  and  ingeni- 
ous author  of  the  Letter  addressed  to  Lord  Cawdor  on  the  subject  of 
Werewolves,  prefixed  to  the  present  poem,  [i.  e.  in  the  edition  of  1832,] 
has  called  their  united  opinion  in  question,  it  may  be  worth  while  to 
discuss  more  fully  the  truth  of  the  usual  derivation.  It  is  true,  that  the 
hypothesis  of  Mr  Herbert,  which  deduces  the  first  part  of  the  phrase 
from  the  Teutonic  wer,  bellum,  (whence  the  French  guerre,  and  the  Dutch 
were  have  been  formed)  may  be,  in  some  measure,  countenanced  by  the 
similar  compounds  of  wcer-boda,  a  herald,  were-man,  a  soldier,  were-wall, 
a  defence  in  war,  &o.,  as  well  as  by  the  instance  of  a  warlike  machine 
made  by  King  Edward  the  First,  called  war-wolf,  and  rightly  interpreted 
by  Matthew  of  Westminster  lupus  belli,  p.  449,  the  ludgare  or  loup  de 
guerre  of  Peter  Langtoft,  vol.  ii.  326.  But  in  conceding  thus  much,  it 

[*  The  mark  really  is  a  roughly  written  a,  and  means  an  abbreviation  wherein 
a  occurs,  commonly  ra  or  ia. — W.  W.  S.] 


NOTE    ON    THE    WORD    "  WERWOLF.  ' 

must  be  remarked,  that  all  these  latter  terms  are  used  in  a  military  sense, 
and  could  not  otherwise  be  interpreted.  They  bear  no  analogy  what- 
ever to  the  were-wolf  of  our  Poem,  which,  supposing  we  receive  it  in  the 
sense  contended  for  by  the  author  of  the  Letter,  viz.  a  wolf  of  war,  con- 
veys no  distinct  or  very  intelligible  meaning.  On  the  other  hand,  the 
plain,  obvious  signification  of  man-wolf  is  consonant  to  the  fabulous 
tradition  of  the  phrase,  and  to  the  genius  of  the  languages  in  which  it 
has  been  adopted.  Only  one  example  of  this  word  in  Anglo-Saxon  has 
been  found.  It  occurs  in  the  ecclesiastical  laws  of  King  Canute,  ap. 
Wilkins,  p.  133,  §  26,  where,  after  describing  the  duties  of  Pastors  of 
the  Church,  the  text  proceeds  :  "  thaet  syndon  bisceopas  and  msesse- 
pivootas,  the  godcunde  heorda  bewarian  and  bewerian  sceolan,  mid 
wislican  laran,  thaet  se  wodfreca  were  wulfto  swithe  ne  slyte,  ne  to  fela 
ne  abite  of  godcundre  heorde,"  i.  e.  "  Such  are  the  bishops  and  priests, 
who  shall  guard  and  defend  the  holy  flock  with  their  wise  doctrine,  that 
the  furious  were-wolf  may  not  too  greatly  tear  or  lacerate  the  members 
of  it."  Here  the  term  is  applied  to  the  Devil,  not,  as  Wachter  remarks, 
"  quod  Diabolus  sit  lycanthropos,  sed  quod  homines  rapiat  et  occidat  ;  " 
and  the  metaphor  is  evidently  drawn  from  the  story  of  the  metamor- 
phosis of  a  man  into  a  wolf,  and  subsequent  attacks  on  his  own  race. 
The  derivation  from  wer,  or  wera,  a  man,  does  not,  as  the  author  of 
the  Letter  supposes,  rest  on  slight  authority.  One  glance  at  Lye,  who 
has  nearly  three  columns  filled  with  instances,  would  satisfy  him  in  this 
respect.  It  is  the  Gothic  wair  (Luke  viii.  27,  ix.  14),  Su.-Goth.  war, 
Isl.  ver,  Teut.  wer,  Francic  uuara,  Celtic  Gur,  Gwr,  or  £7r,  Irish  fair, 
fear,  Latin  wr,  Barb.  Lat.  bar-o,  Span,  var-on,  and  French  bar-on  ;  all  of 
which  may  be  referred  to  a  primitive  root,  expressive  of  existence.  But 
an  unquestionable  evidence  in  the  case  before  us  is  that  of  Gervase  of 
Tilbury,  who  wrote  in  the  reign  of  Henry  II.,  when  the  Saxon  language 
had  suffered  no  very  material  change,  and  who,  assuredly,  must  be  allowed 
to  know  the  meaning  of  his  own  maternal  tongue.  He  writes  thus : 
"  Vidimus  enim  frequenter  in  Anglia  per  lunationes  homines  in  lupos 
mutari,  quod  hominum  genus  Gerulfos  Galli  nominant,  Angli  vero 
werewlf  dicunt ;  were  enim  Anglice  virum  sonat,  wlf,  Hpum."  Otia  Imp. 
ap.  Scriptt.  Brunsv.  p.  895.  The  modern  French  express  the  term  by 
loupgarou,  concerning  which  it  is  truly  said  by  Wachter,  "  rnire  nugantur 
eruditi."  The  sum  of  these  nugce  may  be  found  collected  in  Menage, 
and  the  Dictionnaire  de  Trevoux  ;  to  which  may  be  added  the  conjectures 
noticed  in  the  Godum  Astronomico-Poeticum  of  Ccesius,  p.  295.  But  the 
etymology  of  the  Saxon,  Teutonic,  and  Suio-Gothic  phrase  will  here 
equally  well  apply.  One  of  the  Lays  of  Marie,  an  Anglo-Norman 
poetess,  who  wrote  about  the  middle  of  the  thirteenth  century,  is 
founded  on  a  Breton  fable  of  a  werwolf,  and  she  thus  alludes  to  the  ap- 
pellation : 

"  Bisclaueret  ad  nun  en  Bretan, 
Garwaf,  1'apelent  li  Norman  ; 


XXV11 

ladis  le  poeit  hume  oir, 

E  souent  suleit  auenir, 

Humes  plusurs  garual  deuindrent, 

E  es  boscages  meisun  tinclrent ; 

Garualf  cet  beste  saluage,"  &c. 

MS.  Harl.  978.  f.  152.  b.1 

Roquefort  (who  has  taken  some  liberties  in  printing  this  passage)  justly 
observes,  that  the  Norman  Garvalf  or  Garwaf  is  derived  from,  and  the 
same  with,  the  Saxon  and  Teutonic  term.  It  may,  indeed,  have  been 
brought  by  the  Normans  from  Scandinavia,  for  in  Verelius  I  find 
•"  Vargulfur,  Brett.  Str.  \_BrettaStreinglekr  Roberti  Abbatis~\  Biselaretzli'od, 
Lycantropos.  Som  loperwarg."  Index  Scytho-Scand.  fol.  1691.  WLeuce 
lie  has  derived  the  second  term,  is  not  clear,  nor  is  it  elsewhere  ex- 
iplained,  but  it  appears  the  same  with  the  Bisclaveret  of  Marie  (whose 
writings  could  not  have  been  known  to  Verelius),  which  is  supposed  by 
Ritson,  Metr.  Rom.  iii.  331,  to  be  a  corruption  of  Bleiz-garv,  loup 
.-sauvage,  for  which,  in  more  modern  times,  the  natives  of  Britanny  used 
Den-bleiz,  homme-loup.  See  Rostrenen  and  Pelletier.  Garv  or  Garo,  is 
•explained  in  these  writers,  cipre,  cruel,  yet  there  is  great  reason  to  doubt 
whether  when  coupled  with  bleiz  it  has  not,  like  the  Norman  garou, 
•guaroul,  been  borrowed  from  a  Gothic  source.  That  loup  is  superfluous, 
and  that  garou  of  itself  expresses  man-wolf  is  evident  from  the  passages 
in  Gervase  of  Tilbury  and  Marie,  and  may  be  confirmed  by  the  follow- 
ing authorities.  "  Warou,  loup-garou."  Diet.  Roman,  Walon,  &c.  4to. 
Bouillon,  1777.  "  Warou,  warous,  warrou,  Garou,  espece  de  loup." 
Roquefort.  So,  in  a  MS.  Life  of  the  Virgin,  quoted  by  Charpentier,  in 
.his  Supplement  to  Du  Cange, 

"  De  culuevre  nous  font  anguile, 

Aignel  de  Waroul  &  de  leu." 

And  in  the  life  of  St  Bernard,  Opp.  2,  p.  1288.  "  Transiens  autem  per 
quandam  villam  audivit  ab  incolis  ejusdem  loci,  duas  feras  immanissi- 
inas,  qua3  uuigo  varol-i  [appellebantur],  in  nemore  proxime  dessevire." 
In  the  same  manner  the  Scotch  have  formed  their  Wurl,  Wroul,  and 
Worlin,  as  appears  from  Jamieson.  Roquefort  also  gives  us  the  term  in 
another  shape,  "  Loup-beroux"  but  this  again  is  nothing  more  than  the 
Teut.  Bcerwolf,  homo-lupus,  from  lar,  vir,  which  is  only  a  dialectical 
variation  of  Wer.  A  similar  instance  of  retaining  a  pleonastic  interpret- 
ation is  presented  in  the  word  luke-warm,  where  warm  is  an  adjunct  of 
no  real  utility,  since  luke  means  warm  by  itself,  and  was  anciently  so 
used.  For  more  minute  details  respecting  the  etymology  here  adopted, 
the  philologist  is  referred  to  Ihre,  Wachter,  Kilian,  and  Jamieson. 

Mr  Herbert  has  remarked,  at  p.  42  of  his  letter,  that  "among  the 
Erse  or  Gael  of  Erin,  the  notion  of  lycanthropy  was  prevalent ;  we 

1  In  Thoms's  "  Lays  and  Legends,"   1834,  is  a  translation  of  this  Lai  dt 
Bisclaveret. 


XXV111 

read  of  their  voracious  cannibalism  on  the  ocular  and  undeniable  tes- 
timony of  St  Jerome,  and  another  author  pretends  that  a  certain 
Abbot  in  the  district  of  Ossory  had  obtained  from  heaven  a  decree 
that  two  persons  of  that  district  (a  married  couple)  should  every 
seven  years  be  compelled  to  leave  the  country  in  the  shape  of  wolves, 
but,  at  the  end  of  those  years,  they  might  if  yet  living  return  to 
their  homes  and  native  shape,  and  two  other  persons  were  condemned 
in  their  place  to  the  like  penalty  for  another  seven  years.  J.  Brompton, 
Chron.  p.  1078."  In  the  Latin  Poem  "de  rebus  Hibernie  ad- 
mirandis,"  of  the  12th  or  13th  century,  preserved  in  the  Cotton  MS. 
Titus  D.  xxiv  (and  printed  in  the  Reliquice  Antiquce,  ii.  103),  are 
some  lines  descriptive  of  the  werwolf,  from  which  we  learn  that  at 
that  period  there  were  men  in  Ireland  who  could  change  themselves 
into  wolves  and  worry  sheep,  leaving  their  real  bodies  behind  them ; 
and  (as  in  the  traditions  of  other  countries),  if  they  happened  to  be 
wounded,  the  injury  would  also  appear  on  their  bodies.1 

Allusion  is  also  made  to  a  similar  story  in  Malory's  Morte 
<?  Arthurs,  where  mention  is  made  of  "  Sir  Marrok  the  good  knyghte, 
that  was  bitrayed  with  his  wyf,  for  she  made  hym  seuen  yere  a 
wenvolf"  Morte  d'Arthure,  lib.  xix.  c.  xi.  ;  ed.  Southey,  ii.  385. 

In  the  "Maister  of  Game,"  a  treatise  on  Hunting,  composed  for 
Henry  the  Fifth,  then  Prince  (I  quote  from  MS.  Sloane  60),  is  the 
following  passage. 

1  Sunt  homines  quidam  Scottorum  gentis  habentes 

Miram  naturam,  raajorum  ab  origine  ductam, 

Qua  cito  quando  volunt  ipsos  se  vertere  possunt 

Nequiter  in  formas  lacerantum  dente  luporum, 

TJnde  videntur  oves  occidere  s;cpe  gementes  ; 

Sed  cum  clamor  eos  hominum,  seu  cursus  eorum 

Fustibus  aut  armis  terret,  fugiendo  recurrunt. 

Cum  tamen  hoc  faciunt,  sua  corpora  vera  relinquunt, 

Atque  suis  mandant  ne  quisquam  moverit  ilia. 

Si  sic  eveniat,  nee  ad  ilia  redire  valebunt. 

Si  quid  eos  Isedat,  penetrent  si  vulnera  quseque, 

Vere  in  corporibus  semper  cernuntur  eorum  ; 

Sic  caro  cruda  hacrens  in  veri  corporis  ore 

Cernitur  a  sociis,  quod  nos  miramur  et  omnes.     (Rel.  Ant.  ii.  105.) 
Cf.  Spenser,  View  of  the  State  of  Ireland,  ed.  Todd,  p.  522  (Moxon,  1856) ;  and 
O'Brien,  Round  Towers  of  Ireland,  p.  468. 


INTRODUCTION    TO    "  ALISAUNDER.  XXIX 

Speaking  of  the  Wolf—  (foL  43)— 

"And  somme  ther  ben  ...  that  eten  children  and  men,  and  eten 
non  other  fleische  from  that  tyme  that  thei  hen  acharmed  with  mannes 
fleisch.  For  rather  thei  wolden  he  deed.  And  thai  hen  cleped 
werewolves,  for  that  men  schulden  he  war  of  hem.1  And  thei  hen  so 
cawtelous,  that  whenne  thei  sailen  a  man,  thei  haue  an  holding  vppon 
hem  or  the  man  se  hem.  And  jit,  if  men  se  hem,  thei  wol  come 
vpon  him  gynnously,  that  he  ne  he  take  and  slayn.  For  thei  can 
wonder  wel  kepe  hem  from  any  harneyse  that  any  man  hereth,"  &c.a 


INTRODUCTION  TO  "  ALISAUNDER." 

§  1.  THE  fragment  of  the  Romance  of  Alisaunder  at  the  end  of 
this  volume  is  now  printed  for  the  first  time  from  MS.  Greaves  60  (in 
the  Bodleian  Library),  where  it  was  discovered  by  Sir  Frederick 
Madden.  There  are  no  less  than  four  MSS.  containing  fragments  in 

1  An  odd  etymology  !  This  sentence  is  quoted  by  Halliwell,  in  his  Dictionary 
of  Archaisms,  s.  v.  A-charmed,  from  MS.  Bodley,  546. 

[2  It  seems  unnecessary  to  enter  into  further  details  concerning  this  curious 
superstition  ;  for  the  reader  may  consult  Mr  Herbert's  Letter  (which  is  too  diffuse 
to  be  reprinted  here) ;  or,  if  that  be  not  easily  accessible,  may  refer  to  "  The  Book 
of  Were- wolves,"  by  S.  Baring-Gould,  M.  A.,  which  the  author  defines  as  being  "  a 
monograph  on  a  peculiar  form  of  popular  superstition,  prevalent  among  all  nations, 
and  in  all  ages."  The  following  references  to  a  few  of  the  most  interesting  pas- 
sages may  be  useful.  Herodotus,  bk.  iv.  c.  105  (in  which  the  Neurians  are  said  to 
change  themselves  into  wolves  once  a  year  for  a  few  days) .;  Virgil,  Eel.  viii.  95—- 
99  ;  Ovid,  Met.  i.  237  (where  Lycaon,  King  of  Arcadia,  is  changed  by  Jupiter  into 
a  wolf) ;  a  story  from  fetronitts,  quoted  at  length  both  by  Herbert  (p.  7),  and 
Baring-Gould  (p.  11)  ;  Olaus  Magnus,  Historia  de  Gent.  Septent.  Basil,  lib.  xviii. 
c.  45 ;  Gervase  of  Tilbury,  Otia  Imperialia,  Dec.  i.  c.  15,  p.  895  ;  Camden,  Britan- 
nia, vol.  iv.  p.  293,  ed.  1806 ;  King  James  L,  Dsemonologie,  L.  iii.  p.  125  ;  &c.  See 
also  Thorpe's  Northern  Mythology.  In  the  present  poem,  the  chief  instrument  of 
Alphonse's  re-transformation  is  a  ring  (1.  4424).  The  following  quotation  (which 
I  render  into  English  from  the  German)  may  serve  to  illustrate  this : — "  By  help  of 
a  magic  girdle  or  ring  men  could  change  themselves  and  others  into  the  forms  of 
beasts ;  into  wolves,  bears,  horses,  cats,  swans,  geese,  ravens,  and  crows.  The  most 
notorious  and  perhaps  the  oldest  of  these  changes  is  that  into  the  Werwolf  or  loup- 
garou.  Even  this  might  be  classed  amongst  the  instances  of  Rune-magic  (Sunen- 
zaubers),  for  runic  characters  may  have  been  scratched  upon  the  girdle  or  ring,  or 
magic  formularies  may  have  been  repeated  whilst  putting  it  on."  Karl  Sim- 
rock,  Handbuch  der  Deutschen  Mythologie ;  Bonn,  1855 ;  p.  537.  The  latter 
method  was  the  one  adopted  by  Queen  Brauudins  (1.  4433).— W.  W.  S.] 


XXX  INTRODUCTION    TO    "  ALISAUNDER." 

alliterative  verse  upon  this  subject,  of  which  two  are  merely  different 
copies  of  the  same  poem.  The  four  fragments  are  these :  A,  that 
contained  in  MS.  Greaves  60;  B,  that  contained  in  MS.  Bodley  264, 
which  relates  to  Alexander's  visit  to  the  Gymnosophists  ;  C,  that  in 
MS.  Ashmole  44  ;  and  D,  a  second  copy  of  the  same  poem  as  C,  in 
MS.  Dublin.  D.  4.  12,  beginning  at  a  later  place,  and  ending  at 
an  earlier  one.  Of  these,  A,  B,  and  C  seem  to  be  distinct  from 
each  other,  and  by  different  authors,  the  last  bearing  traces  of  a 
northern,  the  former  two  of  a  western  dialect.  The  two  latter  are 
printed  at  length  in  "  The  Alliterative  Eomance  [?  Romances]  of 
Alexander,"  ed.  Eev.  J.  Stevenson,  printed  for  the  Eoxburghe  Club, 
1849.  They  are,  however,  of  different  dates,  for  the  Ashmolean 
MS.  can  hardly  be  older  than  about  A.D.  1450,  and  "  there  seems 
no  reason  to  conclude  that  the  poem  is  anterior  to  the  date  of  the 
MS.  from  which  it  is  printed,"  as  Mr  Stevenson  justly  observes. 
Fragment  B  is  probably  older.  It  is  bound  up  with  the  splendid 
French  MS.  of  Alexander,  one  of  the  chief  treasures  of  the  Bodleian 
library.  Sir  F.  Madden  says  of  it,1  that  "  the  writing  of  this  portion 
is  of  the  reign  of  Henry  the  Sixth,2  nor  is  there  any  reason  to 
believe  the  poem  itself  very  much  earlier  than  the  year  1400."  It 
treats  at  length  of  Alexander's  visit  to  the  Gymnosophists,  and  of  the 
letters  that  passed  between  him  and  Dindimus,  "  lord  of  Bragmanus 
lond,"  a  subject  which  is  introduced  much  more  briefly  in  Passus 
xviii.  of  fragment  C.  But  fragment  A,  which  is  now  only  found  in 
a  copy  evidently  written  in  the  sixteenth  century  (the  original  MS. 
having  been  lost),  is  not  only  older  than  both  these,  but  may  fairly 
claim  to  be  the  oldest  existing  specimen  of  English  alliterative  verse, 
unmixed  with  rime,  and  of  the  usual  type,  since  the  Conquest.3 
This  point  is,  moreover,  easily  ascertained  in  the  manner  following. 

,§  2.  In  the  first  place,  it  was  conjectured  by  Sir  F.  Madden,  from 
internal  evidence,  that  it  was  written  by  the  author  of  William  of 
Palerne  ;  and  nothing  can  be  stronger  than  the  internal  evidence,  if 

1  See  notes  to  Sir  Gawayne,ed.  Madden;  Bannatyne  Club,  1839  ;  p.  304. 

2  May  it  not  be  even  a  little  earlier  ? 

3  Seinte  Marherete,  written  before  A.D.  1200  in  a  more  negligent  metre,  is  here 
excepted. 


INTRODUCTION    TO    "  ALISAUNDER." 

it  be  weighed  with  sufficient  care.  The  resemblance  in  the  language, 
style,  and  method  of  versification  is  extraordinary  ;  there  is  the  same 
"  run  "  upon  certain  words  and  phrases,  and  we  even  find  (what  we 
should  hardly  have  expected  to  find),  lines  almost  identical  in  their 
expression  in  the  two  poems.  If  we  find  in  William  of  Palerne 
(which  poem  I  shall  briefly  denote  by  Wenvolf)  the  phrase, 

"  J>at  Jjei  nere  semli  serued  •  &  sette  at  here  ri^ttes  "  (1.  4906), 
we  can  match  this  from.  Alisaunder,  1.  980,  by  the  phrase, 

"  As  soone  as  jjei  were  sett  •  &  serued  too-rightes  ; " 
and  it  would  be  difficult  to  discover  two  lines  more  closely  related 
than  are  these : — 

"  It  betid  in  a  time  •  tidly  thereafter  "  (Alia.  974),  and, 
"But  jjanne  tidde  on  a  time  *  titly  fer-after"  (Werw.  1416). 

But  even  such  coincidences  as  these  are  less  convincing  than  the 
peculiar  recurrence  of  certain  phrases,  such  as  to  waite  at  a  window 
(see  note  to  Alis.  1.  760),  doluen  and  ded  (see  note  to  Alis.  1.  1026), 
medtye  ni$t  (see  note  to  Alis.  1.  817),  liuand  lud  (see  note  to  Alis.  1. 
992),  and  the  like ;  and  also  the  curious,  yet  evidently  uninten- 
tional, resemblance  in  such  lines  as, 

"  He  wend  to  haue  lau^t  Jjat  ladi  •  loueli  in  armes  " 
(Werw.  671) ;  and 

"  As  that  Ladie,  with  loue  •  too  lachen  in  armes  "  (Alis.  199) ; 
or  again,  in 

"  But  lete  him  in  nis  blisse  •  &  his  burde  alse, 
&  touche  we  ferre  •  as  J?is  tale  forjjeres"  (Werw.  5396) ;  and, 

"  But  lete  hem  liue  in  lisse  •  at  oure  lordes  wille, 
Of  J>e  rich  emperour  of  rome  •  redeliche  to  telle"  (  Werw.  5466) ; 

as  compared  with — 

"  Now  let  wee  j)is  lued  •  lengen  in  bliss, 

And  sithe  myng  wee  more  •  of  j>is  mery  tale  "  (Alis.  44). 
Indeed,  it  seems  useless  to  adduce  many  further  proofs ;  for,  if  any 
reader  has  any  lingering  doubts  upon  the  subject,  he  may  convince 
himself  by  trying  to  rewrite  a  portion  of  the  glossary  ;  for,  in  construct- 


XXxli  INTRODUCTION    TO 

ing  this,  the  language  of  the  poems  is  .at  once  found  to  be  identical,  as 
far  as  the  subject-matter  permits  it.  It  may  be  noted,  too,  that  the 
dialect  is  the  same  \  e.  g.  one  curious  characteristic  of  the  "  Werwolf" 
is  the  plural  imperative  in  -es,  which  reappears  in  7cares=c&ie  ye  (Alis. 
563),  and  in  hairus  =  Jcaires = go  ye  (Alis.  6  2  3) ;  also  present  participles 
both  in  -and  and  -ing  are  found  in  both  poems.1  Assuming  then  that 
these  poems  are  by  the  same  author — and,  consequently,  that  our 
poet,  known  to  us  only  by  the  name  of  William,  has  the  credit  of 
being  the  earliest  writer  (as  far  as  we  know  at  present)  in  the  usual 
alliterative  metre — the  question  still  remains,  which  poem  did  he 
write  first  ?  On  this  point  I  have,  myself,  no  doubt,  feeling  sure  that 
the  "  Alisaunder  "  is  the  older  poem.  It  is  very  curious  to  remark 
how  often  it  presents  fuller  inflexions  and  older  forms,  and  this,  too, 
in  spite  of  the  fact  that  we  have  only  a  late  sixteenth-century  copy 
of  it,  whilst  of  the  other  poem  we  have  a  MS.  two  centuries  older. 
Most  noticeable  among  these  are  the  infinitives  in  -en,  such  as  lachen, 
thinken,  &c.,  and  in  many  other  cases  we  find  -en  where  in  the  other 
poem  we  more  commonly  find  -e.'2  The  numerous  cases  where  in  the 
"  Alisaunder,"  the  final  -e  is  omitted,  can  be  accounted  for  by  the  fact 
of  the  MS.  being  a  late  copy.  "  And  this  is  the  right  account  to  give ; 
for  the  preservation  of  the  -en  ending  shews  that  the  final  -e's  should 
have  been  preserved  also.  Besides  this,  the  spelling  of  the  MS.  pre- 
sents one  very  curious  mark  of  antiquity,  viz.,  the  use  of  the  letter 
D  or  ft  to  represent  Th  or  tli ;  see  note  to  1.  33  on  page  236.  I  know 
of  no  instance  of  the  use  of  this  letter  in  a  verse  composition 

1  A  comparison  of  the  metre  of  the  poems  affords  a  test  of  much  suhtlety,  and  re- 
quiring much  care  and  patience.     The  details  are  tedious  :  I  can  only  say  here  that 
I  have  considered  this,  and  believe  their  general  structure  of  versification  to  he 
identical,  and  to  have,  at  the  same  time,  some  peculiarities  that  are  not  common  to 
all  alliterative  poems.    They  differ,  e.  g.,  from  Pierf  Plowman,  though  that  too  was 
written  by  a  William,  and  not  long  afterwards. 

Hence  also  the  reason  for  printing  the  two  poems  together,  viz.  because  of 
their  common  authorship,  is  at  once  apparent ;  and  both  poems  gain  by  it.  The 
language  of  the  "Werwolf"  is  often  well  illustrated  by  that  of  the  "Alisaunder," 
whilst,  on  the  other  hand,  an  editor  can  never  be  so  well  fitted  to  edit  the  latter 
poem  accurately  as  at  a  time  when  he  happens  to  know  hundreds  of  lines  of  the 
former  by  heart. 

2  The  only  instance  of  «'-  used  as  a  prefix  to  a  verb  in  the  infinitive,  occurs  in 
Alis.  1.  607. 


INTRODUCTION    TO    "  ALISAUNDER.  XXX111 

(excepting  here)  later  than  about  A.D.  1300,  in  MS.  C.C.C.  444, 
containing  the  "  Story  of  Genesis  and  Exodus,"  edited  by  Mr  Morris 
for  the  E.  E.  T.  S.  in  1865.  There  is  yet  another  point  which  may 
have  some  weight,  viz.,  that  our  author  must  surely  have  produced 
something  of  importance  before  he  was  selected  by  the  Earl  of  Hereford 
to  translate  a  poem  of  such  length  as  "  Guillaume  de  Palerne ; "  and 
that  something  was  really  expected  of  him,  from  his  known  reputa- 
tion, seems  to  be  implied  by  his  apology  for  himself  and  his  versifi- 
cation at  the  end  of  the  latter  work  (Werwolf,  11.  5521—5526).  If 
this  be  thought  likely,  if  his  skill  in  translation  was  a  known  fact,  it 
may  have  been  t^at  his  reputation  was  due  to  his  "Alisaunder,"  as  to 
the  length  of  which,  in  its  original  condition,  we  know  nothing  more 
than  this,  viz.,  that  the  1249  lines  still  preserved  represent  but  a 
very  small  fraction  of  the  whole  story. 

§  3.  It  is  necessary  to  describe  the  MS.  Greaves  60  somewhat 
further.  It  is  a  small  and  shabby-looking  MS.,  about  8  in.  by  6, 
apparently  bought  to  be  used  as  a  note-book  or  exercise-book,  as  it 
contains  notes  upon  Virgil's  ^Eneid,  Terence's  Andria,  &c. ;  and  the 
English  romance  was  afterwards  copied  out  wherever  there  was  a 
blank  space  for  it,  which  accounts  for  there  being  only  three  lines  of  the 
text  on  fol.  7.  The  English  occupies  fol.  1  b — 6  a,  part  of  fol.  7,  fol. 
7b—8l,M.  lla,  partoffol.  115,  fol.  12a— 16 a, fol.  165— 20a  (which 
portion  is  scored  at  the  side,  as  being  out  of  place),  and  fol.  21  a — 24 1). 
The  last  two  portions  require  to  be  transposed,  and  then  20  a  comes 
last,  fol.  206  being  blank.  Even  when  this  is  done,  a  portion  is  lost 
between  fol.  24  &  and  fol.  166  (which  I  have  supplied  from  a  Erench 
prose  text),  and  another  portion  (probably  a  large  one)  is  lost  at  the 
end.  On  the  fly-leaf  is,  besides  other  things,  "  Ye  schoole  of  Khetorik, 
or  Ye  skyll  too  speake  well :  deuised  and  made  by  H.  G."  This  and 
a  title  about  a  "  compendium  of  Virgil's  ^Eneid,"*  are  scratched 
through,  and  the  following  written  below  in  the  same  hand — 
"Badulphws  de  Sto  Albano  eiusdem  fani  Albani  monaclms  et  Abbas  ex 
porapeio,  Trogo,  Origine,  Josepho,  Isidore,  Beda,  et  alijs  hanc  historian! 
de  Eebws  gestis  Alexandri  Macedonis  edidit;  obijt  anno  domini 
MCLI,  in  eodera  coenobio  sepult?^,  sub  stephano  Anglorura  rege. 
Balaews."  Assuming,  for  convenience,  that  H.  Gr.  are  the  scribe's  own 


INTRODUCTION    TO 

initials,  we  see  that  H.  G.  has  merely  copied  the  above  title  from  Bale,, 
and  that  there  is  not  any  necessary  connection  between»it  and  the  poem 
which  he  partly  copied  out.  Nevertheless,  the  clue  was  worth  fol- 
lowing up,  and  I  found  that  a  MS.  in  Corpus  Christi  College,  Cam- 
bridge, No.  219,  has  for  its  title — "  Incipit  hystoria  regis  Macedonum,. 
Philippi  filiiqwe  eitis  Alexandri  Magni  excepta  (sic)  de  libnV 
pompeii,  trogi,  orosii,  iosephi,  ieronimi,  solini,  augustini,  bede,  & 
ysodori."  It  is  a  Latin  MS.,  beautifully  written  in  a  hand  of  the- 
fourteenth  century,  containing  the  history  of  Alexander  in  four  books,, 
and  followed  by  the  letters  of  Alexander  to  Dindimus,  and  of  Dindimus 
to  Alexander.  That  our  poet  made  use  of  this  compilation  is  very 
probable;  he  says  (Alls.  1.  458)  that  he  translates  from  Latin  books, 
and  the  principal  of  these  seem  to  have  been,  (1)  the  compilation  of 
Eadulphus ;  (2)  the  history  of  Orosius  ;  and  (3)  the  "  Historia  Alex- 
andri de  prcdiis"  The  two  former  supplied  him  with  the  more  his- 
torical part  of  his  story,  such  as  the  particulars  about  Eurydice, 
Philip,  Byzantium,  &c. ;  the  latter  supplied  him  with  the  legendary 
portion.  He  seems  to  have  considered  them  all  equally  veritable, 
and  to  have  turned  from  one  to  the  other  at  pleasure,  as  I  have 
pointed  out  in  the  notes.  Of  the  various  Latin  forms  of  the  legend, 
the  "Historia  de prceliis"  as  it  may  conveniently  be  called  for  dis- 
tinctness,1 is  evidently  the  one  he  has  most  closely  followed.  It  is 
also  evident  that  the  writer  of  the  poem  preserved  in  MS.  Ashmole 
44  followed  the  very  same  original,  and  it  is  interesting  to  com- 
pare the  two  translations,  and  to  observe  how  far  the  exigencies  of 
the  metre  have  caused  them  to  vary.  Returning  to  "  H.  G."  after 
this  digression,  a  few  remarks  must  be  made  upon  his  method  of 
copying  the  poem.  He  seems  to  have  done  it  upon  the  whole  very 
carefully,  though  he  has  sometimes  misread  his  original  (writing 
kipen  for  ktyen,  ferkerd  for  ferked,  and  the  like),  and,  in  particular,, 
has  left  out  a  large  number  of  the  final  -e's,  besides  occasionally  omit- 
ting whole  lines.  In  several  cases,  he  has  modernized  or  modified 
the  spelling,  and  in  many  instances  has  given  us  both  the  forms,  as, 
e.  g.  in  1.  767,  where  we  have  liche  with  ke  over  the  che,  thus  rightly 

1   It   may  be  known  by  the  initial  words — "  Sapiewtissimi  egiptii  scientes- 
mewsuram  terre,"  &c.     I  have  used  the  printed  copy  of  1490. 


INTRODUCTION    TO    "  ALISAUNDER.' 


XXXV 


explaining  liche  as  meaning  like.  All  the  variations  of  importance 
are  noticed  in  the  foot-notes.  The  handwriting  is  peculiar,  but  not 
uncertain,  though  he  at  times  used  a  straight  horizontal  stroke  like  a 
hyphen  to  denote  an  m  or  an  n,  joining  it  on  to  the  letter  following. 
Over  many  of  the  long  vowels  he  has  made  a  circumflex,  writing 
"soule"  in  1.  41,  "fone"  in  1.  83,  "gcA)se"  in  1.  409.  As  this  seemed 
to  be  a  mere  freak  of  his  own  (for  it  is  sometimes  wrongly  introduced), 
I  have  not  noticed  it.  The  only  other  point  of  interest  is  that  he 
marked  all  the  harder  words  by  underscoring  them,  evidently  with 
the  view  of  finding  out  their  meaning.  The  list  of  these  has  some- 
importance,  for  we  may  conclude  that  such  words  were  so  far  obsolete 
about  the  time  of  James  I.  as  to  be  unintelligible  to  a  man  interested 
in  our  older  literature.  It  is  on  this  account  that  I  subjoin  the  list, 
in  alphabetical  order,  referring  the  reader  to  the  Glossarial  Index  for 
further  information.  It  is  as  follows,  omitting  a  few  which  seem  to 
have  been  marked  for  some  other  reason.  Alosed,  Bed,  Bent  (1.  219), 
Beurde,  Chees,  Cofly,  Deraine,  Derie,  Fete,  Fode,  Fonde,  Frotus, 
Gamus  (read  Gainus,)  Gist,  Gome,  Graithes,  Grathly,  Gremjpe,  Hendet 
Hendely,  Hote,  Ki\>e,  Kith,  Lache,  Laught  or  Laulit,  Lelich,  Mensk- 
full,  Of-soulite,  Pris,  Purlich,  Queme,  Rigge,  Rink  or  Renk,  JRode, 
Segges,  Spedly,  StigJitlich,  Swtye,  Trie,  To-rilites,  \)ristliclie,  firoliche, 
Ungome,  Watte,  Wowes,  Wus,  Teeme.  Nearly  all  of  these  were  cer- 
tainly as  unintelligible  to  most  men  two  hundred  and  fifty  years  ago- 
as  they  are  now,  though  some  may  exist  in  provincial  dialects. 
Several  of  them  may  have  been  unintelligible  even  a  century  earlier. 

§    4.     THE    STORY   OF    "  ALISAUNDER." 

The  contents  of  the  fragment  may  be  briefly  described  thus.  It 
commences  with  a  mention  of  Amyntas,  and  his  sons  Alexander  and 
Philip.  Philip  ascends  the  throne  of  Macedonia,  conquers  Larissa 
and  Thessalonica,  weds  Olympias,  sister  of  the  King  of  Molossis, 
takes  Methone,  and  helps  the  Thebans  against  the  Phocians  ;  all  of 
which  is  from  Radulphus,  Orosius,  and  like  sources.  This  portion 
includes  11.  1 — 451.  Then  begins  the  legend,  from  the  "  Historia  de 
preliis,"  occupying  the  portion  in  11.  452 — 899  ;  and  telling  how 
Nectanabus,  King  of  Egypt,  fled  in  disguise  from  his  own  country 


XXXVi  INTRODUCTION    TO    "  ALISAUNDER." 

for  fear  of  the  Persians,  and,  coming  to  Macedonia,  beguiled  Queen 
Olympias  by  his  magic  arts,  and,  personating  the  god  Ammon,1  be- 
came the  father  of  Alexander.  He  also  appeared  before  Philip's 
army  in  the  guise  of  a  dragon,  and,  fighting  for  him,  greatly  discom- 
fited the  Lacedaemonians  and  Phocians.  Next,  after  an  historical 
account  (11.  900 — 954)  of  the  occupation  of  the  Pass  of  Thermopylae 
by  the  Athenians,  and  of  Philip's  treachery  and  cruelty  towards  the 
Thebans,  we  return  to  the  legend  (11.  955 — 1201)  and  learn  how 
Philip  greeted  Olympias,  how  Nectanabus  appeared  once  more  as  a 
dragon  at  a  feast  given  by  Philip,  and  how  Philip  was  one  day  sur- 
prised to  find  that  a  bird  had  laid  an  egg  in 'his  lap,  out  of  which 
issued  a  serpent  which,  after  awhile,  tried  to  re-enter  the  egg-shell, 
but  died  before  it  could  do  so  ;  an  omen  that  Alexander  would,  die 
before  he  could  return  to  his  own  land.  Next  Alexander  is  born, 
and  carefully  educated.  One  evening  he  goes  out  with  Nectanabus  to 
view  the  stars,  and,  hearing  the  magician  say  that  he  feared  he  would 
die  by  the  hand  of  his  own  son,  drowns  him  in  a  ditch  to  prove  him 
a  liar;  but  the  drowning  man  cries  out  that  he  has  told  the  truth. 
Next  follows  the  story  of  the  taming  of  Bucephalus,  which  bears 
some  points  of  resemblance  to  the  story  of  the  taming  of  King 
Ebrouns'  horse  by  William  of  Palerne  (see  p.  107).  In  the  last 
paragraph  the  poet  returns  to  historical  details,  and  begins  to  narrate 
the  siege  of  Byzantium  by  Philip,  at  which  point  the  poem  abruptly 
ends. 

§  5.  This  is  not  the  place  to  discuss  the  long  and  difficult  ques- 
tion of  the  "  Alexander  Eomances."  Roughly  speaking,  the  form  of 
the  story  here  adopted — I  speak  of  the  legendary  portion — is  derived 
from  the  Greek  text  known  as  the  Pseudo-calUsthenes,  of  which  the 
best  MS.  is  the  one  now  numbered  1711  in  the  Imperial  Library  at 
Paris,  beginning — <l  Ol  cro^^Taroi.  AiyuTrnoi  6ewv  diroyovoi,  K.T.\.  "  J 
but  I  have  referred  in  the  notes  to  another  MS.  (Supplem.  No.  113) 
in  the  same  collection,  as  a  portion  of  this  latter  one  has  been  printed.1 

1  "  A  dragon's  fiery  form  belied  the  god ; 
Sublime  on  radiant  spires  he  rode, 
When  he  to  fair  Olympia  prest,"  &c. 

Dry  den ;  Alexander's  Feast. 
1  See  notice  on  p.  236. 


THE    DIALECT    OF   THE    POEMS.  XXXY11 

'The  three  principal  Latin  versions  hence  derived  are  (1)  that  by 
Julius  Valerius  ;  (2)  the  "  Itinerariurn  Alexandri  "  (relating  to  Alex- 
ander's wars) ;  and  (3)  that  by  the  Archpresbyter  Leo,  which  is  also 
known  as  the  "  Historia  de  preliis."  With  the  second  of  these  we 
have  here  nothing  to  do.  The  first  begins — "  ^gypti  sapientes,  sati 
genere  divino,"  &c.  ;  the  third  begins — "  Sapientissirni  Egyptii, 
scientes  mensuram  terrse,"  &c.  The  portion  supplied  to  complete  the 
story  at  p.  209  is  from  a  French  version,  as  contained  in  MS.  7517 
in  the  Imperial  library.  I  have  already  said  that  our  text  follows 
•the  third  rather  than  i\iQ  first  of  these  Latin  versions. 

For  further  information,  see  Zacher,  Pseudo-callisthenes,  Halle, 
1867 ;  the  editions  of  Julius  Valerius  by  Angelo  Mai  (Milan,  1817), 
and  Karl  Muller  (Paris,  1846)  ;  the  Old  High  German  version  edited 
by  H.  Weismann  (Frankfort-on-the-Main,  1850),  the  second  volume 
-of  which,  in  particular,  contains  much  information  ;  the  introduction 
to  Kyng  Alisaunder  in  Weber's  Metrical  Romances,  &c.  The  edition 
called  "  Li  Romans  d'Alixandre,  par  Lambert  li  Tors  et  Alixandre 
•de  Bernay,"  ed.  H.  Michelant,  and  published  by  the  Literary  Society 
of  Stuttgart  in  1846,  has  not  much  to  do  with  our  present  poem,  as 
it  declares  JSTectanabus  not  to  have  been  Alexander's  father.  I  have 
already  enumerated  the  alliterative  romances  extant  in  English. 
Besides  these  there  are,  in  rimed  metre,  the  "  Kyng  Alysaunder" 
printed  by  Weber,  and  other  poems  referring,  not  to  the  infancy  of 
Alexander,  but  to  his  acts  and  death,  such  as,  e.  g.,  "  The  Buik  of 
the  most  noble  and  vailzeand  Conquerour  Alexander  the  Great," 
printed  at  Edinburgh  for  the  Bannatyne  Club  in  1831,  being  a  reprint 
from  The  Romaunce  of  Alexander,  containing  the  Forray  of  Gad- 
deris,  first  printed  at  the  same  place  by  A.  Arbuthnot  in  1580. 
There  is  also  a  fragment  about  the  death  of  Alexander  in  "Ancient 
Metrical  Romances  from  the  Auchinleck  MS.";  Abbotsford  Club, 
1836 ;  and  there  may  be  others,  for  I  have  not  thought  it  necessary 
to  make  further  search. 

§    6.    ON    THE    DIALECT    OF    THE  POEMS. 

The  spelling  of  the  "Alisaunder"  being  uncertain  owing  to  the 
lateness  of  the  MS.,  it  is  not  necessary  to  say  more  about  its  dialect 


XXXviii  THE   DIALECT    OF   THE   POEMS. 

than  has  been  said  already.      The  following  remarks  refer,  therefore,, 
to  the  "Werwolf."1 

The  plurals  of  nouns  generally  end  in  -es,  but  there  are  several 
plurals  in  -us,  such  as  dedus;  in -is,  as  bestis  (1.  181),  and  tdlis  ;  in 
-ys,  as  buschys  (21) ;  in  -en,  as  stepchilderen,  eiyyen  (eyne,  eyes) ;  and 
even  in  -esse,  as  bodiesse,  lordesse  (4539),  hei^resse  (4778),  with 
which  should  be  compared  the  curious  spelling  antresse  for  antres  or 
aunteres  =  she  ventures.  The  plural  of  hors  is  the  same  as  the  sin- 
gular ;  the  plural  of  fo  is  "both/on  (ox  f one)  and/os.  Also  ken,  ldnr 
and  Tcyn  occur  for  Tcine.  The  genitive  singular  ends  commonly  in  -es, 
but  sometimes  in  -is,  as  in  godis  (266),  goddis  (254)  ;  cf.  goddes 
(340).  We  also  find  the  genitive  forms  fader,  moder,  doubter, 
William,  Marie,  sonne. 

As  regards  adjectives,  we  may  note  the  comparatives  herre,  nerre 
(higher,  nearer),  and  the  superlatives  frelokest  and  manlokest,  the 
former  of  which  is  used  adverbially.  The  endings  -ly  and  -liche  are 
used  both  for  adverbs  and  adjectives,  and  without  any  distinction. 
Eche  a  is  used  for  each;  selue  sometimes  has  the  sense  of  very 
(1149) ;  whilst  wiche  a  answers  to  the  German  was  fur,  what  sort  of 
a,  as  in  1.  3354.  ]5e  and  j>a  are  used  sometimes  for  \at ;  tyis  as  well 
as  fyise  is  used  to  mean  these  ;  ]>o  to  mean  those;  \ilk&  is  used  in  the 
plural,  and  swiclie  is  used  to  mean  such.  For  /,  the  forms  are  i,  y, 
ich ;  for  thou,  we  have  ]pou,  ]>ow,  ]>ouj ;  pi.  30  in  the  nominative, 
3020, 301*3,  ow  (1.  106)  in  the  dat.  and  accusative.  The  third  personal 
pronoun  is  he,  gen.  his,  is,  or  hise  ;  dat.  and  ace.  hym,  him  :  feminine, 
sche,  che,  $he  (and  hue  in  the  "  Alisaunder  ")  ;  gen.  dat.  and  ace.  her, 
hir,  here,  hire ;  neuter,  hit,  it ;  ace.  hit,  it.  Plural  nom.  Tpei,  ]>ai, 
\ey  ;  gen.  here,  her  ;  dat.  liem  (and  once  Ipaim) ;  ace.  hem.  Min  is  a 
possessive  pronoun,  as  min  hert,  min  avowe.  The  pronoun  of  the 
second  person  is  often  joined  on  to  the  verb,  as  in  artow,  Jcnowestoiu, 
bestow,  seidestow,  schaltow  or  schalstow,  findestow,  ivitow  or  wittow  ; 

1  I  apologize  for  the  slip-shod  name  here  given  to  the  poem,  and  which  is  here, 
and  elsewhere  throughout  the  volume,  used  for  brevity's  sake,  and  because  it  cannot 
be  mistaken.  It  is  an  abbreviation  of  "  William  and  the  Werwolf,"  the  title  used, 
by  Sir  F.  Madden  in  the  former  edition.  Strictly,  however,  the  true  title  is — 
William  of  Palerne. 


THE   DIALECT    OF    THE   POEMS.  XXXIX 

and  often  also  to  the  word  \at,  as  \cdou  or  \atow.     Ho  is  used  for 
who,  ho-so  for  who-so,  wlios  for  whose,  wham  for  whom. 

But  the  most  noticeable  and  distinctive  endings  are  found  amongst 
the  verbs,  and  I  pass  on  to  them  as  being  of  more  interest.  The  in- 
finitive ends  in  -en  or  -e,  but  occasionally  also  in  -y  or  -ye,  as  deseuy, 
•wonye;  cf.  derie  in  Alls.  1240.  In  the  present  tense,  2nd  person,  we 
iind  both-es£  and-es;  the  former  occurring  frequently,  as  in  lcu]>est  (603), 
Jcomest  (330) ;  examples  of  the  latter  are  trestes  (970),  Imoices  (1174). 
'They  seem  to  be  used  indifferently,  for  tellest  and  trestes  occur  in  the 
same  line,  and  hast  in  1.  604  is  followed  by  ]>ow  has  two  lines  lower. 
In  the  same  way,  we  find  grettes  and  mensTcfulles  written  for  grettest 
and  mensTif attest,  showing  that  the  pronunciation  of  the  t  was  very 
slight.  Besides  which,  the  vowel  may  have  been  pronounced  thickly 
or  indistinctly,  thus  accounting  for  such  a  form  as  clepus  (249).  In 
the  3rd  person  singular,  we  find  -es,  as  in  lenges  (961)  ;  -is,  as  in  hentis 
•(907) ;  and  -us,  as  in  sittus  (446) ;  as  well  as  -e\,  as  in  Tsiwwfy  (559). 
In  the  3rd  person  pi.  we  have  -un,  as  in  clepun  ;  -en,  as  in  \urlen  ;  -e, 
•as  in  singe ;  -us,  as  in  tellus  (198) ;  -es,  as  in  calles  (239),  longes 
{360).  The  following  are  examples  of  the  past  tense  singular ;  strong 
verbs,  gaf,  $ald,  founde,  sei^e,  lad,  dede,  horn,  rod,  lep,  aros,  &c. ; 
weak  verbs,  grette,  lerde,  pleide,  clipte,  praide,  clepud,  &c.  The 
plural  generally  ends  in  -en  or  -e,  but  the  -e  is  occasionally  dropped. 
Examples  are  blesseden,  gretten,  sewede,  come,  told  (1366).  But  we 
.should  especially  observe  the  endings  of  the  imperative  mood  plural, 
which  besides  the  ending  -eth,  as  in  preieth  (164),  sende])  (2068), 
wite\>  (2069),  troiue]>  (2112),  frequently  takes  the  ending  -es,  as  in 
listenes,  gretes,  mornes,  standes,  awakes,  fodes,  leses,  leues,  &c.  It  is 
worth  notice,  further,  that  the  very  same  word  takes  both  forms  ;  for 
we  find  both  preieth  and  prei^es  (which,  however,  is  written  prei^ed, 
5529),  listenes  and  lustenefy,  and  gretes  in  1.  355  is  followed  by  gretefy 
in  1.  35  9. !  We  should  also  especially  note  the  forms  of  the  present 
participle,  which  ends  in  -and,  as  deland,  wepand,  glimerand,  Hand, 
ligand,  Jourande,  liuand  ;  in  -end ,  as  touchend,  henend,  lastend,  slepend, 
hotend,  braundissende ;  occasionally  in  -inde,  as  lorfctnde,  efldnde, 

1  So  also  lenfyes,  4348 ;  leng)pe)p,  4353. 


x]  THE    DIALECT   OF   THE   POEMS. 

gapind;  and  sometimes  in  -ing.  Here  again,  the  same  word  takes  all 
the  forms ;  for  we  find  sikande,  &ikand,  sikende,  sikinde,  and  siking. 
The  more  usual  form  seems  to  be  in  -and,  "but  the  pronunciation  of 
the  a  seems  to  have  been  obscure,  and  we  may  consider  the  usual 
ending  to  be  'nd  ;  for  if  we  throw  the  accent  on  the  first  syllable,  it 
is  not  easy  to  enunciate  the  unaccented  vowel  very  clearly.  Examples 
of  past  participles  are  slawe,  side,  slayn,  schapen,  bi-hold,  portreide, 
gladed,  maked,  take,  arise  (1297),  lore  (1360),  lore,  seie,  sei^en, 
y-charged,  y-clepud.  The  ending  -e  in  the  infinitive  is  sometimes 
dropped.  For  the  forms  of  the  auxiliary  and  anomalous  verbs,  see 
the  glossary;  s.v.  Ben,  Can,  Dar,  Mot,  Mow,  Out,  Sclial,  Thort, 
Wite,  WoL  Here  also  numerous  forms  occur ;  e.  g.  the  present 
plural  of  to  be  is  ben,  bene,  bu]>,  arn,  and  aren. 

The  word  tie  often  coalesces  with  the  verb  following ;  hence  nis 
(ne  is),  nas  (ne  was),  nere  (ne  were),  natli  (ne  hath),  nadde  (ne 
hadde),  nel  (ne  wil),  nold  (ne  wold),  not  (ne  wot),  nist  (ne  wist). 

A  few  peculiarities  of  spelling  may  be  noted.  The  sh  sound  is 
denoted  both  by  sch  and  ch ;  hence  cliamly,  chold,  cliortly,  are  put 
for  scliamly,  sclwld,  schortly.  Also  scheche  is  written  for  seche.  C 
sometimes  takes  the  place  of  s,  as  in  piece,  sece,  wice.  Wli  is  written 
for  w,  as  in  wliar  (were),  and  widens.  Th  is  sometimes  used  where 
we  should  expect  t,  as  in  the  Romans  of  Partenay  ;  thus  wtythli  is 
put  for  wi$tli,  mi$th  is  used  to  mean  (7)  might.  V  is  sometimes 
found  for  a  final  u,  as  in  nov,  hov,  inov.  H  occurs  at  the  beginning 
of  words  where  it  should  not,  as  in  hordere,  hende  (end),  held  (eld, 
old  age).  JVis  prefixed  to  ei$,  ones,  o\er,  &c.,  thus  forming  nei$,  nones, 
no^er,  in  places  where  it  really  belongs  to  the  word  preceding.  ])e  is 
joined  sometimes  to  the  word  following,  as  in  femperour,  \er\e,  \ende. 
For  the  careful  and  exact  manner  (exact,  probably,  because  the  scribe 
did  it  without  thinking  and  as  a  matter  of  course),  in  which  nay  is 
distinguished  from  no,  and  ^e  from  $is,  see  the  Glossarial  Index.  For 
the  distinction  between  \ou  and  $e,  see  p.  xli. 

In  what  part  of  England,  then,  was  the  poem  written  1  The 
forms  seem  to  be  mainly  West  Midland,  with  admixture  both  of 
Northern  and  of  Southern  ones.  The  frequency  of  the  imperatives 
in  -es,  and  other  indications,  lead  Mr  Morris  to  call  it  a  specimen  of 


DISTINCTION    BETWEEN    "  THOU  "    AND    "  YE."  xli 

Shropshire  dialect,1  whilst  Sir  F.  Madden  subscribes  to  the  opinion  of 
Bryant,  that  it  may  belong  to  Gloucestershire ;  and,  indeed,  Gloucester 
is  the  only  place  which  is  mentioned  in  it.  There  is  also,  perhaps, 
some  significance  in  the  fact  that  the  MS.  contains,  besides  "  William 
of  Palerne,"  some  poems  that  have  been  attributed  to  Robert  of 
Gloucester.  In  either  case,  we  are  sure  of  the  locality  within  the 
compass  of  a  county  or  two,  and  may,  I  think,  call  it  West  Midland 
without  error,  though  the  exact  border  between  the  West  Midland  and 
Southern  cannot  be  expected  to  be  very  clearly  denned.  It  may  be 
remarked  that  both  Gloucester  and  Wheatenhurst  (where  Sir  Hum- 
phrey de  Bohun's  mansion  was  situated)  lie  close  to  the  important 
river  Severn,  and  it  is  possible  that  the  dialect  of  that  part  of 
Gloucestershire  may  have  been  affected  by  that  circumstance,  just  as 
we  often  trace  the  influence  of  the  Danish  element  near  our  sea-coasts. 
The  real  difficulty  consists  in  this,  that  it  is  hard  to  account  for  the 
use  of  the  Northumbrian  plural-ending  -es  at  a  place  situated  so  far 
to  the  South.  A  comparison  of  the  vocabulary  with  the  glossary  of 
Shropshire  words  in  Hartshorne's  Salopia  Antigua  shewed  less  re- 
semblance than  I  had  expected  to  find ;  yet  it  may  be  useful  to  men- 
tion that  his  list  contains  (and  sometimes  illustrates)  the  following 
words  in  particular,  viz. : — Bell  (vb.),  Chall  (=  Chaul),  Clip,  Clout, 
Cratch,  Delue,  Dever,  Earn  (Erne),  Gain  (cf.  Gaynest),  Haws, 
Heps  (Hepus),  Hye  (to  hasten),  Lap  (vb.),  Learn  (to  teach), 
Litherly  (Lifyerly),  Mase,  Pill  (vb.),  Rin,  Shows,  Sike,  Stive,  Thirl, 
Twinne,  War. 

§    7.    ON    THE   DISTINCTION   BETWEEN    "  THOU  "    AND    "YE." 

The  distinction  between  the  use  of  thou  and  ye  (with  their  ac- 
companying singular  and  plural  verbs)  is  so  well  kept  up  throughout 

1  Compare  Audelay's  poems  (in  the  Shropshire  dialect),  ed.  J.  0.  Halliwell,  for 
the  Percy  Society.  It  may  be  said  that,  if  the  scribe  of  "William  of  Palerne" 
lived  in  Gloucestershire,  he  may  yet  have  been  a  Shropshire  man ;  but  this  argu- 
ment loses  in  force  if  it  has  to  be  often  appealed  to  in  cases  of  difficulty.  We  must 
first  try  to  reconcile  the  evidence  we  possess,  before  rejecting  any  portion  of  it.  In 
the  present  instance,  the  MS.  is  a  very  good  one.  It  may  be  confidently  expected, 
however,  that  something  tolerably  definite  may  be  known  about  English  dialects  at 
no  very  distant  period,  and  the  present  question  may  be  then  more  easily  decided. 


Xlii  DISTINCTION    BETWEEN    «'  THOU  "    AND    "YE." 

these  poems  that  it  would  not  be  well  to  lose  so  good  an  opportunity 
of  pointing  it  out.  It  was  one  of  those  niceties  of  speech  which  it 
was  the  poet's  especial  business  to  observe.  The  clearest  way  of 
pointing  out  the  distinction  is  to  tabulate  the  best  examples  of  it. 

P.  13.  The  child,  addressing  the  emperor,  uses  ye,  you,  &c. 
P.  14.  Emperor  to  child — tlwu ;  child  to  his  (supposed)  father — ye; 
emperor  to  cowherd — thou.  P.  16.  Cowherd  to  child — thou.  P.  29. 
Alexandrine  to  Melior — ye;  Melior  to  Alexandrine — thou.  P.  30. 
Melior  to  William — thou.  Pp.  37 — 39.  Alexandrine  to  William, 
and  William  to  Alexandrine — thou.  P.  43.  William  to  emperor,  and 
lords  to  emperor — ye.  P.  50.  Messengers  to  Melior — ye.  P.  57. 
Melior  to  William,  after  betrothal — ye.  P.  73.  One  emperor  to 
another — thou.  P.  80.  Melior  to  William,  in  excitement — thou.  P. 
•81.  Melior  to  William,  in  submission — ye.  P.  92.  Melior  to 
William,  after  escaping  peril — thou.  P.  96.  Priest  to  queen — ye. 
P.  104.  Queen  to  her  handmaid — thou;  handmaid  to  queen — ye. 
P.  105.  Queen  to  William,  begins  with  ye  in  the  conventional  phrase 
"  }e  me  saye,"  but  otherwise  uses  thou,  until  she  has  virtually  abdi- 
cated in  William's  favour,  after  which  she  uses  ye,  p.  113,  and  espe- 
cially note  11.  3954,3955.  P.  126.  William,  now  of  high  rank,  to 
his  prisoner,  a  king — thou.  P.  129.  The  captive  king  to  the  queen 
— -ye.  P.  134.  King  to  William  (asking) — ye  ;  William  to  the  king 
{granting) — thou.  P.  136.  Messengers  to  the  Queen  of  Spain — ye; 
but  in  relating  William 's  message,  containing  rebukes  and  violent 
threats,  they  change  to  thou.  P.  142.  Queen  to  her  step-son — thou; 
but  in  putting  a  polite  question — 30  (1.  4460).  P.  144.  Alphouns 
to  William,  uses  the  conventional  phrase  "  crist  mot  $ou  saue  " — but 
otherwise  uses  thou.  He  is  answered  by  William  with  ye,  expressing 
the  utmost  deference,  and  asking  him  who  he  is.  This  is  sufficient  to 
show  that  thou  is  the  language  of  a  lord  to  a  servant,  of  an  equal  to 
an  equal,  and  expresses  also  companionship,  love,  permission,  defi- 
ance, scorn,  threatening ;  whilst  ye  is  the  language  of  a  servant  to  a 
lord,  and  of  compliment,  and  further  expresses  honour,  submission, 
entreaty.  Thou  is  used  with  singular  verbs,  and  the  possessive 
pronoun  thine  ;  but  ye  requires  plural  verbs,  and  the  possessive  your. 
In  the  "  Alisaunder  "  we  find  the  same  usages.  The  Prince  of  Persia 


DISTINCTION   BETWEEN    "  THOU  "    AND   "  YE."  xllii 

calls  the  King  of  Egypt — ye  ;  the  king  scornfully  replies  with  thou. 
The  same  Kectanabus,  who  "  speaks  lordly,"  and  is  too  proud  k>  call 
Queen  Olympias  Madam,  and  will  only  call  her  Lady,  audaciously 
addresses  her  as  thou,  but  there  are  in  one  or  two  places  exceptions 
which  shew  a  corruptness  in  the  text.  She  replies  with  thou,  as  a 
lady  should  who  would  preserve  her  dignity.  As  for  Alexander,  he 
coolly  uses  thou  to  everybody,  and  especially  to  his  father,  1.  1198, 
and  his  mother,  1.  1103.  Besides  the  insight  we  thus  get  into  our 
forefathers'  ways  of  speech,  this  investigation  may  serve  to  remind  us 
editors  that  we  are  not  to  mistake  you  for  tyou,  as  in  some  MSS.  is 
•easily  done,  and  that  the  frequent  interchange  of  the  forms  is  the  re- 
sult, not  of  confusion,  but  of  design  and  orderly  use. 

In  the  present  edition,  every  variation  of  spelling  has  had  its 
own  references  assigned  to  it  in  the  Glossary,  at  the  cost  of  no  small 
amount  of  labour ;  I  hope  this  may  prove  of  use  to  the  student  of 
our  old  English  orthoepy. 


ADDITIONAL  REMARKS. 


SINCE  'William  of  Palerne'  was  printed  in  1867,  the  whole  of 
the  French  poem,  mentioned  at  p.  iii,  §  3,  has  been  edited  by  M. 
Michelant,  and  can  now  be  compared  with  the  English  version. 

This  edition  was  printed  for  the  Societe  des  Anciens  Textes 
Fran<?ais;  Paris,  1876.  The  French  Romance  was  originally  written 
between  1188  and  1227,  and  contains  9600  lines.  The  MS.  is  in 
the  Arsenal  library  at  Paris  (Belles  Lettres,  no.  178). 

See  also  'Sprache  und  Dialekt  des  mittelenglischen  Gedichtes 
William  of  Palerne,'  by  Dr.  A.  Schiiddekopf,  Erlangen,  1886 ;  Eo- 
senthal's  remarks  on  Alliterative  Poetry  in  Anglia,  i.  414 ;  and  the 
comparison  of  the  French  and  English  versions  of  the  poem  by  M. 
Kaluca,  in  Englische  Studien,  iv.  197. 

In  my  preface  to  '  Alexander  and  Dindimus,'  p.  xi,  I  have  shewn 
that  it  has  been  proved  by  Dr.  Trautmann  that  my  former  view  as 
to  the  authorship  of  the  fragment  of  Alisaunder,  printed  in  the 
present  volume,  is  incorrect.  The  *  Alisaunder '  fragment  is  not  by 
the  same  author  as  William  of  Palerne ;  whilst,  on  the  other  hand, 
it  is  by  the  same  author  as  the  fragment  called  'Alexander  and 
Dindimus.'  See  further  in  the  same  preface. 

COREECTIONS  AND   EMEXDATIOXS. 

Page  xxix.  See  also  Werwolf  in  fares'  Glossary,  and  the 
numerous  references  to  lycanthropia  in  Burton,  Anatomy  of  Melan- 
choly, Part  I,  sect.  1,  mem.  1,  subsect.  4. 

P.  42, 1.  1069.  Dr.  Morris  points  out  that  ouergart  occurs  as  a 
substantive,  meaning  arrogance,  in  Seinte  Marharete,  ed.  Cockayne, 


ADDITIONAL   REMARKS. 

p.  1C,  1.  13.  See  also  Castle  of  Love,  ed.  Weymouth,  1.  993,  and 
Ormulura,  1.  8163.  Oucr-gart  also  occurs  as  an  adjective,  meaning 
arrogant  or  overweening.  "For  tho  God  seih  that  the  world  was  so 
over-gart"  i.  e.  for  when  God  saw  that  the  world  was  so  over- 
weening; Political  Songs,  ed.  Wright,  p.  341,  1.  391.  Hence  ouer- 
gart  gret  may  well  mean  overweeningly  or  excessively  great,  very 
large.  See  Mr.  Cockayne's  note  at  p.  106  of  Seinte  Marharete. 

P.  84,  1.  2520.  Mr.  Wedgwood  explains  cayreden  by  turned, 
i.  e.  charred,  and  thinks  that  we  here  have  the  etymology  of  to  char. 
But  cayreden  cannot  well  mean  charred  in  this  passage,  but  only 
'  carried.'  The  use  of  cay r en  for  carien,  to  carry,  is  curious,  but  not 
without  authority.  See  P.  Plowman,  B.  ii.  161,  where  most  MSS. 
have  fatiren,  but  two  MSS.  have  carien;  and  all  the  MSS.  have 
carien  in  the  same,  A.  ii.  132. 

P.  169;  lines  5346,  5347,  5348  of  William  of  Palerne  rime 
together.  This  was,  no  doubt,  unintentional. 

In  1.  396  of  Alisaunder,  the  reading  hem  is  necessary  to  the 
alliteration. 

GLOSSARY. 

Halde.     Add— pp.  hold,  902,  2006,  3243,  5242 ;  holden,  t217. 
Half.     Add— behalf,  4831 ;  pi.  balnea,  sides,  t344. 
Hap.     Add— pi.  happes,  tl07,  t385. 
After  Haue  add — Hauntes,  pr.  s.  F.  practices,  t815. 
Malskrid. — We  find  also,  in  the  very  old  glossary  (8th  century) 
printed  in  Wright's  Vocabularies,  vol.  ii,  p.  108,  the  entry— 
*  Fescinatio,  malscrung ' ;  where  Fescinatio  appears  -to  be  an 
error  for  fascinatio,  a  bewitching. 

By  an  unfortunate  mistake  on  my  part,  the  following  notes  by 
Sir  F.  Madden  reached  me  too  late  for  insertion  in  the  Glossary. 

"  Nones.  See  Glossarial  Remarks  on  La$amon,  v.  17304,  voL  iii. 
p.  492 ;  and  the  Glossary  to  Syr  Gawayne,  in  v.  Nonez. 

"Peter.  See  the  Glossary  to  Syr  Gawayne,  in  v.  Peter,  where 
other  instances  are  given." 


im  jof  f  alcrw ; 


or 


sift  %  »rtarlf. 


[Three  leaves  being  lost  at  the  beginning  of  the  MS.,  their  place  is  here  sup- 
plied from  the  French  Text.] 


[Nus  ne  se  doit  celer  ne  taire, 

sil  set  chose  qui  dole  plaire, 

kil  ne  le  desponde  en  apert ; 

car  bien  repont  son  sens  et  pert, 

qui  nel  despont  apertement 

en  la  presence  de  la  gent. 

por  ce  ne  voel  mon  sens  repondre, 

que  tot  li  mauvais  puissent  fondre  ; 

et  cil  qui  me  vaurront  entendre, 

i  puissent  sens  et  bien  aprendre.      10 

car  sens  celes  qui  nest  ois, 

est  autresi,  ce  mest  avis, 

com  maint  tresor  enferme  sont, 

qui  nului  bien  ne  preu  ne  font  ; 

tant  comme  il  soient  si  enclos, 

autresi  est  de  sens  repos  ; 

por  ce  ne  voel  le  mien  celer. 

ancois  me  plaist  a  raconter 

selonc  mon  sens  et  mon  memoire, 

le  fait  dune  anciene  estoire,  20 


[No  one  should  keep  it  to  himself  or  be 

silent, 
If  he  knows  something  that  will  plaase, 

But  should  declare  it  openly; 

For  he  hides  and  loses  his  knowledge 

Who  does  not  declare  it  openly. 

In  the  presence  of  people 

Wherefore  I  will  not  hide  my  knowledge 

That  all  the  wicked  may  come  to  naught : 

And  that  those  who  would  fain  hear  me 

May  be  able  to  learn  knowledge  and  what 

is  good. 
For  knowledge  hidden  and  unheard 

Is  just  like,  in  my  opinion. 
Many  treasures  that  are  shut  up. 
Which  do  good  or  advantage  to  no  one ; 
Just  as  they  are  when  thus  enclosed, 
So  is  it  with  concealed  knowledge; 
Wherefore  I  will  not  conceal  mine. 
Thus  it  pleases  me  to  recount 
According  to  my  knowledge  and  memory 
The  event  of  an  ancient  story. 


KING   EMBRONS    HAD    A    SON    NAMED    WILLIAM. 


qui  en  Puille  jadis  avint 
a  .i.  roi  qui  la  terre  tint. 

Li  rois  embrons  fu  apeles  ; 
mult  par  fu  grans  sa  poestes  ; 
bien  tint  em  pais  sa  region, 
et  mult  par  fu  de  grant  renon. 
moilher  avoit  gente  roine, 
gentix  dame  de  franche  orine ; 
et  fille  a  riche  empereor, 
qui  de  Gresse  tenoit  lounor.  30 

Felise  avoit  a  non  la  dame  ; 
mult  fu  amee  en  son  roiame. 
navoient  cun  tot  seul  enfant, 
petit  tousel,  ne  gaires  grant, 
de  .iiii.  ans  ert  li  damoisiax, 
qui  a  merveilles  estoit  biax. 
Guilliaumes  ot  lenfes  a  non, 
mais  la  roine  tout  par  non 
lot  a  .ii.  dames  commande, 
quele  amena  de  son  regne.  40 

Gloriande  est  lune  noumee, 
Acelone  ert  lautre  apelee. 
celes  le  commande  a  garder, 
a  enseignier  et  doctriner, 
moustrer  et  enseignier  la  loi, 
comme  on  doit  faire  fil  a  roi. 
en  eles  sest  asseuree, 
mais  traie  est  et  enganee, 
et  deceue  laidement ; 
mult  porres  bien  oir  comment.         50 
T  i  rois  Embrons  .i.  frere  avoit, 
•H  a  cui  li  regnes  escaoit ; 
et  cil  douna  tant  et  promist, 
et  tant  porchaca  et  tant  fist 
as  gardes  qui  lenfant  gardoient, 
que  dit  li  ont  quil  locirroient, 


That  happened  once  in  Apulia 

To  a  king  who  ruled  the  land. 

The  king  was  named  Embrons ; 

Very  exceeding  great  was  his  power; 

He  governed  well  his  country  in  peace, 

And  was  of  exceeding  great  renown. 

He  had  to  wife  a  beauteous  queen, 

A  gracious  dame  of  noble  origin  ; 

And  who  was  daughter  to  a  rich  emperor, 

Who  ruled  the  dominion  of  Greece. 

i'elice  was  the  lady's  name ; 

She  was  much  loved  in  her  kingdom. 

They  had  but  one  only  child, 

A  little  lad,  not  very  tall. 

The  prince  was  four  years  old, 

And  was  marvellously  fair. 

William  was  the  child's  name, 

But  the  queen  very  specially  (?) 

Has  entrusted  him  to  two  ladies 

Whom  she  brought  from  her  own  country. 

One  is  named  Gloriande. 

The  other  was  called  Acelone. 

To  these  she  entrusts  him,  to  keep  him, 

To  teach  and  instruct  him, 

To  shew  and  instruct  him  the  law. 

As  one  ought  to  teach  a  king's  son. 

In  them  she  confided. 

But  was  betrayed  and  defrauded 

And  deceived  shamefully ; 

You  shall  very  soon  hear  how. 

King  Embrons  had  one  brother, 

To  whom  the  kingdom  would  fall ; 

And  he  bribed  and  promised  so  much. 

And  so  contrived  and  managed 

With  the  guardians  who  kept  the  child, 

That  they  have  told  him  they  would  kill  it. 


A    WERWOLF    MAKES    OFF    WITH    WILLIAM. 


et  le  roi  meisme  ensement. 

ja  ont  porquis  lenherbement 

dont  il  andoi  mort  recevront, 

se  Diex  nel  fait,  li  rois  del  mont.     eo 

TT^n  Palerne  orent  sejorne, 

•*-*  un  mois  entier  en  la  cite, 

entre  le  roi  et  la  roine. 

desous  le  maistre  tor  marbrine, 

ot  .i.  vergier  merveilles  gent, 

tot  clos  de  mur  et  de  cyment ; 

si  ot  mainte  sauvage  beste. 

.i.  jor  par  line  haute  feste 

i  viiit  esbanoier  li  rois, 

si  chevalier  et  si  borjois ;  70 

et  maint  baron  i  ot  venu, 

la  roine  meisme  i  fu. 

celes  qui  lenfant  ont  en  garde, 

(cui  male  flambe  et  maus  fus  arde  !) 

lont  mene  avoec  lautre  gent ; 

mais  por  ce  ne  le  font  noient 

que  sel  seussent  la  dolour, 

qui  de  lenfant  avint  le  jor. 

Par  le  vergier  li  rois  ombroie, 
et  la  roine,  a  mult  grant  joie.      80 
mais  ne  sevent  com  lor  grans  dex 
lor  est  presens  devant  lor  ex. 
lenfes  florietes  va  cuellant, 
de  lune  a  lautre  va  jouant. 
atant  esgardent  la  ramee, 
saut  un  grans  leus,  goule  baee, 
a  fendant  vient  comme  tempeste ; 
tuit  se  destornent  por  la  beste ; 
devant  le  roi,  demainement, 
son  fil  travers  sa  goule  prent,  .         so 
fttant  sen  va  ;  mais  la  criee 
fu  apres  lui  mult  tost  levee. 

1* 


And  the  king  himself  at  the  same  time. 
They  have  already  provided  the  poison 
From  which  they  will  toth  receive  death, 
If  God,  king  of  the  world,  permits  it. 
In  Palermo  they  have  dwelt, 
A  whole  month  in  the  city, 
With  the  king  and  the  queen. 
Beneath  the  chief  marble  tower 
Was  an  orchard  wondrously  fair, 
All  enclosed  with  walls  and  mortar ; 
There  was  many  a  wild  beast  there. 
One  day,  on  a  high  festival, 
The  king  came  there  to  divert  himself. 
His  chevaliers  and  his  burgesses ; 
And  many  a  baron  had  come  there, 
The  queen  herself  was  there. 
Those  who  have  the  child  in  charge, 
(Whom  evil  flame  and  evil  fire  burn  !) 
Have  brought  him  along  with  the  rest ; 

But  they  would  have  done  nothing  of  the 

kind. 
Had  they  but  known  the  sorrow 

That  happened  that  day  because  of  the 

child. 
In  the  orchard  the  king  shades  himseil, 

And  the  queen,  wtyh  very  great  joy. 
But  they  know  not  how  their  great  grief 
Is  present  to  them,  before  their  eyes. 
The  child  goes  gathering  flowers, 
And  playing  from  one  to  the  other. 
Just  then  they  look  at  the  bushes, 
A  huge  wolf,  with  mouth  open,  leaps  in, 
Comes  in  at  the  opening  like  a  tempest; 
All  turn  aside  to  avoid  the  beast ; 
Before  the  king,  noiselessly, 
He  takes  his  son  across  his  mouth, 
And  then  makes  off;  but  the  cry 
Was  very  soon  raised  after  him. 


THE    WERWOLF    IS    PURSUED,    BUT    NOT    CAUGHT. 


lievo  li  dels,  lieve  li  cris 
del  fil  le  roi  qui  est  trais. 
la  roine  souvent  sescrie, 
"  aidies,  aidies,  Sainte  Marie  ! 
maisnie  au  roi,  que  faites  vos  ? 
ja  me  morrai  sil  nest  rescous  !  " 

Li  rois  demande  ses  chevax, 
et  fait  monter  tous  ses  vassax.  100 
toute  la  vile  si  esmuet, 
cascuns  i  keurt  plus  tost  quil  puet. 
li  rois  le  siut  a  esperon, 
le  gart  acaingnent  environ  ; 
mais  li  leus  ert  fors  saillis, 
a  la  campaigne  sestoit  mis  ; 
lenfes  souvent  sescrie  eVbrait, 
li  rois  lentent  qui  apres  vait. 
garde  sel  voit  monter  .i.  mont, 
de  tost  aler  sa  gent  semont,  no 

donques  se  par  efforcent  tuit, 
li  leus  a  tout  lenfant  sen  fuit. 
fuit  sen  li  leus,  et  cil  apres, 
qui  del  ataindre  sont  engres. 
desi  au  far  le  vont  chacant, 
il  saut  en  leve  a  tout  lenfant. 
le  far  trespasse,  perdus  lont 
li  rois  et  cil  qui  o  lui  sont ; 
ensi  sen  va  en  tel  maniere 
a  tout  lenfant  la  beste  fiere.  120 

li  rois  arriere  sen  retorne, 
mult  a  le  euer  et  triste  et  morno, 
de  -son  enfant  qua  si  perdu  ; 
a  la  cite  sont  revenu. 
T  a  roine  maine  tel  duel, 
-*-*  morte  voudroit  estre,  son  vuel ; 
pleure  sovent,  et  crie,  et  brait, 
a  la  beste  son  til  retrait. 


The  plaint  arises,  the  cry  arises 

Of  the  son  of  the  king  that  is  borne  away. 

The  queen  oftentimes  exclaims, 

"  Aid  me,  aid  me,  Holy  Mary  ! 

Ye  household  of  the  king,  what  do  ye  ? 

Now  I  shall  die  if  he  he  not  rescued  !  " 

The  king  calls  for  his  horses, 

And  makes  all  his  vassals  mount. 

All  the  town  is  in  commotion, 

Every  one  runs  as  quickly  as  he  can. 

The  king  follows  the  wolf  on  the  spur, 

Watches  him,  encircling  (him)  around. 

But  the  wolf  had  leapt  far  away, 

And  betaken  himself  to  the  plain  ; 

The  child  oft  cries  out  and  wails; 

The  king,  who  goes  after  him,  hears  him. 

Ho  looks  and  sees  him  mount  a  hill, 

Summons  his  men  to  come  quickly. 

Then  all  hasten  on  very  fast, 

The  wolf  flees  away  with  the  child. 

The  wolf  flees  away,  and  they  alter  him, 

Who  are  very  desirous  of  reaching  him. 

Unto  the  Far  [Straits  of  Messina]  they  chase 

him, 
He  leaps  into  the  water  with  the  child. 

He  crosses  the  Far,  they  have  lost  him. 

The  king  and  they  who  are  with  him ; 

Thus  in  such  a  manner,  flees  away 

The  wild  beast  with  the  child. 

The  king  returns  back,      . 

Very  sorrowful  and  sad  at  heart, 

For  his  child  whom  he  has  lost ; 

To  the  city  have  all  returned. 

The  queen  makes  such  a  mournhiK, 

She  would  fain  be  dead,  had  she  her  will ; 

She  weeps  often,  and  cries  and  wails, 

And  demand}  back  her  child  from  the  beast. 


THE    QUEEN  S    LAMENT    FOR   WILLIAM. 


"  fix,  clous  amis,"  fait  la  roine, 

"  tendre  bouche,  coulor  rosine,       iso 

chose  devine,  espiritex, 

qui  cuidast  que  beste  ne  lens 

vos  devorast !  dix,  quel  eur  ! 

lasse  !  por  eoi  vif  tant  ne  dur  ? 

fix,  on  sont  ore  ti  bel  oel, 

li  bel,  li  simple,  sans  orguel  1 

tes  frons  li  gens,  et  ti  bel  crin, 

qui  tuit  sambloient  fait  dor  fin  ? 

ta  tendre  face,  et  tes  clers  vis  1 

ha  cuers  !  por  coi  ne  me  partis?     HO 

quest  devenue  ta  biautes, 

et  tes  gens  cors,  et  ta  clartes  1 

tes  nes,  ta  bouche,  et  tes  mentons, 

et  ta  figure,  et  ta  facons, 

et  ti  bel  brae,  et  tes  mains  blanches, 

tes  rains  beles,  et  tes  hanches, 

tes  beles  jambes,  et  ti  pie  ; 

lasse  !  quel  duel  et  quel  pechie  ! 

ja  devoies  tu  estre  fais 

por  devises  et  por  sourhais  !  iso 

or  es  a  leu-garoul  peuture, 

li  miens  enfes,  quele  aventure  ! 

mais  je  ne  cuit,  por  nule  chose, 

beste  sauvage  soit  si  ose, 

qui  ton  gent  cors  ost  adamer, 

plaier,  sane  faire,  ne  navrer ; 

ne  cuit  que  ja  dame  dieu  place, 

ne  que  tel  cruaute  en  face  ! " 

Ensi  la  dame  se  demente,  • 
ensi  por  son  fil  se  gaimente,     ico 
ensi  le  ploure,  ensi  le  plaint, 
niais  tant  le  castoie  et  constraint 
li  rois,  que  tout  laissier  li  fait 
la  dolor  quele  maine  et  fait ; 


"  Son,  sweet  love,"  saith  the  queen, 

"  Tender  mouth,  rosy  colour, 

Thing  divine  and  spiritual, 

Who  could  believe  that  beast  or  wolf 

Could  devour  you  ?   0  God  !  what  fortune ! 

Alas !  wherefore  live  I  or  last  so  long  ? 

Son,  where  are  now  thy  beautiful  eyes, 

So  beautiful,  so  innocent,  without  pride  ? 

Thy  fair  forehead,  and  thy  lovely  hair, 

Which  seemed  all  made  of  fine  gold  ? 

Thy  tender  face,  and  thy  clear  looks  ? 

Oh  heart !  wherefore  hast  thou  not  left  me  ? 

What  is  become  of  thy  beauty, 

Thy  sweet  body,  and  thy  fairness  ? 

Thy  nose,  thy  mouth,  and  thy  chin, 

And  thy  form  and  fashion, 

And  thy  fair  arm,  and  thy  white  hands, 

Thy  fair  reins  and  thy  thiglis, 

Thy  fair  legs,  and  thy  feet; 

Alas  !  what  sorrow  and  what  fault ! 

Thou  oughtest  only  to  have  been  made 

For  pleasures  and  for  desires  ! 

Now  art  thou food  for  the  werwolf. 

My  child  !  what  a  mischance  ! 

But  I  cannot  believe,  on  any  account, 

A  wild  beast  would  be  so  daring 

As  to  hurt  thy  tender  body, 

To  wound  it,  make  it  bleed,  or  tear  it: 

I  cannot  believe  that  it  would  please  our 

Lord  God, 
Or  that  He  would  do  such  cruelty  to  it." 

Thus  the  lady  is  iu  despair, 
Thus  she  laments  for  her  son, 
Thus  she  weeps,  thus  she  complains  for  him. 
But  the  king  so  corrects  and  restrains  her, 
That  he  makes  her  altogether  leave  off 
The  grief  which  she  waa  continuing  and 
making; 


THE   WERWOLF   TAKES   CARE  OP   WILLIAM. 


Thus  the  lady  becomes  tranQuilized. 
But  now  it  is  right  for  me  to  tell  you 
About  the  wolf  that  fled  with  the  child. 
So  far  he  carries  it  both  day  and  night, 
And  traverses  so  much  ground, 


ensi  la  dame  se  rapaie. 
mais  or  est  drois  que  vos  retraie 
del  leu  qui  o  lenfant  senfuit ; 
tant  la  porte  et  jor  et  nuit, 
et  tante  terre  trespassee, 

que  pies  de  Eoume  en  la  COntree    170      That  in  the  country  near  Rome, 

en  une  grant  forest  sarreste, 
ou  ot  mainte  sauvage  beste. 
la  se  repose  .viii.  jors  entiers  ; 
lenfant  de  quanques  fu  mestiers 
li  a  porquis  la  beste  franche, 
conques  de  rien  not  mesestance. 
en  terre  a  une  fosse  faite, 
et  dedens  herbe  mise  et  traite, 
et  la  feuchiere  et  la  lihue, 
que  par  dedens  a  espandue. 
la  nuit  le  couche  joste  soi ; 
li  leus-garous  le  fil  le  roi 
lacole  de  ses  .iiii.  pies, 
si  est  de  lui  aprivoisies, 
li  fix  le  roi,  que  tot  li  plaist 
ce  que  la  beste  de  lui  fait ;] 

J*at  **  apertly  was  apayed  •  for  profite  bat  he  feld, 
&  [Wrou3t]  *  buxumly  by  be  bestes  wille  •  in  wise  as  it 
coube. 


180 


In  a  great  forest,  he  stops  ; 
Where  was  many  a  wild  beast. 
There  he  rests  for  eight  whole  days ; 
Whatever  the  child  had  need  of, 
The  noble  beast  provided  for  it, 
So  that  it  had  discomfort  in  nothing. 
In  the  ground  he  has  made  a  trench. 
And  in  it  placed  and  put  grass, 
And  also  fern  and  herbs  (?) 
Which  within  it  he  has  spread. 
At  night,  he  lies  down  near  him : 
The  werwolf  embraces  the  king's  son 
With  his  four  feet. 
And  so  familiar  with  him 
Is  the  king's  son,  that  all  pleases  him. 
Whatever  the  beast  does  for  him ;  J 


An  old  cowherd 
dwelt  in  the 
forest, 

who  kept  men's 
kine  there. 


He  came  by 
chance  to  the 
burrow  where  the 
Child  waa. 


TTit  bi-fel  in  J>at  forest  •  j)ere  fast  by-side, 

*•  \er  woned  a  wel  old  cherl  •  bat  was  a  coulierde,    4 
bat  fele  winterres  in  ]>at  forest  •  fayre  had  kepud 
Mennes  ken  of  be  cuntre  •  as  a  comen  herde ; 
&  bus  it  bitide  bat  time  •  as  tellen  cure  bokes, 
)>is  cowherd  comes  on  a  time  •  to  kepen  is  bestes         8 
Fast  by-side  be  borw}  •  fere  J>e  bam  was  inne. 
j>e  herd  had  wi]>  him  an  hound  •  his  hert  to  li^t, 

1  A  verb  is  evidently  wanting  to  complete  the  sense.     Perhaps 
we  should  read,  "And  wrouzt  buxumly  by  the  bestes  wille,  &c." — M. 


THE  COWHERD'S  DOG  FINDS  WILLIAM. 


12    He  sat  with  his 
dog,  and  clouted 
his  shoes. 


The  child  lay  hid 
in  the  den. 


forto  bayte  on  his  bestes  •  wanne  f  ai  to  brode  went. 
f  e  herd  sat  fan  wif  houwd  •  a}ene  f  e  hote  sunne, 
Nou^t  fully  a  furlong  *  fro  fat  fayre  child, 
clou^tand  kyndely  his  schon  •  as  to  l  here  craft  falles. 
fat  while  was  f  e  werwolf  •  went  a-boute  his  praye, 
what  behoued  to  fe  barn  *  to  bring  as  he  n^t.  16 

)>e  child  fan  darked  in  his  den  *  dernly  him  one, 
&  was  a  big  bold  barn  •  &  breme  of  his  age, 
•  For  spakly  speke  it  couf  e  tho  •  &  spedeliche  to-wawe. 
Lonely  lay  it  a-long  •  in  his  lonely  denne,  20 

&  buskede  him  out  of  f  e  buschys  *  fat  were  blowed 

grene, 

&  leued  ful  louely  •  fat  lent  grete  schade, 
&  briddes  ful  bremely  •  on  J>e  bowes  singe, 
what  for  melodye  fat  f  ei  made  *  in  f  e  mey  sesoun, 
fat  h"tel  child  listely  •  lorked  out  of  his  caue, 
Faire  floures  forto  fecche  •  fat  he  bi-fore  him  seye, 
&  to  gadere  of  f e  grases  •  fat  grene  were  &  fayre. 
&  whan  it  was  out  went  •  so  wel  hit  him  liked, 
f  e  sauor  of  f  e  swete  sesoura  *  &  song  of  f  e  briddes, 
fat  [he]2  ferde  fast  a-boute  *  floures  to  gadere, 
&  layked  him  long  while  •  to  lesten  fat  merf e. 
f  e  couherdes  hou?id  fat  time  *  as  happe  by-tidde, 
feld  foute  of  f  e  child  •  and  fast  f  ider  fulwes  ; 
&  sone  as  he  it  sei}  •  sof  e  forto  telle, 
he  gan  to  berke  on  fat  barn  *  and  to  baie  it  hold, 
fat  it  wax  nei$  of  his  witt  •  wod  for  fere, 
and  comsed  fan  to  crye  *  so  kenly  and  schille, 
&  wepte  so  wonder  fast    wite  f  ou  for  sothe, 
f  at  f  e  son  of  f  e  cry  com  •  to  f  e  cowherde  euene, 
fat  he  wist  witerly  it  was  •  f  e  voys  of  a  childe. 
fan  ros  he  vp  radely  *  &  ran  f  ider  swif  e, 
&  drow  him  toward  f  e  den  •  bi  his  dogges  noyce. 
bi  fat  time  was  f  e  barn  *  for  bere  of  fat  hourcde, 

IMS.  "afto." 

2  Read,  «  that  it  ferde,"  or  "  he  ferde."— M. 


Lured  by  the 
birds  and  by  the 
fair  flowers. 


28    he  came  out  and 
gathered  flowers, 
and  played 
about. 


32    The  dog  tracked 
him,  and  began  to 
bark 


36 


40 


[Fol.  4  &J 
The  child  was 
frightened,  and 
cried  out. 


The  cowherd 
followed  the  child 
to  the  den, 


8  THE   COWHERD    AND    HIS    WIFE  ADOPT   WILLIAM. 

drawe  him  in  to  his  den  '  &  darked  f  er  stille,  44 

&  wept  euere  as  it  wolde  •  a-wede  for  fere  ; 
&  euere  f  e  dogge  at  f  e  hole  •  held  it  at  a-baye. 

ana  looked  in.       &  whan  fe  kouherd  com  fid[er]e  l  •  he  koured  lowe 

to  bi-hold  iii  at  f  e  hole  •  whi  his  hoiwd  berkyd.         48 
f  anne  of-saw  he  ful  sone  •  fat  semliche  child, 
fat  so  loueliche  lay  &  wep  *  in  fat  lof  li  caue, 

He  saw  the  child   clobed  ful  komly  •  for  ani  kud  kinges  sone.  /t&P" 

lying  there  in 

clothes  of  gold.      In  gode  clofes  of  gold  •  a-grefed  ful  riche,  52 

wif  perrey  &  pellure  •  pertelyche  to  f  e  ri^ttes. 
f  e  cherl  wondred  of  fat  chaiwce  •  &  chastised  his  dogge, 

He  rebuked  his     bad  him  blinne  of  his  berking  •  &  to  f  e  barn  talked, 

the  child  to  come  acoyed  it  to  come  to  him  *  &  clepud-hit  oft,  56 

&  foded  it  wif  floures  •  &  wif  faire  by-hest, 
&  hi^t  it  hastely  to  haue  *  what  it  wold  ^erne, 
appeles  &  alle  f  inges  •  fat  childern  after  wilnen. 

The  child  came     so,  forto  sen  al  be  sobe  •  so  faire  be  cherl  Closed.         60 

out,  and  he  took 

it  in  his  arms,       fat  f  e  child  com  of  f  e  caue  *  &  his  criyiige  stint. 
fe  cherl  ful  cherli  fat  child  •  tok  in  his  armes, 
&  kest  hit  &  clipped  •  and  oft  crist  fonkes, 
fat  hade  him.  sent  f  o  sonde  •  swiche  prey  to  finde.     G4 

and  took  it  home   wi^tliche  wif  f  e  child  *  he  went  to  his  house, 
and  bi-tok  it  to  his  wif  •  ti^tly  to  kepe. 
a  gladere  wommora  vnder  god  •  no  n^t  go  on  erf  e, 

she  asked  the       fan  was  f  e  wif  wif  f  e  child  •  witow  for  sof  e.  68 

child  its  name,  ,       -in-,..,,,,.     ,, 

and  it  said,          sche  kolled  it  ful  kindly  --and  askes  is  name, 

&  it  answered  ful  sone  •  &  seide,  "  william  y  hi^t." 
fan  was  f  e  godwif  glad  •  and  gan  it  faire  kepe, 
fat  it  wanted  nou3t  •  fat  it  wold  haue,  72 

[Foi.5.]        fat  fei  ne  fond  him  as  faire  ••  as  for  here  state  longed, 
children  oftheir    &  ^e  ^ei&r,  be  ye  sure  •  for  barn  ne  had  fei  none 
own,  brou^t  forf  of  here  bodies  ;  •  here  bale  was  f  e  more. 

^Ut  8°^ly  ^ai  Sei(ie  ^e  cllilcl  '  sclml(i  weld  al  here  gQ(iis5 
Londes  &  ludes  as  eyer  •  after  here  lif  dawes.  77 

but  from  f  e  cherl  &  f  e  child  *  nov  chaunge  we  oure  tale, 
1  Read  "  thidere."—  M. 


THE   WERWOLF   FINDS  THE    CHILD    GONE. 

For  i  wol  of  f  e  werwolf  •  a  wile  nov  speke. 

TTThanne  f  is  werwolf  was  come  *  to  his  wolnk l  denne, 
'    &  hade  bro^t  bilfoder  *  for  fe  barnes  mete,        81 
fat  he  hade  wonne  with  wo  *  wide  wher  a-boute, 
fan  fond  he  nest  &  no  nei3  *  for  nou3t  nas  f  er  leued. 
&  whan  f  e  best  f  e  barn  missed  •  so  balfully  he  g[r]innef  ,2 
fat  alle  men  vpor*  molde.  •  no  mi3t  telle  his  sorwe.     85 
For  reuliche  gan  he  rore  •  &  rente  al  his  hide, 
&  fret  oft  of  f  e  erf  e  •  &  fel  doun  on  swowe, 
&  made  fe  most  dool  •  fat  man  mijt  diuise.  88 

&  as  fe  best  in  his  bale  •  f  er  a-boute  wente, 
he  fond  f  e  feute  al  fresh  •  where  forf  f  e  herde 
hadde  bore  fan  barn  •  beter  it  to  3eme. 
wijtly  f  e  werwolf  *  fan  went  bi  nose  92 

euene  to  f  e  herdes  house  •  &  hastely  was  fare, 
fere  walked  he  a-boute  f  e  walles  *  to  winne  in  sijt ; 
&  at  f  e  last  lelly  *  a  litel  hole  he  findes. 
fere  pried  he  in  priuely  •  and  pertiliche  bi-holdes       96 
hov  hertily  f  e  herdes  wif  •  hules  fat  child, 
&  hov  fayre  it  fedde  •  &  fetisliche  it  baf  ede, 
&  wroujt  wif  it  as  wel  *  as  3if  it  were  hire  owne. 
fanne  was  fe  best  blif  e  i-nov  •  for  fe  barnes  sake,    100 
For  he  wist  it  schold  be  warded  •  wel  fanne  at  f  e  best. 
&  hertily  for  fat  hap  *  to-heuene-ward  he  loked, 
&  f  roliche  f  onked  god  •  mani  f  ousand  sif  es, 
&  seff  en  went  on  is  way  *  whider  as  him  liked ;      104 
but  whiderward  wot  i  neuer  •  witow  for  sof  e. 
ak  nowf e  36  fat  arn  hende  *  haldes  ow  stille, 
&  how  fat  best  ferwe  bale  *  was  brou3t  out  of  kinde, 
I  wol  3ou  telle  as  swife  •  trewly  fe  sofe.  108 


9 


When  the 
werwolf  returned, 
he  found  the  nest. 
but  no  eygy  in  it. 


He  roared,  rent 
his  hide,  and 
swooned. 


Scon  he  found  the 
cowherd's  track, 


and  went  to  his 
house. 


Looking  through 
a  hole,  he  saw 
how  well  the 
child  was  being 
tended, 


and  thanked  God, 
and  went  his  way. 


Listen  and  hear 
how  he  became  a 
werwolf. 


Werwolf  was  he  non  •  wox  of  kinde,  [Foi.  s  &.] 

He  was  of  noble 
ac  komerc  was  he  of  kun  •  fat  kud  was  ful  nobul ;     birth,  for  his 

For  f  e  kud  king  of  spayne  *  was  kindely  his  fader.          Of  Spain. 
1  Sic  in  MS  ;  read  wlonk  ?  Cf.  11.  468,  1634.          2  See  note. 


10 


HOW   PRINCE   ALPHONSE   BECAME   A   WERWOLF. 


This  king's  first 


and  he  married 

the  daughter  of 

the  prince  of 


a  lady  skilled  in 

witchcraft,  named 

Braunde. 


she,  seeing  her 

stepson's  boauty 


never  be  king. 


128 


harm  her  stepson, 


anointed  him 


bad  his  wit 


he  gat  him,  as  god  $af  grace  •  on  his  ferst  wyue,       112 

&  at  jje  burf  of  fat  barn  •  f  e  bold  lady  deyde. 

sif  f  en  fat  kud  king  so  *  bi  his  conseyl  wrout, 

another  wif  bat  he  wedded  •  a  worchipful  ladi, 

f  e  princes  doubter  of  portingale  *  to  prone  f  e  sof  e.   116 

but  lelliche  fat  ladi  in  ^oufe  •  hadde  lerned  miche 

schame, 

For  al  f  e  werk  of  wicchecraft  •  wel  y-nou^  che  00113  f  e, 
nede  nadde  ^he  namore  *  of  nigramauncy  to  lere. 
Of  coninge  of  wicche-craft  *  wel  y-nouj  she  cousde,    120 
&  brauwde  was  fat  bold  quene  •  of  burnes  y-clepud. 
f  e  kinges  fnrst  child  was  fostered  •  fayre  as  it  ou^t, 
&  had  lordes  &  ladies  *  it  lonely  to  kepe, 
&  fast  gan  fat  frely  barn  •  fayre  forto  wexe. 
j>e  quene  his  moder  on  a  time  *  as  a  mix  f  oust,  v 
how  faire  &  how  fetis  it  was  *  &  freliche  schapen. 

&  ^is  )&ime  t011^  sche  f10^  '  1?ai  ii}  no  schuld 
kuuere  to  be  king  J?er  •  as  J>e  kinde  eyre, 

whille  J?e  kinges  ferst  sone  •  were  ]?er  a-liue. 

^an  s*u^ied  sche  stifly  •  as  stepmoderes  wol  alle, 

to  do  dernly  a  despit  '  to  here  stepchilderen  ; 

FeJ>li  a-mong  fonre  schore  *  vnnefe  findestow  on  gode. 

but  truly  tijt  hadde  ]?at  quene  •  take  hire  to  rede     133 

to  bring  Jjat  barn  in  bale  *  botles  for  euer, 

J>at  he  ne  schuld  wi^tli  in  Jns  world  •  neuer  weld  reaume. 

a  noyneme7it  anon  scne  made  •  of  so  grete  strengfe,  136 

bi  enchauwme/is  of  charmes  *  fat  euel  chaunche  hire  tide, 

fat  whan  fat  wommaw  f  er-wi^t  *  hadde  fat  worli  child 

ones  wel  an-oynted  f  e  child  •  wel  al  a-bowte, 

he  wex  to  a  werwolf  '  wi^tly  fer-after,  140 

al  f  e  making  of  maw  •  so  mysse  hadde  $he  schaped. 

ac  his  witt  welt  he  after  •  as  wel  as  to-fore, 

but  lelly  of  er  likenes  •  fat  longef  to  maw-kynne, 

but  a  wilde  werwolf  •  ne  wait  he  neuer  after.  144 

&  whanne  f  is  witty  werwolf  •  wiste  him  so  schaped, 

he  knew  it  was  bi  f  e  craft  •  of  his  kursed  stepmoder, 


24   ,/ 

<• 


PRAY  FOR  SIR  HUMPHREY  DE  BOHUN  ! 


11 


>    " 


&  f  oujt  or  he  went  a-way  •  he  wold  }if  he 

wayte  hire  sum  wicked  torn  •  what  bi-tidde  after.     148 

&  as  bliue,  boute  bod  •  he  braydes  to  f  e  quene, 

&  hent  hire  so  hetterly  *  to  haue  hire  a-strangeled, 

fat  hire  deth  was  nei}  di^t  •  to  deme  J>e  sof  e. 

but  carfuli  gan  sche  crie  •  so  kenely  and  lowde,         152 

fat  maydenes  &  mi^thi  men  •  manliche  to  hire  come, 

&  wolden  brusten  f  e  best  •  nad  he  be  f  e  li^ttere, 

&  fled  a-way  f  e  faster  *  in-to  ferre  londes, 

so  fat  pertely  in-to  poyle  *  he  passed  fat  time,          156 

as  fis  fortune  bi-fel  •  fat  i  told  of  bi-fore  ; 

f  us  was  fis  witty  best  *  werwolf  ferst  maked. 

but  now  wol  i  stint  a  stounde  •  of  fis  sterne  best, 

&  tale  of  fe  tidy  child  •  fat  y  of  told  ere.  160 


He  sought  to 
avenge  himself, 


and  tried  to 
strangle  her. 

She  cried  out,  and 
he  fled, 


and  went  to 
Apulia. 


We  now  return  to 
the  child. 


f us  passed  is  f e  first  pas  •  of  fis  pris  tale, 
&  $e  fat  louen  &  lyken  •  to  listen  a-ni  more, 
aile  wi^th  on  hoi  hert  *  to  f  e  hei}  king  of  heuene 
preieth  a  pater  noster  •  priuely  fis  time  164 

for  f  e  hend  erl  of  herford  •  sir  humfray  de  bowne, 
f  e  king  edwardes  newe  •  at  glouseter  fat  ligges. 
For  he  of  frensche  fis  fayre  tale  •  ferst  dede  translate, 
In  ese  of  englysch  men  •  in  englysch  speche ;  168 

&  god  graunt  hem  his  blis  •  fat  godly  so  prayen  ! 


Here  ends  the 
first  Passus. 


Pray  for  Sir 
Humphrey  de 
Bohun,  earl  of 
Hereford,  who 
caused  this  tale 
to  be  translated. 


Leue  lordes,  now  listenes  •  of  fis  litel  barn,  rhe  cowherd's 

wife  took  care  of 
fat  f  e  kmde  kowherde-wif  •  keped  so  fayre.  wuiiam, 

$he  wist  it  as  wel  or  bet  •  as  $if  it  were  hire  owne,  1 72 

til  hit  big  was  &  bold  *  to  buschen  on  felde, 

&  couf  e  ful  craftily  •  kepe  alle  here  bestes, 

&  bring  hem  in  f  e  best  lese  •  whan  hem  bi-stode  nede, 

&  wited  hem  so  wisly  •  fat  wanted  him  neuer  one.  176 

a  bowe  al-so  fat  bold  barn  •  bi-gat  him  fat  time, 

&  so  to  schote  vnder  f  e  schawes  •  scharplyche  he  lerned,  He  leamt  to 

fat  briddes  &  smale  bestes  •  wif  his  bow  he  quelles 


who  grew  up  as  a 
herdsman. 


12 


THE    EMPEROR    OF    ROME  LOSES    HIS    WAY. 


[Foi.  e  6.] 
and  brought  home 

conies  and  hares. 


He  had  many 

young  comrades, 


with  whom  he 

always  shared 

what  he  shot. 


so  plenteousliche  in  his  play  •  fat,  pertly  to  telle,     180 

whanne  he  went  horn  eche  ni^t  *  wif  is  droue  of  bestis, 

fa  com  him-self  y-charged  •  wif  conyng  &  hares, 

wif  feeauna  &  feldfares  •  and  of  er  foules  grete  ; 

fat  f  e  herde  &  his  hende  wif  *  &  al  his  hole  meyne    1  84- 

f  at  bold  barn  wif  his  bo  we  •  by  fat  time  fedde. 

<fc  jit  hadde  fele  felawes  •  in  f  e  forest  eche  day, 

TIT 

jong  bold  barnes  •  fat  bestes  al-so  keped. 

&  blife  was  eche  a  barn  •  ho  best  mi^t  him  plese,     188 

&  folwe  him  for  his  fredom  *  &  for  his  faire  f  ewes. 

for  wnat  bing  willam  wan  •  a-day  wib  his  bo  we, 

were  it  fef  ered  foul  *  or  foure-foted  best, 

ne  wold  f  is  william  neutjr  on  •  wif  -hold  to  him-selue, 

til  alle  his  felawes  were  ferst  •  feffed  to  here  paie.     193 

so  kynde  &  so  corteys  •  comsed  he  fere, 

fat  alle  ledes  him  louede  *  fat  loked  on  him  ones  ; 

&  blesseden  fat  him  bare  •  &  brou^t  in-to  f  is  worlde, 

so  moche  manhed  &  murf  e  •  schewed  fat  child  euere. 


one  day,  the 

emperor  of  Rome 

rode  out  to  hunt, 


and  found  a 


The  emperor  lost 

his  way  in  the 

forest. 


Riding  along,  he 
chasing  a  hart, 


Tjit  tidde  after  on  a  time  •  as  tellus  oure  bokes,      198 

iA  ag  j,js  fold  barn  fog  bestes  •  blyfeliche  keped, 

f  e  riche  emperour  of  rome  *  rod  out  for  to  hunte 

In  fat  faire  forest  •  feif  ely  for  to  telle, 

wif  alle  his  menskful  meyne  *  fat  moche  was  &  nobul. 

fan  fel  it  hap  fat  f  ei  foiwde  •  ful  sone  a  grete  bor, 

&  huntyng  wif  hound  &  horn  •  harde  alle  sewede.  204 


fe  emperowr  entred  in  a  wey  •  euene  to  attele 

to  haue  bruttenet  fat  bor  *  &  f  e  abaie  sef  f  en  ; 

but  missely  marked  he  is  way  •  &  so  manly  he  rides, 

fat  alle  his  wies  were  went  •  ne  wist  he  neuer  winder. 

so  ferforf  fram  his  men  •  fef  ly  for  to  telle,  209 

fat  of  horn  ne  of  hourad  •  ne  mijt  he  here  sowne, 

&,  boute  eny  liuing  lud  •  left  was  he  one. 

f  emperour  on  his  stif  stede  •  a  sty  forf  fanne  takes  212 

to  herken  after  his  houndes  •  of  er  horn  schille  ; 

BO  komes  f  er  a  werwolf  •  rijt  bi  fat  way  f  enne, 


. 


HE   FINDS    WILLIAM,  AND    QUESTIONS   HIM.  13 

grimly  after  a  gret  hert  •  as  bat  god  wold, 

&  chased  him  burth  chaiwce  *  bere  be  child  pleide,  216 

bat  kept  be  kowherdes  bestes  *  i  carped  of  bi-fore.  [Foi.  ?.] 

bemperour  banne  hastely  •  bat  huge  best  folwed  He  followed 

J       r  them,  but  lost 

as  stiffuly  as  is  stede  *  mi^t  strecche  on  to  renne  ;  sight  of  both. 

but  by-ban  he  com  by  bat  barn  •  &  a-boute  loked,    220 

be  werwolf  &  be  wilde  hert  •  were  a-weye  bobe, 

bat  he  ne  wist  in  bis  world  *  were  bei  were  bi-come, 

ne  whiderward  he  schuld  seche  •  to  se  of  hem  more. 

but  banne  bi-held  he  a-boute  •  &  bat  barn  of-seye,    224  Then  he  beheld 

i  r>  •     i  ,.  ,         .,  o     f>     I-   t  i  William,  and 

hov  fair,  how  letys  it  was  •  &  frehche  schapen ;  wondered  at  his 

so  fair  a  si$t  of  seg  •  ne  sawe  he  neuer  are,  iess> 

of  lere  ne  of  lykame  *  lik  him  nas  none, 
ne  of  so  sad  a  semblant  •  bat  euer  he  say  wib  ei3yen.  228 
bemperour  wend  witerly  •  for  wonder  of  bat  child,  thinking  Mm  of 

fairy  birth. 

bat  fei3bely  it  were  of  feyrye  •  for  fairenes  bat  it  welt, 
&  for  be  curteys  curatenaurace  *  bat  it  kudde  ]>ere. 


E 


i^tly  benne  bemperour  *  wendes  him  euene  tille,  232  wniiam  greets 
be  child  comes  him  agayn  •  &  curtesliche  him  gretes. 
In  hast  bemperour  hendely  •  his  gretyng  him  ^eldes, 
and  a-non  rhttes  after  •  askes  his  name,  who  asks  him-nw 

name  and 

&  of  what  kin  he  were  kome  •  komanded  him  telle.  236  kindred. 

be  child  banne  soberliche  seide  •  "  sir,  at  ^oure  wille 

I  wol  3ow  telle  as  tyt  •  trewely  alle  be  sobe. 

william,  sire,  wel  y  wot  •  wi^es  me  calles ;  n^J"iam  fa  m7 

I  was  bore  here  fast  bi  •  by  bis  wodcs  side.  240 

a  kowherde,  sire,  of  bis  kontrey  •  is  my  kynde  fader,        £tch°Jr'herd  is  my 

and  my  menskful  moder  *  is  his  meke  wiue. 

bei  han  me  fostered  &  fed  *  faire  to  bis  time, 

&  here  i  kepe  is  kyn  •  as  y  kan  on  dayes ;  244 

but,  sire,  by  cnst,  of  my  kin  •  know  i  no  more." 

Avhan  bemperour  l  hade  herd  *  holly  his  wordes, 

he  wondered  of  his  wis  speche  *  as  he  wel  n^t, 

&  seide,  "  bow  bold  barn  *  biliue  i  be  praye,  248 

1  Head  "  themperour."     The  bar  across  the  p  is  deficient. — M. 


14 


THE   COWHERD   COMES   TO    THE   EMPEROR. 


"  Go,  call  the 
cowherd,"  said 
the  emperor. 

"  Nay,  sir,  it  may 
turn  to  his  hurt" 


[Fol.  7  b.] 

"  Rather,  it  may 
turn  to  his 
profit." 


"I  will  trust 
your  word  for 
that." 


William  tells  the 
cowherd  that  a 
great  lord  would 
speak  with  him. 


"  Did  you  tell 
him  I  was  here?" 


"  He  promised 
your  safetj ." 


The  emperor  asks 
the  cowherd  if  lie 
has  ever  seen  the 
emperor. 


Go  calle  to  me  fe  cowherde  •  f  ow  clepus  f  i  fadere, 
For  y  wold  talk  [wif]  him1  •  tifinges  to  frayne." 
"nay,  sire,  bi  god,"  qua])  fe  barn,  "be  36  ri3t  sure, 
bi  cn'st,  fat  is  krowned  *  heye  king  of  heuen,  252 

For  me  non  harm  schal  he  haue  •  neuer  in  his  liue  ! " 
"  ac  perauenture  Jnirth  goddis  [grace] 2  •  to  gode  may  it 

turne, 

For-])i  bring  him  hider  *  faire  barn,  y  preye."  255 

"  I  schal,  sire,"  seide  f  e  child  •  "  for  saufliche  y  hope  3 
I  may  worche  on  $our  word  •  to  wite  him  fro  harm." 
"  $a,  safliche,"  seide  f  emperour  •  "  so  god  }if  me  ioie  ! " 
f  e  child  witly  f  anne  wende  •  wif -oute  ani  more, 
comes  to  f  e  couherdes  hows  *  &  clepud  him  sone ;   260 
For  he  fei^liche  wen[d] 4  *  fat  he  his  fader  where ; 
&  seide  fan,  "  swete  sir  •  s[o]  }ou  criste  help  ! 
Go)>  yond  to  a  gret  lord  •  fat  gayly  is  tyred, 
&  on  jje  feirest  frek  •  for  sofe  fat  i  haue  seie ;          264 
and  he  wilnes  wi^tli  *  wif  ^ou  to  speke  ; 
For  godis  loue  gof  til  him  swif  e  •  lest  he  agreued  wex." 
"  what  ?   sone,"  seide  f  e  couherde  •  "  seidestow  i  was 

here?"  267 

"  $a,  sire,  sertes,"  seide  j>e  child  '  "  but  he  swor  formest 
fat  ^e  schuld  haue  no  harm  •  but  hendely  for  gode 
he  praide  $ou  com  speke  wif  him  *  &  passe  a-^ein  sone." 
f  e  cherl  grocching  forf  gof  •  wif  f  e  gode  child,     j 
&  euene  to  f  emperour  *  f  ei  etteleden  sone.  \^^     272 
f  emperour  a-non  ri^t  *  as  he  him  of-seie, 
clepud  to  him  f  e  couherde  •  &  curteysly  seide ; 
"now  telle  me,  felawe,  be  fi  fei^f  -for  no  fing  ne 

wonde, 
sei  fou  euer  f  emperour  *  so  fe  crist  help?"  276 


1  The  sense  and  cadence  of  the  line  seem  to  require  "  with  ff 
before  "  him." — M. 

2  Read  "  thurth  goddis  grace."— M. 

8  MS.  for  y  saufliche  y  hope,  where  there  seems  to  be  ay  too  much. 
4  See  note. 


THE  EMPEROR  QUESTIONS   THE   COWHERD. 


15 


"  nay,  sire,  bi  crist,"  qua]?  f  e  couherde  •  "  fat  king  is 

of  heuew, 

I  nas  neuer  $et  so  hardi  *  to  ne^h  him  so  hende 
fere  i  schuld  liaue  him  seie  •  so  me  wel  tyme."         279 
"  sertes,"  fan  seide  f  emperour  •  "  f  e  sof  e  forto  knowe, 
fat  y  am  fat  ilk  weijh.  •  i  wol  wel  f ou  wite ; 
al  f  e  regal  of  rome  *  to  ri^tleche  y  weld, 
f  erfore,  couherde,  i  f  e  coniure  •  &  comande  att  alle, 
bi  vertu  of  f  ing  fat  f  ou  most  •  in  f  is  world  louest,    284 
f  atow  telle  me  ti^tly  *  truly  f  e  sof  e, 
whef  er  f  is  bold  barn  •  be  lelly  fin  owne, 
of  er  corner  of  of  er  kin  •  so  f  e  cn'st  help  !  " 
f  e  couherd  comsed  to  quake  •  for  kare  &  for  drede  288 
whanne  he  wist  witerly  *  fat  he  was  his  lorde, 
&  biliue  in  his  hert  be-f  out  •  }if  he  him  gun  lye, 
he  wold  prestely  perceyue  •  pertiliche  him  font, 
f  er-fore  trewly  as  tyt  *  he  told  him  f  e  sof  e,  292 

how  he  him  fond  in  fat  forest  *  fere  fast  bi-side, 
clothed  in  comly  clof ing  •  for  any  kinges  sone, 
vnder  an  holw  ok  •  f  urth  help  of  his  dogge, 
&  how  faire  he  hade  him  fed  *  &  fostered  vij  winter, 
"bi  cn'st,"  seide  f  emperour  •  "y  con  fe gret  fonke,  297 
fat  f  ou  hast  [seide]  l  me  f  e  sof  e  •  of  f  is  semly  childe, 
&  tine  schalt  f  ou  nou$t  fi  trawayle  •  y  trow,  at  fe 

kst! 

ae  wend  schal  it  wif  me  *  witow  for  sof  e,  300 

Min  hert  so  harde  wilnes  •  to  haue  f  is  barne, 
fat  i  wol  in  no  wise  *  f  ou  wite  it  no  lenger." 
whan  f  emperour  so  sayde  *  sof  e  forto  telle,         jJjb/***  '• 
f  e  couherde  was  in  care  •  i  can  him  no-f  ing  white.  304 
ac  witerly  dorst  he  nou^t  werne  •  f  e  wille  of  his  lord, 
but  grauwted  him  goddeli  •  on  godis  holy  name, 
Forto  worchen  his  wille  •  as  lord  wif  his  owne. 
whan  william  f  is  worf  i  child  •  wist  f  e  sof  e, 
and  knew  fat  f  e  cowherde  *  nas  nou^t  his  kinde  fader, 

1  Read  "  thou  hast  seide  me  the  sothe."— M. 


"  Nay,  sir,  at  no 
time." 


"  Know  that  I 
am  he ; 


and  I  command 
you  to  tell  me  the 
truth. 


Is  this  child 
yours  ? " 


[Fol.  8.] 
The  cowherd 
began  to  quake, 


and  told  him  all 
the  truth. 


"  I  thank  you  for 
telling  me  true ; 


the  child  shall  go 
with  me." 


The  cowherd 
grieved,  but  dared 
not  refuse. 


16 


THE  COWHERDS  ADVICE  TO  WILLIAM. 


William  began 

to  lament  sorely, 

and  said, 


"i  know  not  my 

birth  nor  my 

destiny,  and  am 

much  beholden  to 

this  man  and  his 


"Cease  from  thy 
emperor, 


[Foi.  s  6.] 

"  thou  shall 

requite  thy 

friends." 


The  cowherd  then 

counselled 

William 


to  be  no  teller  of 
to  take  the  part 

of  poor  men, 


and  to  be  faithful 
speech; 


»  lesson  which 

the  cowherd  had 

learnt  from  his 


}ie  was  wi^tliche  a-wondered  *  &  gan  to  wepe  sore, 

.  .  ,_ 

&  seide  saddely  to  hun-self  •  sone  f  er-after, 
"a  !  gracious  gode  god  !  *  £0113  grettest  of  alle  !        312 
Moch  is  f  i  mercy  &  f  i  mi^t  •  f  i  menske,  &  f  i  grace  ! 
now  wot  f  neuer  in  f  is  world  •  of  wham  y  am  come, 
ne  what  destene  me  is  di$t  •  but  god  do  his  wille  ! 

,  .,      ,  .  •    /»  -i  oi/» 

ac  wel  y  wot  wittffly  •  wif-oute  am  faile,  316 

to  f  is  ma/i  &  his  meke  wif  •  most  y  am  holde  ; 
For  f  ei  ful  faire  han  me  fostered  •  &  fed  a  long  time, 
fat  god  for  his  grete  mi^t  •  al  here  god  hem  3eld.      319 
but  not  y  neuer  what  to  done  *  to  weride  f  us  hem  fro, 
fat  han  al  kindenes  me  kyd  *  &  y  ne  kan  hem  ^elde  !  " 
"  hi  stille,  barn,"  quaf  f  emperour  *  "  blinne  of  f  i  sorwo, 
Por  y  hope  fat  hal  pi  kin  *  hastely  here-after,  323 

^if  pou  wolt  ^eue  pe  to  gode  *  swiche  grace  may  ]>e  falle, 
hat  alle  bi  frendes  fordedes  •  faire  schalstow  quite." 
"  2a,  sire,     quaj)  ]?e  couherde,   "  }if  crist  wol  •  fat  cas 

may  tyde, 

&  god  lene  him  grace  •  to  god  man  to  worf  e." 
&  fcan  as  tit  to  be  child  *  he  taiut  bis  lore.  328 

&  seide,  "  f  ou  swete  sone  *  sef  f  e  foil  schalt  hennes 

wende, 

whanne  f  ou  komest  to  kourt  •  amo/zg  f  e  kete  lordes, 
&  knowest  alle  f  e  kuf  fes  *  fat  to  kourt  langes, 
bere  fe  boxumly  &  bonure  •  fat  ich  burn  fe  loue.     332 
be  meke  &  mesurabul  *  nou^t  of  many  wordes, 
be  jio  tellere  of  talis  •  but  trewe  to  f  i  lord, 
&  prestely  for  pore  men  •  prefer  f  e  euer, 
For  hem  to  rekene  wif  f  e  riche  *  in  ri^t  &  in  skille.  336 
be  fei^tful  &  fre  *  &  euer  of  faire  speche, 
&  seruisabul  to  fe  simple  *  so  as  to  fe  riche, 
&  felawe  in  faire  manere  •  as  falles  for  f  i  state  ; 
so  schaltow  gete  goddes  loue  *  &  alle  gode  mennes.  340 
Leue  sone,  f  is  lessouft  •  me  lerde  my  fader, 
fat  knew  of  kourt  f  e  f  ewes  •  for  kourteour  was  he  kwg, 
&  hald  it  in  f  i  hert  •  now  i  f  e  haue  it  kenned  ; 


WILLIAM'S  MESSAGE  TO  HIS  PLAYMATES. 
fe  bet  may  fe  bi-falle  •  f  e  worse  bestow  neuere."      344 


17 


|<%e  child  weped  al-way  •  wonderliche  fast, 

J     but  f  emperour  had  god  game  •  of  fat  gomes  lore, 

&  comande l  f  e  couherde  *  curteysli  and  fayre,          347 

to  heue  vp  fat  hende  child  •  bi-hinde  him  on  his  stede. 

&  he  so  dede  deliuerly  •  f  ou}!!  him  del  fou^t,  <;  •• 

&  bi-kenned  him  to  crist  •  fat  on  croice  was  peyned. 

f  anne  fat  barn  as  biliue  •  by-gan  for  to  glade 

fat  he  so  realy  schuld  ride  *  &  redeli  as  swif  e  352 

Eul  curteisle  of  f  e  couherde  *  he  cacces  his  leue, 

&  sef f en  seyde,  "  swete  sire  •  i  bes[e]che 2  $ou  nowf  e, 

For  godes  loue,  gretes  ofte  •  my  godelyche  moder, 

fat  so  faire  ha]?  me  fed  •  &  fostered  till  nowfe.          356 

&  lellyche,  $if  our  lord  wol  •  fat  i  liif  haue, 

sche  ne  schal  iiou3t  tyne  hire  trauayle  *  treuly  for  sof  e. 

&  gode  sire,  for  godes  loue  •  also  gretef  wel  oft 

alle  my  freyliche  felawes  •  fat  to  f is  forest  longes,    360 

han  pertilyche  in  many  places  •  pleide  wif  ofte, 

hugonet,  &  huet  •  fat  hende  litel  dwerf ,3 

&  abelot,  &  martynet  •  hugones  gaie  sone ; 

&  f  e  cn'sten  akarin  •  fat  was  mi  kyn  fere,  364 

&  f  e  trewe  kinnesman  *  f  e  payenes  sone, 

&  alle  of er  frely  felawes  •  fat  f ou  faire  knowes, 

fat  god  mak  hem  gode  men  •  for  his  mochel  grace." 

of  f  e  names  fat  he  nemned  •  f  emperour  nam  hede,  368 

&  had  gaynliche  god  game  *  for  he  so  grette  alle 

of  his  ccwpers  fat  he  knew  •  so  curteysliche  &  faire. 

&  fan  be-kenned  he  f  e  kouherde  •  to  cn'st  &  to  hal 

alwes, 

&  busked  forf  wif  fat  barn  •  bliue  on  his  gate.         372 
f  e  kouherde  kayred  to  his  house  •  karful  in  hert, 
&  nei^  to-barst  he  for  bale  •  for  f  e  barnes  sake. 
&  whan  his  wiif  wist  •  wittow  for  sof  e, 

1  In  1.  236  we  have  "  komanded ;"  but  see  the  note. 

2  MS.  "  befche."     Read  "  beseche."— M.  3  See  note. 

2 


The  emperor  tells 
the  cowherd  to 
set  William  on 
his  horse, 


and  the  child  was 
pleased  to  think 
he  should  ride 
royally. 


William  bids  the 
cowherd  farewell, 


and  sends  a 
message  to  his 
foster-mother, 


and  to  his  old 
playmates, 

[Pol.  9.] 
Hugonet, 
and  Huet,  Abelot, 
Martynet,  and 
Akarin, 


and  all  the  rest. 


The  emperor  then 
rides  away. 


The  cowherd  goes 
home,  very 
sorrowful, 


18  THE    EMPEROR   BRINGS   WILLIAM    TO    ROME. 

how  fat  child  from  here  warde  •  was  wente  for  euer-morc, 
and  his  wife         i>er  nis  man  on  bis  mold  *  bat  mht  half  telle  377 

weeps  most 

bitterly.  f  e  wo  &  f  e  weping  •  fat  womman  made. 

sche  wold  haue  sleie  hire-self  fere  •  sof  ly,  as  bliue, 
ne  hade  f  e  kind  kouherde  •  conforted  here  f  e  betere, 
<fe  pult  hire  in  hope  to  haue  •  gret  help  f  er-of  after.  381 

NO  more  of  them  but  trewely  of  hem  at  fis  time  •  f  e  tale  y  lete, 

of  f  emperour  &  f  e  bold  barn  •  to  bigynne  to  speke. 


The  emperor 

finds  hie  men, 


and  the  spoil 
which  they  had 


All  wondered  at 
seeing  the  child, 


whicn,  said  the 
emperor, "  God 
had  sent  him." 

[Fol.  9  &.] 

He  rides  to  Rome, 
and  alights  at  his 
palace. 


Now  the  emperor 
had  a  dear 
daughter 


of  the  same  age 
as  William, 

named  Melior. 


To  her  care  the 
emperor  com- 
mends William, 


T  ordes,  lustenef  her-to  •  }if  3011  lef  f  inkes  !  384 

•**•  f  emperour  blif  e  of  f  e  barn  *  on  his  blonk  rides 

Fast  til  fe  forest,  til  he  fond  •  al  his  fre  ferd, 

fat  hadde  take  fat  time  •  moche  trye  game, 

bof  e  bores  &  beres  •  fele  hors  charge,  388 

hertes  &  hindes  •  &  of  er  bestes  manye. 

&  whan  f  e  loueli  ludes  *  seie  here  lord  come, 

f  ei  were  geinliche  glad  •  &  gretten  him  faire, 

but  alle  a-wondered  f  ei  were  *  of  f  e  barn  him  bi-hinde, 

so  faire  &  so  fetyse  it  was  *  &  freliche  schapen  ;        393 

&  freyned  faire  of  f  emperour  •  whar  he  it  founde  hadde. 

he  gaf  hem  answere  a-gayn  •  fat  god  it  him  sent, 

of  er- wise  wist  non  •  where  he  it  founde.  396 

fan  rod  he  forf  wif  fat  rowte  •  in-to  rome  euene, 

&  euer  fat  bold  barn  *  by-hinde  him  sat  stille. 

so  passed  he  to  f  e  paleys  •  and  presteliche  a-li^t,       399 

&  william  fat  choys  child  •  in-to  his  chaumber  ledde. 

a  dere  damisele  to  dorter  •  f  is  emperour  hadde  f  anne. 

of  alle  fasouw  f  e  fairest  *  fat  euer  freke  sei^e, 

&  witerly  willmm  &  ^he  •  were  of  on  held, 

as  euene  as  ani  wijt  •  schuld  attely  bi  aijt.  404 

&  fat  menskful  mayde  •  melior  was  hoten, 

a  more  curteyse  creature  •  ne  cunnyngere  of  hire  age, 

was  nou3t  f  anne  in  f  is  world  •  fat  ani  wijt  knewe. 

f  emperour  to  fat  mayde  •  mekliche  wendef ,  408 

&  william  fat  worf i  child  •  wif  him  he  ladde, 

and  seide,  "  dere  doubter  •  y  do  f  e  to  wite, 


WILLIAM    IS    COMMITTED    TO    MELIOR's    CARE. 


19 


his  meeting  with 
the  child, 


I  haue  a  pris  presant  •  to  plese  wib  bi  hert.  saying  he  has 

brought  her  a 

haue  here  fis  bold  bam  *  &  be  til  him  meke,  412  rich  present; 

&  do  him  kepe  clenly  •  for  kome  he  his  of  gode  ; 

1  hent  bis  at  hunting  *  swiche  hap  god  me  sent ;" 

&  told  here  banne  as  tit  •  treweli  al  be  sobe, 

how  he  hade  missed  is  mayne  •  &  malskrid  a-boute,  416  relating  to  her 

the  whole  story 

&  how  be  werwolf  wan  him  bi  *  wib  a  wilde  hert,  about  the 

&  how  sadly  he  him  sewed  *  to  haue  slayn  bat  dere, 

til  bei  hadde  brou^t  him  fere  *  bat  barn  bestes  kept, 

&  how  sone  of  his  sei^t  •  be  bestes  sebben  ware  ;       420 

&  how  be  couherde  com  him  to  •  &  was  a-knowe  be  sobe, 

how  he  him  fond  in  bat  forest  •  ferst,  fat  faire  child, 

&  how  komeliche  y-clobed  •  for  ani  kinges  sone  ; 

&  how  be  kouherde  for  kare  •  cuwzsed  to  sorwe,        424  the  cowherd's 

whanne  he  wold  wif  be  child  •  wende  him  frorame  j 

&  how  boldely  fat  barn  •  bad  f e  couherde  f anne 

to  grete  wel  his  gode  wiif  •  &  gamely  ber-after 

alle  his  freliche  felawes  •  bi-forn  as  i  told.  428 

"  &  f  er-fore,  my  dere  doubter  "  •  f  emperour  seide, 

"  For  mi  lof  loke  him  wel  •  for  lelly  me  f  inkes, 

bi  his  menskful  maneres  *  &  his  man-hede, 

fat  he  is  kome  of  god  kin  •  to  crist  y  hope ;  432 


and  William's 
messages  to  his 
step-mother  and 
comrades. 


"  Love  him  well, 
for  I  suspect  he 
is  of  noble  kin; 


[The  next  folio  (Fol.  10)  being  lost, 
the  French 

[car  mult  par  est  et  biax,  et  gens, 
de  cors,  de  vis,  et  de  faiture. 
encor  orrons,  par  aventure, 
de  quex  gens  est  estrais  et  nes. 
ma  douce  fille,  or  retenes 
lenfant  que  je  vos  amain  ci." 
"  ce  soit  la  vostre  grant  merci," 
dist  meliors,  "  biau  sire  chiers, 
je  le  retieng  mult  volentiers." 
puis  prent  lenfant  et  si  lenmaine,    10 
en  la  soie  chambre  demaine, 


its  place  is  here  supplied  from 
text.] 

For  he  is  very  fair  and  handsome 

In  body,  in  face,  and  in  fashion. 

We  shall  yet  hear,  peradventure, 

Of  what  kin  he  is  descended  and  born. 

My  sweet  daughter,  now  take  care  of 

The  child  whom  I  here  bring  you." 

"  Great  thanks  are  due  to  you  for  this," 

Said  Melior,  "fair  father  dear; 

I  take  care  of  him  very  willingly." 

Then  she  takes  the  child  and  leads  him  aw»y- 

Brings  him  into  her  chamber, 


20 


WILLIAM    DEMEANS    HIMSELF    COURTEOUSLY, 


uns  dras  li  a  fait  aporter, 
sel  fait  vester  et  conreer. 

Quant  des  dras  fu  apareillies, 
et  a  sa  guise  fu  chaucies, 
or  fu  si  gens  et  si  tres  biax 
et  si  apers  li  damoisiax, 
con  ne  recourast  son  pareil, 
desos  la  clarte  du  soleil, 
de  sa  biaute,  de  sa  semblance, 
et  meliors,  qui  tant  ert  france, 
li  a  fait  par  .i.  sien  sergant 
aporter  le  mangier  devant. 
et  cil  manga  qui  fain  avoit, 
or  revient  auques  a  son  droit. 
por  cou  se  il  est  fix  de  Roi, 
nest  desonors,  si  com  ie  croi, 
sil  sert  a  cort  dempereor, 
et  pucele  de  tel  valor 
com  meliors  estoit  la  bele. 
ensi  remest  o  la  pucele 
GmHiaumes,  com  poes  oir ; 
mult  se  paine  de  li  servir 
et  des  autres  tous  ensement. 
mult  si  acointe  belement, 
si  com  li  horn  qui  nestoit  mie 
norris  en  cort  nentre  maisnie, 
mais  auques  le  prueve  nature, 
et  il  sor  tote  creature 

Sentente  et  tot  SOn  CUer  Velt  metre  40    Gives  attention  and  puts  his  whole  heart 

a  quanque  se  doit  entremetre. 
nus  damoisiax  de  nul  service 
a  cort  si  haute  ni  si  riche. 
fTlant  i  a  lenfes  son  cuer  mis, 
J-   et  tant  entendu  et  apris, 
quancois  que  fust  passes  li  ans, 
fu  il  si  prex  et  si  sachans, 


Has  a  robe  brought  for  him, 

And  has  him  clothed  and  well  cared  for, 

When  he  was  dressed  in  the  robes, 

And  fittingly  provided  with  shoes. 

So  gracious  and  so  very  fair 

And  so  frank  was  the  boy, 

That  his  equal  could  not  be  met  with. 

Beueath  the  light  of  the  sun, 

20   For  his  beauty,  for  his  appearance. 
And  Melior,  who  was  so  bountiful, 
Caused  one  of  her  servants 
To  carry  a  repast  before  him. 
And  he,  being  hungry,  ate  it, 
And  returned  then  to  his  duty. 
Wherefore  if  he  is  a  king's  son 
'Tis  no  dishonour,  as  I  believe, 
If  he  serves  at  the  emperor's  court 
And  (serves)  a  damsel  of  such  worth, 

30   As  was  Melior  the  beautiful. 
Thus  remained  with  the  damsel 
William,  as  you  may  hear  ; 
Much  pains  he  takes  to  serve  her 
And  all  the  others  likewise. 
Very  excellently  he  demeans  himself, 
Like,  indeed,  a  man  who  had  never  been. 
Nourished  in  court  or  household, 
But  nature  also  proves  him, 
And  he,  above  every  creature, 


To  whatever  he  ought  to  undertake. 
There  was  no  youth,  in  any  service, 
So  high  and  so  rich  at  court. 
The  child  so  gave  his  attention  there, 
And  understood  and  learnt  so  much, 
That  before  the  year  was  passed, 
He  was  so  yiudent  and  so  wise, 


AND    GROWS    UP   BELOVED    BY    ALL. 


21 


quil  nest  horn  qui  le  puist  reprenclre, 

tant  i  sache  garder,  nentendre 

de  riens  nule  que  veoir  sace,  50 

que  riens  mesprenge  ne  mefface. 

oi  aves  pieca  retraire, 

que  li  oisiax  de  gentil  aire 

safaite  meisme  aparlui, 

tot  sans  chastiement  dautrui ; 

comme  vos  ci  oir  poes, 

fiest  si  Guilliaumes  doctrines. 

T?nsi  Gmlliaumes  est  a  cort, 

-^  a  tos  desert  que  on  lounort, 

ne  fait  riens  qui  doie  desplaire.        eo 

mult  par  est  frans  et  debonnaire, 

servicables,  cortois,  et  prous, 

•et  mult  se  fait  amer  a  tous, 

et  larges  de  quanquavoir  puet. 

•et  sachies  bien,  pas  ne  lestuet 

a  chastoier  de  ses  paroles, 

queles  soient  laides  ne  foles, 

mais  asises  et  delitables. 

si  set  plus  desches  et  de  tables, 

•doisiax,  de  bois,  de  chacerie,  70 

que  nus  qui  soit  en  Lombardie, 

nen  toute  la  terre  de  Eome ; 

ma  vallet_,  fil  a  liaut  home, 

na  riche  prince  natural — 

quant  Gmlliaumes  siet  a  cheval, 

lescu  au  col,  el  poing  la  lance — 

tant  par  soit  de  fiere  semblance, 

si  gens,  ne  si  amanevis ; 

ne  sai  que  plus  vos  en  devis ; 

que  tuit  samblent  a  lui  vilain,         so 

et  li  lombart  et  li  remain. 

bien  samble  a  tos  estre  lor  sire 

en  tot  le  regne  nen  lempire. 


That  no  one  could  reprove  him 

(So  well  can  he  take  care),  nor  perceive 

For  anything  that  he  could  see, 

That  he  mistook  or  misdid  anything. 

Ye  have  long  ago  heard  say 

That  the  bird  of  gentle  hreed 

Learns  even  by  himself, 

Without  correction  by  another ; 

Even  as  ye  here  may  hear, 

William  thus  taught  himself. 

Thus  William  lives  at  the  court, 

He  deserves  that  all  should  honour  him, 

And  does  nothing  to  displease. 

He  is  very  frank  and  amiable, 

Serviceable,  courteous,  and  prudent, 

And  makes  himself  much  loved  by  all, 

And  (he  is)  bounteous  as  far  as  he  is  able. 

And  know  well,  there  is  no  need 

To  correct  him  for  his  words, 

Which  are  neither  rude  nor  silly, 

But  staid  and  pleasing. 

He  knew  more  of  chess  and  tables, 

Of  hawking,  of  the  woods,  of  the  chase, 

Than  any  one  in  Lombardy, 

Or  in  all  the  territory  of  Rome ; 

There  is  no  lad,  son  to  a  great  man, 

Nor  rich  prince  by  birth 

(When  William  sits  on  his  horse, 

Shield  on  his  neck,  lance  in  his  fist), 

Can  be  of  such  fierce  appearance, 

So  gracious,  nor  so  dexterous ; 

I  know  not  that  I  can  tell  you  more  about  it 

So  that  all  seem  plebeian  beside  him. 

Both  Lombard  and  Roman. 

He  seems  to  be  the  lord  of  them  all 

In  all  the  kingdom  and  empire. 


22 


THE    LADIES    ALL    SET    THEIR   LOVE    ON    WILLIAM. 


ni  a  .i.  seul,  ne  bas  ne  haut, 

a  cui  il  soit,  de  ce  me  vant(?), 

des  biens,  de  lui  que  la  gens  conte  ; 

chascuns  en  fabloie  et  raconte. 

tous  li  pueples,  communement, 

et  lempereres  ensement 

li  porte  honor,  aime,  et  tient  chier  90 

comme  le  fil  de  sa  moillier  ; 

et  quant  il  va  en  esbanoi, 

toudis  maine  GuilKemwe  o  soi ; 

en  grant  afaire  ou  en  besoing 

tos  jors  iva,  soit  pres  ou  loing. 

et  cil  del  regne  denviron, 

li  grant  signor  et  li  baron, 

por  lamor  a  lempereor, 

laiment  et  portent  grant  honor, 

et  plus  encor  por  sa  franchise,        100 

dont  chascuns  tant  le  loe  et  prise. 

et  ke  diroie  des  puchieles, 

des  dames  et  des  damoisieles  1 

certes,  et  se  diex  me  doinst  joie, 

ne  cuit  que  nule  qui  le  voie 

ne  qui  son  los  oie  retraire, 

tant  par  i  soit  de  haut  afaire, 

bele,  cortoise,  ne  prisie, 

nestraite  de  haute  lignie, 

ne  sage,  orgeilleuse,  ne  cointe,        no 

qui  ne  vausist  estre  sa-cointe  ! 

"Mult  a  boin  los  par  la  contree, 

""*•  par  tot  en  va  sa  renoumee. 

si  fut  a  cort  .iii.  ans  tos  plains 

Guilh'awTwes  entre  les  Remains, 

com  vos  dire  maves  oi, 

forment  crut  et  bien  enbarni ; 

et  devint  gens  li  damoisiax, 

et  fors  et  aformes  et  biax  ; 


There  is  no  one,  low  or  high, 

Who  possesses— whereof  I  boast  (?)— 

The  virtues,  which  people  relate  of  him; 

Every  one  speaks  of  them  and  tells  them. 

All  the  people,  in  common  (honour  him), 

And  the  emperor,  in  like  manner, 

Honours,  loves,  and  holds  him  dear 

As  the  son  of  his  own  wife ; 

And  when  he  goes  out  for  amusement, 

He  always  takes  William  with  him; 

In  great  affairs,  or  in  case  of  need, 

Always  he  goes  there,  whether  near  or  far. 

And  those  of  the  country  round  about, 

The  great  lords  and  barons, 

For  love  of  the  emperor, 

Love  and  greatly  honour  him, 

And  still  more  for  his  bounty, 

For  which  every  one  praises  and  esteems  him. 

And  what  can  I  say  of  the  maidens, 

Of  the  ladies  and  the  damsels  ? 

Certes,  so  God  give  me  joy, 

I  believe  there  is  none  who  sees  him 

Or  bears  his  praise  told, 

Of  however  great  consideration  she  may  be. 

However  fair,  courteous,  and  estimable. 

However  noble  by  birth, 

However  wise,  proud,  or  clever, 

But  she  wishes  to  be  his  love  ! 

He  has  great  good  praise  in  the  country, 

Everywhere  spreads  his  renown. 

Thus  at  the  court  three  full  years 

Was  William,  among  the  Romans, 

As  ye  have  heard  me  tell, 

Well  grown  and  of  good  stature ; 

And  the  youth  became  gracious, 

And  strong  and  of  fine  form  and  fairr 


AIELIOR  S    HEART    TURNS    TOWARDS    WILLIAM. 


23 


de  la  chambre  est  merveilles  bien  ;  120    In  the  chamber  he  is  \ery  admirable ; 

les  puceles  sur  tote  rien, 

por  sa  franchise  et  sa  valor, 

li  portent  mult  tres  grant  honor. 

Quant  meliors  la  debonaire 
ot  del  vallet  le  los  retraire, 
et  les  grans  biens  qui  en  lui  sont, 
et  voit  quil  na  si  bel  el  mont, 
ne  damoisel  de  sa  valor, 
fil  de  roi  ne  dempereor, 
ne  de  si  boine  renoumee, 
trestot  son  cuer  et  sa  pensee 
tot  maintenant  vers  lui  atorne. 
or  est  si  tres  pensive  et  morne 
quele  nentent  a  autre  chose, 
son  cuer  reprent  et  blasme  et  chose, 
et  dist  so  vent,  "  cuers  !  que  as  tu  1 
quas  tu  esgarde  ne  veu, 
que  tout  mi  oel  moustre  ne  fait, 
qui  mas  embatue  en  cest  plait  ? 
que  je  ne  sai  que  puisse  avoir, 
ne  quel  error  me  fait  doloir, 
ne  plaindre  plus  que  je  ne  suel. 


The  maidens  above  everything, 
For  his  frankness  and  his  valour, 
Accord  him  very  great  honour. 
When  Melior  the  amiabl* 
Hears  the  praise  of  the  lad  told, 
And  the  great  goodness  that  is  in  him, 
And  sees  there  is  none  in  the  world  so  fair, 
No  youth  of  his  worth, 
(Whether)  son  of  king  or  of  emperor, 
130    Nor  any  of  such  good  renown, 
Soon  her  heart  and  her  thought 
Very  quickly  turns  she  towards  him. 
Then  she  is  so  very  sad  and  sorrowful, 
That  she  minds  nothing  else. 

She  reproves  and  blames  and  rebukes  her 

heart, 
And  says  often,  "  Heart,  what  hast  thou  ? 


What  hast  thou  beheld  or  seen— 
For  mine  eye  shews  or  tells  me  nothing— 
That  has  cast  me  into  this  debate  ? 
140   So  that  I  know  not  what  is  the  matter, 
Nor  what  fault  makes  me  grieve, 
Or  complain  more  than  I  am  wont. 

Diex  !  quex  maus  est  dont  tant  me  Oh  God !  what  evil  is  & l  thus  s^eve  for, 
duel, 

qui  S1  me  fait  esteildillier  ?]  That  makes  me  thus  move  restlessly? 

&  sef  f  e  sike  i  &  sing  •  samen  to-gedere, 

&  melt  nei^h  for  mournyng  •  &  moche  ioie  make. 

Min  hert  hoi  i  haue  now  •  for  al  fat  hard  y  fele, 

saue  a  fers  feintise  •  folwes  me  oft,  436 

&  takes  me  so  tenefully  •  to  telle  al  f  e  sof  e, 

fat  i  mase  al  marred  •  for  mournyng  nei^h  hondes, 

but  redelicne  in  fat  res  •  f  e  recuuerere  fat  me  falles, 

as  whan  i  haue  ani  hap  •  to  here  of  fat  barne,          440 


[Fol.  11.] 
I  sigh  and  sing 
together. 


A  faintness  often 
seizes  me. 


For  wham  myn  hert  is  so   hampered 
nobul, 


&  aides  so 


I  recover  when  I 
hear  of  that 


24 


MELIOR  BLAMES   HER   HEART    BITTERLY, 


flower  of 
mankind. 


I  have  portrayed 
him  within  my 
heart, 


and  would  not 
scrape  out  his 
portrait  for  all  the 
world. 


Since  it  is  so,  I 
am  wrong  to 
blame  my  heart. 


I  ought  rather  to 
blame  my  eyes. 


Yet  my  eyes  are 
my  heart's 

subjects. 


[Fol.  11  ft.] 
My  sight  can  do 
no  harm,  unless 
my  heart  assent. 


My  sight  only 
does  his  duty. 


fat  flour  is  of  alle  frekes  •  of  fairnes  and  mi^t. 
prince  is  non  his  pere  *  ne  in  parades  non  aimgel, 
as  he  semes  in  mi  si^t  *  so  faire  is  fat  burne.  444 

I  haue  him  portreide  an  paynted  •  in  mi  hert  wi|>- 

inne, 

fat  he  sittus  in  mi  si$t  •  me  f  inkes  euer-more. 
&  faire  so  l  his  figure  •  is  festened  in  mi  ^out,2 
fat  wij>  no  coyntise  ne  craft  •  ne  can  y  it  out  scrape.  448 
&  be  marie,  Jjou^h  i  mi^t  •  to  mengge  al  f  e  soj>e, 
I  ne  wold  nou^t  for  al  f  is  world  •  so  wel  it  me  likes, 
j>ei$h  i  winne  wif  mi  werk  •  f  e  worse  euer-more  ! 
so  gret  liking  &  loue  i  haue  •  fat  lud  to  bi-hold,       452 
fat  i  haue  leuer  fat  loue  •  fan  lac  al  mi  harmes. 
Nou  certes,  sef  f  e  it  is  so  •  to  seie  f  e  trewf  e, 
f  ann  haue  y  had  gret  wrong  •  myn  [hert]  so  to  blame, 
For  eni  werk  fat  he  wrou^t  •  seffe  i  wol  it  hold,     456 
ne  wold  i  it  were  non  of  er  •  al  f  e  world  to  haue. 
whom  schal  i  it  wite  •  but  mi  wicked  eyi^en, 
fat  lad  myn  hert  f  rou$  loking  •  f  is  langour  to  drye  1 
nad  f  ei  [ben,  i  ini^t]  •  boute  3  bale  haue  schaped  ;    460 
redeli  bi  resoun  f  erf  ore  •  hem  rette  i  mai  mi  sorwe."  O^ 
but  f  anne  f  ou^t  che  fat  f  rowe  *  in  f  is  selue  wise,  ~l~*»* 
"  Min  ei3en  sorly  aren  sogettes  *  to  serue  min  hert, 
&  buxum  ben  to  his  bidding  •  as  boie  to  his  master ;  464 
eke  wite  i  al  f  e  wrong  •  f  e  werk  of  mi  ei3en, 
&  f  ou3h  sertes,  so  may  i  nou3t  •  by  no  sof  e  ri$t ; 
For  seffe  i  knowe  fat  mi  sijt  •  is  seruawt  to  mi  hert, 
&  alle  my  nof  er  wolnk  wittes  •  to  wirchen  his  hest.  468 
For  f  ou3h  i  sette  my  sijt  •  sadly  on  a  f  ing, 
be  hit  better  of  er  broun  •  beter  of  er  worse, 
Mi  sijt  may  in  no  maner  •  more  harme  wirche, 
but  3if  myn  hauteyn  hert  •  f  e  harde  a-sente. 
eke  sof  ly  my  sijt  *  is  soget  to  my  hert, 
&  dof  nou3t  but  his  deuer  •  as  destine  wol  falle. 


472 


i  so  faire  (?)  2  j,0ut  (?) 

*  MS.  "  nad  J>ei  i  am  a  boute."     See  note. 


BUT  SOON  THINKS  SHE  HAS  BEEN  TOO  SEVERE.        25 

fan  has  my  hasty  hert  •  holly  f  e  wrong, 

him  wol  i  blame  &  banne  •  but  he  my  bales  amende,  476 

fat  haf  him  so  strangly  set  *  in  swiche  strauwge  burne, 

fat  wot  neuer  in  f  is  world  •  whennes  fat  he  come, 

but  as  mi  fader  him  fond  •  in  f  e  forest  an  herde, 

keping  me/mis  kin  •  of  f  e  kuntre  a-boute.  480 

what1?  fy  !  schold  i  a  fundeling  •  for  his  fairenesse  tak1? 

nay,  my  wille  wol  nou;t  a-sent  •  to  my  wicked  hert.        lins  for  his 

fairness  ? 

wel  kud  kinges  &  kaysers  •  krauen  me  i-now, 
,i  I  nel  leie  mi  loue  so  low  •  now  at  fis  time  ;  484  [0^ei 

desparaged  were  i  disgisili  •  }if  i  dede  in  fis  wise, 
I  wol  breke  out  fram  fat  baret  *  &  blame  my  hert." 


Oche  iurned  here  fan  tijtly  •  to  haue  slept  a  wile,  487  f 

*J  &  seide  sadly,  of  hire  hert  •  sche  wold  seche  ame^dis  sighs,  and  says, 

For  sche  so  wrongly  had  wrou^t  •  but  wi;tly  f  er-after, 

sche  seide  sikinde  to  here-self  •  in  fis  selue  wise. 

"  now  witterly  ich  am  vn-wis  •  &  wonderliche  nyce,         l^my^rt 

fus  vn-hendly  &  hard  *  mi  herte  to  blame.  492   so- 

to  whom  mi^t  i  me  mene  •  amendis  of  him  to  haue, 

sef  f  e  i  am  his  souerayn  •  mi-self  in  alle  f  ing  ?  twerS^  ?t8 

nis  he  holly  at  my  hest  *  in  hard  &  in  nesche  ? 

•&  now,  bi  crist,  i  knowe  wel  •  for  al  my  care  newe,  496 

he  wrou^t  neuer  bot  my  worchepe  •  ne  wol  nou^t,  i  leue. 

I  se  wel  he  haf  set  him-self  •  in  so  nobul  a  place,  ^uSin  ath 

fat  perles  of  alle  puple  •  is  preised  ouer  alle,  noble  P1*06- 

of  fairnesse  of  facioun  •  and  frely  f  euwes,1  500 

For  kurteysie,  vnder  krist  •  is  king  ne  kud  duk. 

&  f  ou3h  he  as  fundeling  where  founde  •  in  f  e  forest  wilde,  ^ere^oumUhT 

&  kept  wif  fe  kowherde  kin  •  to  karp  fe  sobe,  surely  he  was  of 

noble  birth. 

eche  creature  may  know  *  he  was  kome  of  gode.       504 

For  first  whan  f  e  fre  was  in  f  e  forest  •  fouwde  in  his         IF°L  12-3 

denne, 
In  comely  clof  es  was  he  clad  •  for  any  kinges  sone.         His  clothes  and 

his  manners 

wnan  he  kom  first  to  fis  kourt  *  bi  kynde  fan  he  schewde,  proved  it. 
1  A  line  lost  here  ? 


26          MELIOR  WILL  BLAME  HER  HEART  NO  MORE. 

his  manors  were  so  menskful  •  a-mende  hem  mi^t  none, 
&  sef  f  e  forsof  e  til  f  is  time  •  non  vn-tetche  he  ne  wrou^t, 
"but  haf  him  bore  so  buxumly  •  fat  ich  burn  him  preysef , 

AII  men  honour     &  vch  a  burn  of  f  is  world  *  worchipef  him  one, 

Kinges  &  kud  dukes  •  kene  kni^tes  and  other,         512 
f  ou^h  he  were  komen  of  no  ken  •  but  of  kende  cherls, 
{Jk  *t        as  i  wot  witterly  •  so  was  he  neuere  ! 

^ut  wif  worchepe  i  wene  •  i  mi^t  him  wel  loue. 

since  then  he  ia     &  sef  f  e  he  so  perles  is  preised  *  ouer  princes  &  of  er,  516 
&  eche  lord  of  f  is  lond  *  is  lef  him  to  piece 
For  most  souereyn  seg  •  &  semlyest  of  f  ewes, 

i  did  wrong  to      f  anne  haue  i  wited  alle  wrong  *  f  e  werk  of  myw  herte, 
For  he  has  don  his  deuere  •  dignely  as  he  out.          520 
he  het  me  most  wor)>i  •  of  wommew  holde  in  erf  e, 
Kindely  Jmrth  kinrade  •  of  cristen  lawe  ; 

For,  in  truth,  my  For-f  i  niyn  herte  hendely  •  has  wrou}t  in  his  dedes 

well;  and  could    to  sette  him-self  so  sadly  *  in  fe  soueraynest  burne  524 

better.™  \^  ^QV^S  *&  ani  lond  •  of  alle  hides  preised, 

I  ne  wot  neuere  in  f  is  world  •  what  wise  he  rni^t  betere 
wirche  for  me  in  f  is  world  •  my  worschipe  to  saue. 
For  }if  eny  man  on  mold  •  more  worf  i  were,  528 

Min  hert  is  so  hauteyn  •  fat  herre  he  wold. 

lamaonyi         &  for  i  so  wrongely1  haue  wroiut  *  to  wite  him,  me 

blamed  my  3     J 

heart,  greues ; 

I  giue  me  holly  in  his  grace  •  as  gilty  for  fat  ilk, 

&  to  mende  my  misse  *  i  make  myn  a-vowe.  532 

I  wol  here-after  witerly  •  wif-oute  more  striue, 

and  win  work  all   wirche  holly  mi  hertes  wille  •  to  harde  &  to  nesche. 

its  will 

henceforth.          &  leye  my  loue  on  fat  lud  •  lelly  for  euere. 

to  god  here  i  gif  a  gift  •  it  gete  schal  neuer  of  er,  536 
wile  him  lastef  f  e  liif  *  my  loue  i  him  grante." 

A  nd  whan  sche  so  was  a-sented  •  sche  seide  sone  after, 
Alas  1 1  fear  this    "*•*•  sadli  sikand  &  sore  •  for  sorwe  atte  here  herte, 

™  '    "  Alias!  i  trowe  fis  bitter  bale  •  botlesse  wol  hende !  540 

1  MS.  «  worngely." 


SHE    FEELS   LIKE   A   SHIP   AT    SEA. 


27 


For  i  not  in  f  is  world  l  •  how  fat  worf  i  child 
schal  euer  wite  of  my  wo  •  wif -oute  me  selue. 
nay !  sertes  my-selue  *  schal  him  neuer  telle ; 
For  fat  were  swiche  a  wo}!!  *  fa  neuer  wolde  be  mended. 
For  he  mi^t  ful  wel  *  for  a  fol  me  hold,  545 

&  do  him  lof  e  mi  loue  *  }it  haue  y  leuer  deie  ! 
nay  !  best  be])  it  nou^t  so  *  }if  better  mi^t  bi-falle, 
Ich  mot  worche  of  er  wise  •  $if  i  wol  out-spede.         548 
what,  i  suppose  f  e  selue  •  ^if  it  so  bi-tidde 
fat  i  wrou3t  so  wodly  •  &  wold  to  him  speke, 
fat  were  semlyest  to  seye  •  to  saue  my  worchep  1 
3if  i  told  him  treuli  •  my  tene  and  myn  anger,          552 
what  liif  for  longyng  of  loue  •  i  lede  for  his  sake, 
He  wold  wene  i  were  wod  •  or  witerly  schorned, 
or  fat  i  dede  for  despit  *  to  do  him  a  schonde  ; 
\  ~/^   &  1?^  were  a  schamly  schenchip  •  to  schende  me  euer. 
what  }if  i  saide  him  sadly  *  fat  i  sek  were,  557 

&  told  him  al  treuly  •  f  e  entecches  of  myn  euele  1     ^ 
he  knowef  nou^t  of  fat  kraft  *  bi  krist,  as  i  trowe, 
wherfore  he  ne  schold  in  no  wise  •  wite  what  i  mente  ; 
but  whanne  i  hade  al  me  mened  •  no  more  nold  he  seie 
but  "  serteinly,  swete  damisele  *  fat  me  sore  rewes." 
f  anne  wold  mi  wo  •  wex  al  newe, 
&  doubel  is  now  mi  duel  *  for  i  ne  dar  hit  schewe.  564 
alias  !  whi  ne  wist  fat  wi^h  *  what  wo  fat  me  eyles, 
what  sorwes  &  sikingges  •  i  suffer  for  his  sake  ! 
I  sayle  now  in  f  e  see,  •  as  schip  boute  mast, 
boute  anker  or  ore  •  or  ani  semlyche  sayle  ;  568 

but  hei3h  heuene  king  •  to  gode  hauene  me  sende, 
ojjer  laske  mi  liif  daywes  *  wif-inne  a  litel  terme." 
f  us  fat  maiden  meliors  *  in  mornyng  fa  liuede, 
&  hit  held  hire  so  harde  •  i  hete  f  e  for  sof  e,  572 

&  schorttily  wif -in  seuei^t  *  al  hire  slep  sche  leues, 
here  mete  &  al  merthe  •  sche  missed  in  a  while, 
&  seccleled  in  a  seknesse  •  f  e  sof  e  for  to  telle, 
1  MS.  "  world  J>is ;"  instead  of  "  Jris  world." 


[Fol.  12  &.] 


for  I  will  never 
tell  him  my  love. 


He,  might  think 
me  foolish. 


Or  suppose  I  did 
speak  to  him, 


and  told  him  my 
sorrow. 


he  would  tfcink 
me  mad,  or  that 
I  mocked  him. 


Or  suppose  I 
said  I  am  sick ; 


he  would  not 
understand  me. 


My  grief  would 
only  bo  doubled. 


1  sail  in  the  sea  / 

like  a  mastless  / 

ship,  without  Cy 

anchor,  oar,  or  i 
sail." 


Thus  Melior 
lamented. 


She  sickened  and 
pined, 


ALEXANDRINE    COMFORTS   MELIOR. 


[Fol.  13.] 


and  her  colour 
faded. 


fat  f  er  nas  leche  in  no  lond  •  fat  liif  hire  bihi3t,1    576 
3  it  couf  e  non  by  no  craft  •  knowen  hire  sore ; 
but  duelfulli  sche  dwined  a-waie  •  bof  e  dayes  &  nijtes, 
&  al  hire  clere  colour  •  comsed  for  to  fade. 


Melior-8  farourite 


was  Alexandrine, 
daughter  of  the 
duke  of 
Lombardy; 


who  said  to  her, 
"Tell  me  the 
cause  of  your 
sickness ; 


I  may  be  able  to 
help  you." 


"  Dear  cousin," 
said  Melior, 
"thouspeakest 
comfort  to  me. 


I  will  tell  you  all 
my  grief. 


|-%anne  hadde  f  is  menskful  melior  *  may  denes  fele  580 

*     a-segned  hire  to  serue  *  &  to  seuwe  hire  a-boute ; 

but  amowg  alle  f  e  maidenes  •  most  sche  loued  one 

fat  was  a  digne  damisele  •  to  deme  al  f  e  sof  e, 

&  komew  of  hire  oune  kin  •  h[er]e  2  kosin  ful  nere,  584 

of  lumbardie  a  dukes  doubter  •  ful  derworf  in  wede, 

&  fat  amiabul  maide  •  alisaundrine  a-hi3t. 

&  from  f  e  time  fat  melior  *  gan  morne  so  strong, 

fat  burde  was  euer  hire  bi  •  busy  hire  to  plese,        588 

More  fan  ani  of  er  damisele  •  so  moche  sche  hire  louede. 

&  whan  sche  8613  here  so  sek  •  sche  seide  on  a  time, 

"  Now  for  marie,  madame  •  f  e  milde  quene  of  heuene, 

&  for  fat  loue  fat  36  loue  •  leliest  here  in  erfe,         592 

Sei3th  me  al  3our  seknesse  •  &  what  so  sore  3ow  greiiis. 

30  knowen  icham  3our  kosyn  •  &  bi  krist  of  heuene, 

3ut  bi  cas  of  cunsail  •  ful  wel  can  ich  hele, 

&  be  tristy  and  trew  •  to  3ow  for  euer-more,  596 

and  help  3ow  hasteli  at  al  •  3oure  hele  to  gete, 

jif  36  saie  me  3oure  sores  •  &  ich  se  what  may  gayne." 

whan  melior  fat  meke  mayde  •  herd   alisauwdrines 

wordes, 

sche  was  gretly  gladed  •  of  hire  gode  bi-hest,3  600 

&  wif  a  sad  sikyng  •  seide  to  hire  f  anne ; — 
"  a  !  curteyse  cosyne  •  crist  mot  f  e  it  jelde 
of  f i  kynde  cumfort  •  fat  f ow  me  kuf est  nowf e, 
f  ow  hast  warsched  me  wel  *  wif  f  i  mede  wordes.     604 
I  jiue  me  al  in  f  i  grace  *  to  gete  me  su?ft  hele, 
as  f  ow  me  here  has  be-hi3t  •  of  mi  harde  peynes ; 
now  wol  i  telle  f  e  my  tene  •  wat  so  tide  after. 


1  Here  follows  the  catchword—'  jit  couj?e."         2  MS. 
3  This  line  and  the  next  are  transposed  in  the  MS. 


he." 


SHE    SAYS    SHE    KNOWS   SHE    CAN    CURE   HER. 


29' 


serteynly  f  is  seknesse  •  fat  so  sore  me  greues  608 

Is  feller  fan  any  frek  •  fat  euer  }it  hadde. 

&  ofter  fan  [ten] l  times  •  hit  takef  me  a-daye, 

&  [ix.] l  times  on  fe  ni^t  •  nou^t  ones  lesse  ; 

and  al  comes  of  a  froly  f ou3t  •  fat  firles  min  hert ;  612 

I  wold  meng  al  mi  mater  •  ^if  i  mi^t  for  schame. 

ac  wond  wold  ich  nou^t  to  f  e  •  witow  for  sof  e, 

ay  whan  ich  hent  f  e  haches  •  fat  so  hard  aren.  O^ 

It  komses  of  a  kene  fou$t  •  fat  ich  haue  in  hert       616 

of  william  fat  bold  barn  •  fat  alle  burnes  praisen  ; 

nis  no  man  vpow  mold  •  fat  more  worchip  winnes. 

him  so  propirli  haue  i  peinted  •  &  portreide  in  herte, 

fat  me  semes  in  my  sijt  •  he  sittes  euer  meke.  620 

what  man  so  ich  mete  wif  •  or  mele  wif  speche, 

Me  f inkes  euerich  f rowe  •  fat  barn  is  fat  of er ; 

&  fele  times  haue  ich  fonded  •  to  flitte  it  fro  foi^t, 

but  witerly  al  in  wast  •  fan  worche  ich  euer.  624 

f  er-for,  curteise  cosynes  *  for  loue  of  crist  in  heuene, 

Kif  e  nou^  f  i  kindenes  •  &  konseyle  me  f  e  best ; 

For  but  ich  haue  bote  of  mi  bale  •  bi  a  schort  time, 

I  am  ded  as  dore-nail  •  now  do  al  f  i  wille  ! "  628 


[FoL  13  6.] 
It  comes  from  a 
heart-piercing 
thought, 


i 

of  a  thought 
about  that 
William,  whom 
all  praise. 


Every  man  I 
speak  to  seems  to 
be  William. 


Counsel  me, 
cousin,  or  I  am 
as  dead  as  a 
door-nail." 


l<%anne  alisauwdrine  a-non  •  after  fat  ilk, 
«•     wax  gretly  a-wondered  •  &  wel  hire  bi-f  ou$t, 
what  were  hire  kuddest  comfort  *  hire  care  to  lisse ; 
&  seide  f  anne  til  hire  softily  •  sone  f  er-after ;  632 

"  a  !  madame,  for  marie  loue  •  mornes  no  lenger  ! 
nis  it  no  sekenes  bote  fat  *  so  sore  ^ou^  eiles, 
I  schal  furth  craft  fat  ich  kan  •  keuer  ^ou  i  hope, 
Mow  i  geten  a  grece  •  fat  i  gaynli  knowe  !    (***?      636 
haue  ^e  sleiliche  2  it  seie  •  &  a-saide  ones, 
&  feled  f  e  sauor  &  f  e  swetnesse  •  fat  sittes  in  f  e  rote, 
hit  schal  veraly  furth  vertue  •  do  vanisch  ^our  soris  ! " 
ofer-wise  wold  sche  nou^t  •  wissen  here  ladi  640 

bi  what  maner  che  ment  •  last  sche  were  a-greued. 
1  See  note.  »  MS.  "  3e  it  fleiliche  it." 


Alexandrine  was 
amazed,  and  said,, 


"  Mourn  not,  I 
will  heal  you. 


I  know  of  a  herb 
whose  virtue  can. 
cure  you." 


30  ALEXANDRINE    MAKES    WILLIAM    DREAM 

Meiior  thanked      j>an  bat  melior  ful  mekeli  •  bat  mayden  yanked, 

her,  and  prayed  .  r 

her  to  get  it.        &  preide  hire  pnuek  •  wif  pitous  wordes, 

to  gete  hire  fat  gode  gras  •  as  sone  as  sche  mi^t.        644 
&  alisauftdrine  a-non  •  answeres  and  saide, 

she  said  she         "  Madame,  I  wol  do  mi  mi^t  •  wif-oute  more  speche." 
[FoL^H.]       f  anne  J>is  maiden  melior  •  gan  menden  here  chere, 

fus  was  ferst  here  sad  sorwe  •  sesed  fat  time.  648 

Alexandrine         alisandrine  algate  ban  •  after  fbatl  browe 

planned  how  to 

let  wmiam  know  bi-f  ou$t  hire  ful  busily  *  howe  best  were  to  werche, 
to  do  willmm  to  wite  •  f  e  wille  of  hire  lady, 
properly  vnparceyued  •  for  reproue  after.  652 

Ful  conyng  was  sche  &  coynt  •  &  couj>e  fele  Binges, 
Y- of  charmes  &  of  chau[V]temews  •  to  schewe  harde  castis ; 

and,  by  her  craft,  g0  bimh  be  craft  bat  sche  coube  •  to  carpp  be  sobe, 

as  he  lay  asleep, 

as  wilh'am  fat  worj>i  child  *  on  a  ni$t  slept,  656 

boute  burn  in  his  bonr  •  but  him-self  one, 

l^MUA/ttf.  •)  W<X4£*f>4£ 

she  made  him       a  ful  selcojifejsweuehe  •  set  sche  him  to  mete  ; 

fat  melior,  fat  menskful  may  •  mekli  al-one 

com  ful  comliche  clad  •  &  kneled  him  bi-fore,  660 

al  bi-weped  for  wo  *  wisly  him  fou^t ; 

&  sikand  ful  sadli  *  seide  Jms  him  tille — 
that  Meiior  came   "  a  !  loueh'che  lemman  !  •  loke  on  me  nowj>e  ! 
lim,  and  said,    j  am  ^e^ors>  -^Q^  marred  •  man,  for  J>i  sake.          664 

s^JkavA          I  meke  me  in  ]>i  merci  •  for  fow  me  n^t  saue  ! 
"Oh  take  me,       Leue  lord,  mi  lemman  *  lacche  me  in  J?i  narmes, 

Iov6  in  tliine 

anns ! "  &  wirche  wi]>  me  )>i  wille  *  or  witterli  in  hast 

Mi  liif  lelly  is  lorn  •  so  loue  now  me  hampris."         668 
Jms  William  foujt  witterly  •  &  wi3tly  wij>  fat  ilk, 
as  a  gome  ful  glad  •  for  fat  grace  fallen, 

He  tried  to  do  so,  He  wend  to  haue  Iau3t  fat  ladi  *  loueli  in  armes ;   jji^ 

pmow*  &  clipte  to  him  a  pulwere  •  &  propirly  it  gretes,  ^673 

and  welcomes  hii  worf  H  •  for  wisseli  him  f  ou^t 
fat  it  was  f e  menskful  mayde  •  meh'or  his  ladi ! 

»nd  awoke,          fat  puluere  clept  he  cui-teisly  •  &  kust  it  ful  ofte, 

&  made  f  er-wif  f  e  most  merf  e  •  fat  ani  ma?i  schold ; 
but  fan  in  his  saddest  solas  *  softili  he  a-waked.       677 


THAT    THE   LADY   MELIOR   LOVES    HIM. 


31 


ak  so  liked  him  his  layk  •  wip  pe  ladi  to  pleie, 

pat  after  he  was  a-waked  *  a  ful  long  prowe, 

he  wende  ful  witerly  •  sche  were  in  is  armes ;  680 

ac  peter !  it  nas  but  is  puluere  •  to  proue  pe  sope. 

but  whan  he  witterly  was  a-waked  •  he  wayted  a-boute, 

to  haue  bi-hold  pat  burde  •  his  blis  to  encrese. 

panne  perceyued  he  pe  puluere  *  pertely  in  his  armes, 

oper  wi}t  was  non  *  wip-inne  pat  chambur.1  685 

pan  brayde  he  vp  of  his  bed  *  as  burn  nei^h  amased, 

&  loked  after  pat  ladi  *  for  lelli  he  wende 

pat  sche  here  had  hed  in  sum  hurne  *  in  pat  ilk  time, 

to  greue  him  in  hire  game  •  as  feijh.  he  gyled  were. 

but  whan  he  wist  it  was  wast  *  al  pat  he  sou^t, 

he  gan  to  sike  &  sorwe  •  &  seide  in  pis  wise  : — 

•"a  !  ihesu  crist,  iustise  *  now  iugge  pou$  pe  ri^t,       692 

how  falsly  has  fortune  *  founde  me  nowpe. 

nas  mi  menskful  ladi  *  meliors  h[er]e-inne,2 

•&  lowed  hire  to  be  mi  lemman  •  &  lai  in  myn  armes, 

oper  elles  sopli,  sche  seide  *  pat  sche  dei  schuld?      696 

^is,  i-wisse,  was  it  sche  *  y  wot  wel  pe  sope ; 

Metyng  3  mi3t  it  be  non  *  in  no  maner  wise ; 

•so  lonely  lay  pat  ladi  &  ich  •  layking  to-gaderes. 

&  soply,  sop  it  is  •  a  selcoupe,  me  pinkes,  700 

whider  pat  lady  is  went  •  and  wold  no  lenger  dwelle." 

panne  lep  he  vp  Ii3teli  '  &  loked  al  a-boute,       -^tC-yvw  • 

but  fe^tly  al  was  fenteme  •  &  al  was  in  wast.  - 

panne  seide  he  to  him-self  •  sikinde  ful  soft : —        704 

"  For  sope,  ich  am  a  mad  man  •  now  wel  ich  may  knowe, 

Forto  wene  in  pis  wise  *  pis  wrong  metyng  sope. 

Min  hert  is  to  hauteyn  •  so  hye$  to  climbe, 

so  to  leue  pat  ladi  •  wold  louwe  hire  so  moche, 

pat  is  an  emperours  eir  •  and  euene  his  pere, 

to  come  to  swiche  a  caytif  •  nay,  crist  it  for-bede 

ipat  ich  more  of  pat  matere  •  so  misseliche  penke  ! 


She  was  gone ;  it 
was  only  his 
pillow. 

[Fol.  14  b.] 


He  looked  for  her 
in  every  corner  in 
vain,  and  sighed, 
and  said, 


"  Was  not  my 
lady  Melior  here  ? 


It  could  not  have 
been  a  dream. 


' 


708 


Yet  I  must  be 
mad  to  think  it 
could  be  true, 


for  she  is  an 
emperor's  heiress. 


1  MS.  "chanbur." 

8  MS.  "heinne."  Read 


here  inne."— M.      8  MS.  "  Metynt." 


32 


WILLIAM    PINES    FOR    MELIOR's    LOVE. 


i  must  be  mad  to 

think  of  such  a 

thing. 
[Foi.  is.] 

i  dare  not  lay  my 

love  so  high. 


i  know  neither 

my  kin  nor  my 

country, 


and  i  have  no 

friend  to  speak 

for  me." 


For  fer  nys  lord  in  no  lond  •  fat  fe  liif  weldes,        712 

emperour  ne  kud  king  •  knowen  so  riche, 

fat  sof  li  nere  simple  i-nou^  •  fat  semly  to  haue. 

ek  witterli  am  i  wod  '  to  wene  swiche  a  f  ing, 

. 

Jmrth  a  mys  metyng  *  fat  swicne  a  maide  wold          1  1  & 
j^eye  hire  loue  so  lowe  •  lemmas  me  to  weld. 
nay,  ich  haue  wrou^t  al  in  wast  *  ac  i  nel  na  more 

.,••.-  M 

Leie  mi  loue  so  hei^e  *  mi  ladi  for  to  wilne, 

f  ou^h  it  nere  for  nou^[t]  elles  *  but  for  non  in  erf  e  720 

no  wot  i  neuer  wisseli  •  of  whom  i  am  come. 

Mi-self  knowe  ich  noint  mi  ken  •  ne  mi  kontre  noiber, 

For-fi  me  [bi-]houes  l  •  f  e  buxumlier  me  bere, 

Ofer-wise  fan  a  wi}h  •  fat  were  wif  his  frendes.       724 

For  ^if  ich  wrout  of  er-wise  •  &  it  were  parceyued, 

&  knowe  were  in  f  is  kourt  *  mi  kare  were  f  e  more. 

for  feibli,  frend  haue  ich  non  •  bat  [for]  2  me  wold  speke. 

.. 

311  f  empe?*our  were  wif  me  wrof  •  his  wraf  f  e  forto,  slake~ 
fer-for  mi  hauteyn  hert  •  bi-houes  me  to  chast,  729- 
&  bere  me  debonureli  •  til  better  mow  bi-tide." 


Yet  her  image  so 

dwelt  m  his  heart, 


0  jn  j,{g  w{se 


•  wende  to  haue  schaped, 


that  it  would  not 

away. 


He  left  his  meat, 

and  lay  awake  by 

night, 


and  arose  in  the 
' 


but  certes  fat  semly  *  sat  so  in  his  hert,  732: 

for  merf  e  of  fat  metyng  *  of  melior  fat  schene, 
fat  heng  heui  in  his  hert  •  &  so  hard  cleued 
fat,  to  winne  al  f  e  world  •  a-wai  wold  it  neuer. 
but  gan  to  studie  stoundemele  •  so  stifly  f  er-onne,    736* 
fat  lelly  be  a  litel  while  •  his  langure  gan  wex, 
so  fat  he  momed  nei^h  mad  *  &  his  mete  left, 

p    f  -i      .    . 

*  iorwandref  in  wo  *  &  wakef  i-wisse  on  m^tes, 
swiche  listes  of  loue  •  hadde  lapped  his  hert,  740 

fat  he  nist  what  bote  •  his  bale  best  mi^t  help. 
but  in  his  mochel  morning  '  on  a  morwe  he  rises, 
For  kare  fat  kom  to  his  hert  •  &  clof  ed  him  sone, 
&  whan  he  geinliche  was  greif  ed  •  he  gript  his 

1  MS.  "  houes  ;  "  but  see  1.  729,  and  the  note. 

2  Read  "that  /or  me."—  M. 


HE    GOES   ALONE   TO    A   GARDEN. 


32' 


as  a  we'ijh  woful  •  he  wrapped  him  fer-inne,  745 

For  no  maw  fat  he  met  *  his  mornyng  schuld  knowe. 

fat  vnglad  gom  fan  go)?  •  in-to  a  gardin  euene, 

fat  was  a  perles  place  •  for  ani  prince  of  erf  e,  748 

&  wynli  wij)  heie  wal l  •  was  closed  al  a-boute. 

fat  preui  pleyng  place  •  to  proue  f  e  sof  e, 

loyned  wel  iustly  •  to  meliors  chamber, 

f  ider  went  willmm  euene  •  wittow  for  sof  e,  752 

&  vnder  a  tri  appeltre  *  tok  him  tid  2  a  sete, 

fat  was  braunched  ful  brode  •  &  bar  gret  schadue, 

&  was  euen  vnder  a  windowe  *  of  fat  worf eis  chaumber, 

For  fat  wilh'am  for  wo  •  was  bounde  so  harde.          756 

fat  tre  so  fayre  was  floured  *  &  so  ful  leued, 

fat  no  wi^th  mi^t  wilham  se  •  but  ^if  he  were  f e  nere. 

ac  will[i]am  to  fe  window  *  witterli  mijt  sene 

jif  meliors  wif  hire  maydenes  •  in  meling  fere  sete.  760 

whan  wilHam  vnder  fat  trie  tre  •  hade  taken  his  place, 

he  set  his  si$t  sadli  •  to  fat  windowe  euene, 

boute  flecchinge  or  feyntise  •  from  morwe  til  eue. 

but  oft  cumsed  his  care  •  and  his  colour  chaunge[d],  764 

so  sore  longed  him  to  se  •  fa  semly  burde. 

swiche  a  sorwe  he  suffred  *  a  seue-ni^t  fulle, 

fat  neuer  maranes  mete  ne  mi$t  •  in  his  bodi  sinke, 

but  held  him  finliche  i-fed  •  his  fille  to  loke  768 

on   fe   mayde   meliors  chauraber  *  for  wham  he  s[o] 

morned. 

euer  whan  it  nei3ed  ni3t  •  noy3ed  was  he  sore, 
fan  wold  he  wend  to  his  chamber  3  •  &  gret  wo  make  ; 
but  no  seg  fat  him  serued  •  mi^t  f  e  sofe  wite  772 

whi  him  was  f  anne  so  wo  *  ne  where  he  was  on  dayes ; 
non  durst  for  drede  *  him  dernly  a-spie, 
but  lett  him  worche  his  wille  *  as  wel  as  him  liked, 
ac  deliuerly  was  he  di3t  •  uch  day  at  morwe,  776 

&  feij>li  boute  felachipe  *  fond  wold  he  walke, 
&  go  in-to  f  e  gardyn  *  his  greues  for  to  slake, 


and  went  into  a 
garden 


adjoining  Melior's 
chamber. 
[Fol.  15  &.] 


He  sat  beneath 

her  window  under    O~fJ 

an  apple-tree, 


so  thick-leaved 
that  he  could  not 
be  seen. 


There  watched  he 
from  morning  till 


He  ate  nothing; 
but  was  fed  with 
looking  his  fill 
towards  her 
chamber. 


None  knew  why 
he  grieved,  or 
whither  he  weiit. 


He  went  every 
day  to  the  garden. 


1  MS.  repeats  "  wal.' 


2  See  note. 
3 


3  MS.  "chanber." 


34 


THE    LADIES   ALSO    GO    TO    THE    GARDEN. 


looking  towards 
Melior's  window, 


and  suffered  so 
that  his  colour 
faded. 


[Fol.  16.] 


One  day  as  he 
watched, 


780 


he  fell  asleep. 


Melior's  grief  had 
been  as  great  as 
his, 

and  she  asked 
Alexandrine  if 
she  had  found  the 
herb. 


"  Not  yet,"  she 
said,  "  but  let  us 
go  into  the 
garden." 


So  they  went 
down  the  steps 
into  the  garden. 


weyj;ende  to  f  e  windowe  •  &  his  wo  newene, 

&  eike  ful  mani  sif  e  *  and  sum  time  quake  ; 

swiche  drede  &  dol  *  drou^  to  his  hert, 

lest  he  ne  schold  neuer  in  world  *  winne  fat  he  3erned. 

f  urth  f  e  sorwes  fat  he  sufred  '  •  sof  forto  telle, 

al  his  cler  colour  •  comsed  forto  fade.  784 

Febul  wax  he  &  faynt  •  for-waked  a-ni3tes, 

ac  no  wi^t  of  f  is  world  •  nri^t  wite  of  his  care. 

but  fan  tid  on  a  time  •  as  f  is  tale  minges, 

fat  William  went  til  fis  gardin  •  his  wo  fort2  slake,  788 

&  vnder  his  tri  appeltre  •  turned  to  sitte, 

as  wei^h  al  for-waked  •  for  wo  vpon  ni^tes. 

and  as  he  a-weited  to  f  e  windowe  •  wijtly  fer-after, 

he  slod  sli^li  a-doun  *  a-slepe  ful  harde,  792 

as  a  wo  wery3  wei3h  *  for-waked  to-fore. 

but  menge  we  now  of  meliors  *  fat  morned  f  anne 

as  sadli  in  hire  si$t  •  or  sorer  ^if  sche  mi^t, 

f  e  loue  of  loueli  willtam  •  lay  hire  so  nere.  796 

f  anne  asked  sche  f  is  of  alisauradrine  *  as  f  e  hap  tidde, 

Ri^t  as  wilKam  woful  •  so  was  wox  a-slepe, 

wher  sche  hade  gete  hire  gras  *  fat  schold  hire  greues 

hele? 

"  nay,  madame,  nou^t  ^ut  "  •  seide  f  e  maide  f  anne,  800 
*'  f  ou^h  haue  i  fele  times  fonded  •  to  finde  it  ^if  i  mi3t, 
but  ener  wrou3t  i  in  wast  •  f  e  wors  haf  me  liked. 
ac  were  it  3our  wille  nowe  •  to  worche  bi  mi  rede, 
Go  we  to  f  e  gardyn  •  to  gode  may  it  turne  ;  804 

For  feire  floures  schal  we  finde  *  of  foulen  song  here, 
&  f  urth  cum  fort  may  cacche  •  swiche  happ  mai  falle, 
to  haue  f  e  better  hele  *  at  3oure  hom-kome." 
farto  fis  menskful  meliors  •  mekeliche  hir  graunted, 
Forto  worche  al  hire  wille  •  as  sche  wold  deuise.       809 
f  anne  a-ros  sche  raddely  *  &  romden  ri3t  in-fere, 
&  gan  doun  bi  a  grace  *  in-to  f  e  gardin  euene,  J^ 


1  MS.  "sufreded."    Seel.  1014. 

3  Or,  "  werjj." 


2  See  note. 


ALEXANDRINE    FINDS    WILLIAM    ASLEEP.  35 

boute  burde  or  barn  *  but  hem-self  tweyne.  812 

for  alisauttdrine  anon  *  atteled  fat  time, 

&  knewe  wel  bi  hire  craft  •  fat  sche  hade  cast  bi-fore, 

fat  fei  witterli  f  anne  schold  •  wif  wilhY/m  mete. 

&  whan  fe  gaye  gerles  •  were  in-to  fe  gardin  come,  816  where  were  fair 

Faire  floures  fei  founde  •  of  fele  maner  hewes,  flowers,  and  blithe 

fat  swete  !  were  of  sauor  •  &  to  fe  si}t  gode  ; 

&  eche  busch  ful  of  briddes  •  fat  blif eliche  song, 

bof  e  f  e  f  rusch  &  f  e  f  rustele  •  bi  xxxti  of  bof  e,       820 

Meleden  ful  merye  *  in  maner  of  here  kinde. 

&  alle  freliche  foules  *  fat  on  fat  frif  songe,  tFo1- 16  *-J 

for  merfe  of  fat  may  time  *  fei  made  moche  noyce, 

to  glade  wif  uch  gome  •  fat  here  gle  herde.  824  May  time. 

ac  meliors  for  al  fat  merfe  *  mornede  so  stronge, 

so  harde  hacches  of  loue  •  here  hert  hadde  f  irled, 

fat  f  er  nas  gle  vnder  god  •  fat  hire  glade  mi^t,  But  nothing  could 

but  feif  li  fo[r]  febulnesse  •  feynt  wax  sche  sone,       828  who  sat  down  to 

,  ,  .   ,  .  rest  under  a 

fat  vnder  a  semli  sikamour  •  sche  sett  hire  to  reste,          sycamore. 

&  fat  burde  hire  by  •  fat  al  hir  bale  wiste. 

fan  gan  Meliors  murcge  •  f  e  meschef  fat  hir  eyled ; 

fat  of  er  comsede  to  carp  •  of  cumfort  &  ioie,  832 

&  ef  er  muwged  of  f  e  mater  *  fat  f  ai  most  louede. 

but  alisaurcdrine  ber-after  *  a-non  bi  a  wile,  But  Alexandrine 

espied  William, 

f  ederward  as  willtom  was  •  wayted  wel  3erne,  and  said, 


For  sche  wiste  wel  y-now  •  where  fat  he  laye.  836 

&  f  anne  seide  sche  as  swif  e  *  to  fat  semly  mayde, 

"  Madame,  melior,  so  dere  •  be  Marie  in  heuene,  is^me^ne^eep 

Me  f  inkef  ich  se  a  seg  •  a-slepe  here  bi-side.  here> 

whef  er  he  be  kni^t  or  bachiler  •  wot  i  neuer  for  sof  e, 

ac  he  semes  bi  semblant  *  in  sekenes  ful  harde.         841  u^^eTus'goand 

f  er-for,  lady,  go  we  loke  •  wat  seknes  him  eyles, 

&  what  barn  fat  he  be  •  fa  in  bale  lenges." 

fe  menskful  mayde  meliors  •  fan  mekliche  saide,      844  to  J"rseif, 

"  a !  madame,  melior  •  now  mendes  3oure  chere,  fontls*'  MeU°r' 

For  y-wisse,  3ond  is  wilKam  •  fat  36  so  wel  louef,  wiiiiami" 

>MS.  "sweto." 


36 


WILLIAM    WAKES,    AND    SEES    MELIOR. 


Quickly  she  ran 

towards  him, 


[Foi.  ir.] 
would  fain  have 

kissed  him,  but 
was  afraid  of 


sum  hard  hacohe  has  he  had  *  &  hider  com  to  plei^e 
Forto  lissen  his  langour  •  &  lyes  here  a-slepe,  848 

For  f  e  swete  sawour  •  of  ])ise  semly  floures  !  " 

"L^aime  was  bat  meftskful  meliors  •  muchel  y-gladed, 

\J 

*     &  gon  fan  to  fat  gome  •  a  god  pas  al  boj>e, 

&  as  tit  as  fei  come  him  to  •  fe  sofe  for  to  telle,      852 

fei  sett  hem  doun  softly  •  fat  semly  be-fore. 

&  wanne  )>e  niayde  meliors  •  mi^t  se  his  face, 

sche  font  f  roly  in  herte  •  fat  leuer  hire  were 

haue  welt  him  at  wille  •  fan  of  f  e  world  be  quene  ; 

so  fair  of  alle  fetures  •  f  e  frek  was,  hire  fou^t.  857 

<fe  fayn  sche  wold  ban  in  feib  ••  haue  fold  him  in  hire 


860 


to  haue  him  clipped  &  kest  •  kenely  fat  tide, 
|—  410  sche  dred  it  to  done  •  for  ofer  derne  a-spyes. 

alysau?zdrine  fan  a-non  •  attlede  here  f  ou^tes, 
Then  Alexandrine  &  whtly  wib  here  whiles  *  dede  william  to  mete 

caused  William  f 


to  dream, 


that  Meiior 

brought  him  a 

rose,  which  at 

once  cured  ham. 


fat  fat  time  him  f  ou^t  •  fat  melior  f  e  hende 

and  alysauttdrine  al-one  •  com  him  f  o  tille,  864 

&  f  e  mayde  melior  •  ful  mekly  him  brou^t 

a  fuj  reai  rose  .  an^  redlv  it  him  takes. 

<fc  whanne  he  in  hond  hit  hade  •  hastely  hit  semede, 

fat  he  was  al  sauf  &  sound  •  of  alle  his  sor  greues.   868 

&  for  his  langor  was  so  lissed  •  swich  likyng  he  hadde, 

&  so  gretly  was  gladed  •  fat  he  gan  a-wake. 


He  awoke,  and  in  &  whan  he  seh  fat  semly  •  sitte  him  bi-fore, 

Amazement  knelt  J 

before  her,  and  He  was  al  a-wondred  •  and  whtly  he  vp-rises, 

greeted  her. 


87 


love,-'  said  Meiior. 


bear  her  8ay 


&  kurteyslyche  kneling  •  fat  komli  he  grett, 
&  afterward  alysauradrine  •  as  he  wel  out. 
&  f  e  mayde  melior  *  ful  mekly  fan  saide, 

"  Mi  10Ueli  SW6te  lemmaw  '  OUre  lord  3if 

&  wilKam  fan  vnderstod  •  fe  word  fat  sche  saide  ; 
fat  sche  him  called  "  leue  lemman"  •  it  liked  so  hie  hert, 
J^  w^er^7  ne  coufe  no  word  *  long  fer-after  spek, 
but  stared  on  here  stifly  •  a-stoneyd  for  ioye,  880 


WILLIAM'S  CONFESSION  TO  ALEXANDRINE. 


37 


fat  he  cast  al  his  colour  •  and  bi-com  pale, 

and  eft  red  as  rose  •  in  a  litel  while. 

so  witerly  was  fat  word  •  wounde  to  hert, 

fat  he  ferd  as  a  mased  man  •  an  marred  nei}  honde,  884 

so  louely  loue  fat  time  •  lent  him  an  arewe 

hetterly  f  urth  his  hert  •  for  fat  hende  mayde 

cald  him  " leue  lemmas"  •  he  les  al  his 


"  dear  love,"  and 
his  colour  went 
and  came. 


Love  had  shot  an 
arrow  through 
his  heart. 


T)  ot  alysau?*drine  wiste  wel  '•  what  fat  him  eyled,   888 
•**'     &  seide  to  him  soberly  •  f  ise  selue  words  : — 
"  swete  wilh'am,  seie  me  now  •  what  seknes  f  e  greues  ? 
f  i  faire  hewe  is  al  fade  •  for  f  i  moche  sore ; 
&  $if  ich  mi}t  in  ani  maner  •  f  e  amende,  y  wold."     892 
fan  wilh'am  wi^tly  •  in  f  is  wise  answered, 
sikende  ful  sadly  •  for  sor  at  his  hert, 
"  Mi  dere  gode  damisele  •  my  def  is  al  3  are, 
so  a  botteles  bale  *  me  byndef  so  harde,  896 

nas  neuer  feller  feuer  •  fat  euer  frek  hadde 
for  merthe  &  alle  metes  *  it  makes  me  to  leve, 
slepe  sertes  may  [i]  nou}t l  •  so  sore  it  me  greues. 
&-al  fis  mochel  meschef  •  a  meting  i  wite,  900 

fat  me  com  on  a  nijt  •  a-cursed  be  fat  time  ! 
for  so  hard  hacches  •  haue  hold  me  sef  f  e, 
fa  i  not  in  f  e  world  •  what  is  me  to  rede." 
"  now  swete,"  seide  alisauradrine   •   "  seie  me  in  what 
wise  904 

fat  fat  hache  f  e  haldes  •  &  how  it  f  e  takes  ?  " 
"  I-wisse,"  seide  willram  •  "  i  wol  it  nou^t  layne, 
sum-time  it  hentis  me  wif  hete  •  as  hot  as  ani  fure, 
but  quicliche  so  kene  a  cold  •  comes  f er-after  ;          908 
sum  time  i  si3h  &  singe  •  samen  to-geder, 
&  fan  so  froli  fortes  •  f urlen  myn  herte, 
fat  i  ne  wot  in  f  e  world  •  where  it  bi-comse, 
For  feifli  in  my-self  •  y  fele  it  nou^t  fanne."  912 

f  anne  alisaundrine  a-non  •  f  er-after  seide, 
1  Read  "  may  •  nouzt."— M. 


Alexandrine 
asked  him  what 
sickness  ailed 
him. 

[Fol.  17  ft.] 


William  answered 
that  his  was  a 
sorrow  without 
remedy. 


It  was  all  owing* 
to  a  dream. 


"  Tell  me,"  she 
answered,  "  hovr 
the  pain  seizes 
you." 


"  It  sometimes 
comes  on  as  hot 
as  fire,  and  then 
like  a  keen  chill." 


SHE    TELLS    WILLIAM    HE    IS    IN    LOVE. 


"  How  was  it  all 
owing  to  a 
dream  ?  " 


"That  I  will 
never  tell  you," 
he  replied. 


perilous,"  said 
Alexandrine- 


[Fol.  18.] 


"God  help  us 
twain ;  my  sick- 
ness seems  like 
his. 


924 


928 


"wilh'am,  i  wold  fe  pray  •  fatow  me  woldest  telle 
bi  what  cas  al  fi  care  *  comsed  bi  a  sweuene  1 " 
"nai  sertes,  sweting,"  he  seide  •  "fat  schal  i  neue?-,  916 
For  no  meschef  on  molde  •  fat  me  may  falle  ! 
I  haue  leuer  it  layne  •  &  f  is  langour  f  ole, 
f  e^h  i  for  dreeing  of  f  is  duel  •  deie  at  f  e  last ; 
f  er  schal  [no]  wi^th  of  f  e  world  •  wite  whi  it  comsed  ! " 
Your  sickness  is  fanne  seide  alisandrine  •  "  auntrose  is  bin  euel,          921 

jrilous."  said         r 

ful  wonderliche  it  f  e  weues  •  wel  i  wot  fe  sof  e." 
"  ^a  i-wisse,"  seide  willmm  *  "  wonderli  me  greues, 
for  my  seknes  wif  my  si^tes  *  sumtime  slakes, 
&  mani  times  dof  me  mourne  •  mor  fan  to-fore." 
Melior  fat  milde  mayde  *  in  f  e  mene  tyme  f  ou$t, 
&  seide  softily  to  hire-self  •  f  ise  selue  wordes, 
"  a  !  gracious  god  •  grettest  of  us  alle, 
tak  hede  to  fin  hond-werk  •  &  help  now  vs  tweyne  ! 
For  sertes,  f  is  same  sekenes  *  mi-self  it  holdes 
In  alle  wise  as  it  dof  wilHam  •  &  wors,  as  ich  wene. 
&  fouh  ich  se  fat  is  sekenes  •  sore  hit  him  haldes,    932 
for  pitously  he  is  a-peyred  •  fat  perles  was  to  sijt 
of  fairnesse  and  of  fasoun  *  fat  ani  frek  schold  haue — 
but  weilawey  !  fat  he  ne  wist  *  what  wo  y  drye, 
&  haue  do  lelly  for  is  lone  •  a  wel  long  while  !          936 
&  but  he  wi^tly  wite  •  y-wisse,  y  am  done ; 
For  y  dar  nou^t  for  schame  *  schewe  him  mi  wille, 
but  $if  he  wold  in  ani  wise  *  him-self  schewe  formest." 
while  Meliors  in  here  maner  •  mened  to  hire-selue,   940 
alysauwdrine  a-non  *  attlede  alle  here  f  ou^tes, 
sche  knewe  wel  bi  kuntenaunce  •  of  kastyng  of  lokes. 
fan  wi3tly  to  wilh'am  •  f  ise  wordes  sche  sede, 
"  I  see  wel  be  fi  semblant  •  what  seknesse  fe  eyles,  944 
and  told  William  hele  bou  it  neuer  [sol  hard  !  •  al  holliche  y  knowe, 

she  felt  sure  he 

was  in  love.          fat  it  ben  lestes  of  loue  *  fat  f  e  so  hard  helden  ; 


If  he  only  knew 
what  I  suffer  !  " 


Alexandrine 
perceived  all  by 
their  looks ; 


f  ou  waltres  al  in  a  weih  *  &  wel  y  vnderstande 
whider  f  e  belaunce  bremliest  •  bouwes  al-gate. 

1  Read  "  neuer  so  hard."— M.     See  the  next  line. 


948 


SHE   PROMISES   TO    CURE   HIM    SOON. 


39 


and  sef  f  e  y  se  it  is  so  •  sof  li  y  f  e  warne, 

I  wol  a  litel  and  lite]  •  laskit  in  hast." 

fan  william  wel  vnderstod  *  sche  wist  what  him  eilede, 

&  knew  al  is  kqueyne  •  for  ou^t  he  kouf  e  hide,         952 

he  was  a-drad  to  f  e  def  *  last  sche  him  dere  wold. 

fan  sette  he  him  on  knes  *  &  soft  seyde  hire  tille, 

"  Mercy,  menskful  mayde  •  for  Marie  loue  of  heuene ! 

I  gif  me  al  in  fi  grace  *  my  greues  to  help,  956 

For  f  ou  mi^t  lengf  e  mi  liif  •  }if  f  e  likes  sone." 

fan  alysaundrine  a-non  •  answered  &  saide, 

"  how  mi^t  i  f  e  help  1  •  what  haue  i  to  f  i  bote  ?  " 

"I-wisse,"  fan  seyde  wilKam  *  "i  wol  no  lenger  hele,  960 

My  liif,  my  langor,  &  my  dej>  •  lenges  in  f  i  warde  ; 

but  i  f  e  sunner  haue  socour  •  of  fat  swete  mayde, 

f  e  comliche  creature  *  fat  in  f  i  keping  dwelles, 

alle  the  surgens  of  salerne  •  ne  schul  saue  mi  Hue.     964 

f  er-for  loueliche  ladi  •  in  f  e  lis  al  min  hope, 

f  ou  mi3t  me  spakly  [saue] [  of  er  spille  •  $if  f  i-self  likes." 


Then  was  he  sore 
afraid,  and  krelt 
to  her, 


and  prayed  her  to 
help  him. 


"  How  can  I  help 
you  ?  "  she 
inquired. 


Fol.  18  6.] 
«  Unless  I  have 
some  comfort 
from  you,  sweet 
maid,  I  shall 
surely  die." 


A  lysauralrine  a-non  •  f  anne  answered  &  sayde, 
**:  "now  i-wisse,  willmm  •  witow  for  sofe,  968 

Sef  f  e  f  ou  sadli  hast  me  said  •  )?e  sojje  of  ]?i  cuwsaile, 
&  tellest  me  treuly  •  J?ou  trestes  to  my  help, 
}if  i  mi^t  in  ani  maner  •  mende  ])i  sorwe, 
but  i  were  busi  J>er  a-boute  •  to  blame  i  were.  972 

jjer-for  certes,  be  foil  sur  *  sej?  it  may  be  no  ojjer, 
holliche  al  min  help  •  fou  schalt  haue  sone." 
fan  william  was  gretliche  glad  *  &  loueliche  hire  fonked. 
fan  alisauTidrine  a-now  *  as  sche  wel  coufe,  976 

clepud  fat  mayde  meliors  *  mekeliche  hir  tille, 
&  seide,  "  a  mercy,  madame  •  on  f  is  man  here, 
fat  ne^h  is  driue  to  f e  def  •  al  for  youre  sake  ! " 
"  how  so  for  my  sake  1 "  •  seide  melior  f  anne  ;          980 
"  I  wraf ed  him  neuer  fat  i  wot  •  in  word  ne  in  dede." 
"  no  sertes,  madame,  fat  is  sof "  •  saide  fat  ofer, 
1  Eead  "  spakly  saue  other  spille." — M. 


"  Since  you  have 
told  me  the  truth 
and  trust  me,  I 
were  to  blame  not 
to  help  you. 


You  shall  have  aL 
my  help." 


Then  Alexandrine 
called  Melior  to 
her,  saying, "Pity 
this  man,  who  is 
near  death  for 
thy  sake ; 


40 


WILLIAM   AXD    MELIOR   ARE   BETROTHED. 


who  has 

languished  for 

thy  love  a  long 


Take  him  for  thy 


[Foi.  19.] 
"To  save  his  life, 

I  will  grant  him 

my  love." 


Then  William 

thanked  God 

heartily, 


were  pledged  to 

each  other. 


Then  they  clasped 
other,  "and  told 

each  other  of  their 

Bufferings. 


Alexandrine 

thought  she 


"  ac  he  has  langured  for  sour  loue  •  a  ful  long  while  : 

°  c 

&  but  ^e  graunt  him  }our  grace  •  him  greif  li  to  help, 
&  late  him  be  $our  lemman  •  lelly  for  euer,  985 

his  liif  nel  nou^t  for  langour  •  last  til  to-morwe. 
j/erfor,  comeliche  creature  •  for  crist  fat  f  e  made, 
les  nou^t  is  liif  $ut  *  for  a  litel  wille.  988 

^^  he  SQ  Jeljy  j,e  loueg  .  to  lemm£m  fam  j,ou  take." 

fan  ineliors  ful  mekliche  •  to  fat  mayde  carped, 

and  seide  ful  soburli  •  smyland  a  litel, 

"  nou  bi  god  fat  me  gaf  •  f  e  gost  &  fe  soule,  992 

*  kePe  3ut  for  no  creature  '  manquellere  be  clepud, 

aC  ^6U6r  m6  W61>e  *e^  '  a  manes  ^  to  saue' 

sef  f  e  he  for  me  is  so  marred  •  &  has  misfare  long, 
ful  prestely  for  f  i  praire  •  &  for  ]?e  perile  als,  996 

j>at  i  se  him  set  inne  •  and  to  saue  his  Hue, 
hferle  i  graunt  him  grebli  •  on  godis  holi  name, 

L   / 

lelliche  mi  loue  for  euer  •  al  mi  lif  time, 

&  gif  a  gift  here  to  god  •  &  to  his  gode  moder,        1000 

)?at  oj>er  lud,  whil  i  Hue  •  schal  i  loue  neuer  !  " 

whan  willmm  herd  bise  wordes  *  i  hete  be  forsobe, 

he  kneled  quikli  on  knes  •  &  oft  god  Jionked,  1003 

&  seide,  "  god  !  fat  madest  man  •  &  al  middel-erfe, 

a  mi^ti  miracle  for  me  *  hastow  wrou^t  noj>e." 

ban  meked  he  him  to  meliors  *  on  alle  maner  wise, 

as  ]je  gladdest  gom  *  fat  euer  god  wrou3t. 

&  sche  sertes  bi  hire  side  •  fe  same  him  graunted,  1008 

to  worche  wij>  hire  al  his  wille  *  as  he  wel  liked. 

fan  eifer  hent  ofer  *  hastely  in  armes, 

&  wif  kene  kosses  •  kuffed  hem  to-gidere,  1011 

,.  ,,  ..  1,1  111 

so  fat  no  mwrf  e  upon  mold  •  no  mi^t  hem  bet  haue  lyked. 
&  tit  f  anne  told  eche  til  ofer  •  here  tenes  &  here  sorwe, 
fat  sadly  for  eif  ers  sake  •  hadden  sufficed  long. 
fanne  alisau?idrine  anon  •  attlede  be  so  be, 

•  •    7 

^at  ^re  ma^stres  *  }*&  man   '  no  schuld  hire  noujt 
misse,  1016 

f  e^h  sche  walked  a  while  •  wide  from  here  si}t, 


AT    SUNSET    THE   LADIES    GO    AWAY. 


41 


1024 


1028 


for  sche  trowed  trewly  •  to  talke  f  e  sof  e, 

were  sche  out  of  f  e  weye  *  fat  wilKam  wold  fonde 

for  to  pleie  in  fat  place  •  f  e  priue  loue  game, 

&  to  hete  here  fan1  to  layke  •  here  likyng  fat  time. 

sche  gof  a-houte  in-to  f  e  gardyn  •  for  to  gader  floures, 

&  to  wayte  fat  no  wei3h  •  walked  f  er-inne, 

for  drede  of  descuueryng  •  of  fat  was  do  fere. 

wilKam  wel  wif  meliors  *  his  wille  fan  dede, 

&  layked  fere  at  lyking  •  al  f  e  long  daye, 

til  f  e  suftne  was  nei3h  set  •  sof  li,  to  reste. 

f  anne  alisaurzdrine  at  arst  *  fan  antresse  hem  tille, 

&  mekly  to  meliors  •  "  madame,"  fan  sche  seide, 

"  haue  36  geten  f  e  gras  •  fat  i  3ou  geynliche  hi3t  ? 

I  trowe  trewli  he  fis  time  •  3our  sorwe  he  passed  ; 

eifer  of  3ou,  as  y  leue  •  is  god  leche  til  ofer,  1032 

alle  f  e  surgyens  of  salerne  •  so  sone  ne  couf  en 

haue  3our  langowes  a-legget  *  i  leue  for  sof  e." 

fan  wilKam  wax  wi3tly  •  wonderli  a-schamed, 

&  he  &  meliors  mercy  •  mekly  hire  criede  1036 

to  kuuere  wel  here  cuwseile  •  for  cas  in  fis  erf  e, 

&  f  roli  hire  f  onked  •  rnoni  f  ousand  sif es ; 

"  For  sche  hade  hrou3t  hem  of  hale  *  hof  e,"  f  ei  seide, 

"  &  i-lengfed  here  lif  •  mani  long  3ere."  1040 

A  lisaundrine  anon  -  after  fat  ilke 
-^*-  had  meliors  manly  •  here  merf e  fan  stinte, 
&  seide,  "  it  is  so  nei3h  ni3t  •  fat  nedes  mote  ye  parte  ; 
I  drede  me  of  descuuering  *  for  36  haue  dwelled  long." 
"alias!  fis  mochel  meschef"  *  saide  melior  fanne,    1045 
"  fis  day  is  schorter  to  si$t  *  fan  it  semed  euere  ! " 
&  william  seide  f  e  same  •  sof  li  fat  time, 
hut  alisaundrine  anon  *  answerede  &  seide,  1048 

"  Make  36  no  mourning  •  for  30  may  mete  eft 
dernli  hennes-forf  eche  day  *  whan  3ou  dere  likes  ; 
for-f  i  hasteli  hof  e  •  hei^e  3011  a-sunder." 

1  Read  "  &  to-gedere  fan  "  (?)     But  see  note. 


and  had  better 
withdraw. 


She  went  away 
to  gather  flowers, 
and  to  watch  that 
no  one  came 
there. 


Just  before  sun- 
set, Alexandrine 
returned. 


[Fol.  19  b.l 
and  asked  them  if 
they  both  felt 
they  were  cured. 


They  prayed  her 
to  keep  their 
counsel,  and 
thanked  her 
often. 


She  warned 
Melior  that  it 
was  near  night, 


who  lamented  the 
shortness  of  the 
day. 


She  reminded 
them  that  they 
might  meet  again* 


42 


THE    DUKE    OF    SAXONY    DECLARES   WAR. 


so  they  kissed, 

and  took  leave  of 

each  other,  and 

returned  happy, 


quritehcurld'e 


William  was 

beloved  both  by 

nch  and  poor,  and 

especially  by  the 

emperor. 
[Foi.  20.] 


f  anne  sei}  f  ei  no  socour  •  but  sunder  f  anne  f  ei  moste  ; 
wju  dipping  &  kessing  •  bei  kaiwt  here  leue,  1053 

*         rr 

&  eiber  tok  tit  is  way  •  to  his  owne  chau?ftber, 

blisful  for  f  ei  were  botned  •  of  here  bales  strong, 

sef  f  en  hastely  were  J>ei  hoi  •  &  haden  alle  here  wille. 

wif  alle  listes  of  loue  •  alle  longe  ^eres  1057 

priueli  vnperceyued  •  f  ei  pleyed  to-gedere, 

fat  no  seg  vnder  sunne  •  souched  no  gile. 

so  wel  was  wilKam  bi-loued  •  wib  riche  &  wib  pore,    1060 

r  r 

so  fre  to  feffe  alle  frekes  *  wib  ful  faire  liftes, 

fat  f  emperour  sof  li  him-self  •  soueraynli  him  loued, 

&  seffe  alle  ofer  seges  •  fat  sei^en  him  wif  ei3en; 

&  algate  alisaundrme  •  at  aUe  poyntes  hem  serued  1064 

so  sli^liche,  Jjat  no  seg  •  souched  non  euele, 

but  alle  gauew  god  word  •  to  gomes  fat  hem  plesede. 


Now  it  befell  that 
the  Duke  of 
"   Saxony  made 
war  on  the 
emperor  of  Rome. 


assaults. 


and  sent  mes- 

sengers  to  all  his 

lords 


to  come  to  him 


after  bi  time  •  as  f  e  tale  miwges, 
dou^ti  duk  of  saxoyne  •  drow  to  fat  londe  1068 
wif  ouer-gart  gret1  ost  *  godmen  of  armes, 
wrongly  forto  werre  •  wif  f  emperour  fat  time. 
&  wif  bobaunce  &  wif  bost  •  brent  fele  tounes, 
no  strengf  e  him  wif-stod  •  of  sad  stonen  walles,      1072       j 
but  bet  a-doun  burwes  •  &  brutned  moche  peple,  *&• 
so  fat  duel  was  to  deme  •  f  e  duresse  fat  he  wrou^t. 
whanne  fese  tyding  were  told  •  to  f  emperour  of  rome,/0^^.1V 
he  was  gretly  a-greued2  •  no  gome  fort  him  blame,   1076 
fat  eni  wei3h  of  f  e  world  *  schuld  werre  on  his  lond. 
his  sondes  f  anne  he  sente  •  swif  e  al  a-boute 
to  alle  f  e  lordes  of  his  land  *  to  lasse  &  to  more, 
fat  ou3ten  him  omage  •  or  ani  seute  elles,  1080 

&  warned  hem  werfore  •  he  wi^tly  hem  of-sent, 
&  het  hem  alle  hi^e  fider  •  as  harde  as  f  ei  mi3t, 
wel  warnished  for  f  e  werre  *  wif  clene  hors  &  armes. 
whanne   femperours   komauwdmewt    *   was   kud   al   a- 
boute,  1084 


1  MS.  "oiwr  gart  gret  ;"  see  note. 


MS.  "a-greuea. 


THE    EMPEROR   ASKS    ADVICE   OP    HIS    LORDS. 


43 


Mani  was  fat  bold  barn  •  fat  busked  f ider  sone, 

kinges  &  kud  dukes  •  &  kni^tes  ful  gode, 

&  of  er  bold  burnes  •  a-boute  sexti  f  ousand, 

alle  boutt  to  batayle  •  in  ful  bri3t  armes. 

and  ri^t  in-to  rome  •  alle  f  e  rinkes  drowe, 

to  wite  f  emperours  wille  •  how  he  wirche  f  ou^t. 


Kings,  dukes, 
knights,  and  men 
came  to  him, 
60,000  in  all;  and 
1088    all  ready  for 
battle. 


T  TThanne  wilU'am  fat  worf  i  child  •  wist  of  fat  fare, 

was  no  glader  gom  •  fat  euer  god  made,  1092 

he  went  euen  to  f  emperour  *  &  enys  him  sayde, 
knelyng  on  his  kne  •  curteysli  &  faire, 
"  Gode  sir,  for  goddis  loue  •  grant  me  a  bone  ; 
3if  me  f  e  ordur  of  kni^t  •  to  go  to  f  is  dedus,  1096 

&  i  hope  to  heuene  king  •  mi  help  schal  nou^t  fayle, 
fat  i  nel  manly  wif  mi  n^t  •  meynte[ne]  ^our  rijt." 
f  emperour  was  gretly  glad  *  &  graunted  his  wille, 
&  made  him  kni3t  on  the  morwe  •  &  mo  for  his  sake. 
of  proude  princes  sones  •  dou^ti  men  toward,  1101 

Fulle  foure  schore  •  for  williames  loue, 
&  3af  hem  hors  &  armes  •  as  an  hend  lord  schold, 
&  made  wilh'am  here  wardeyn  *  as  he  wel  xni^t,      1104 
to  gye  &  to  gouerne  *  f  e  gay  yong  kni^tes. 
&  whanne  f  empe[r]ours  ost  •  was  holli  a-sembled, 
he  told  to-fore  f  e  grete  •  his  tene  &  his  harmes, 
how  fe  duk  of  saxoyne  •  dede  him  gret  wrong,        1108 
brent  his  nobul  burwes  •  &  his  burnes  quelled, 
&  komande  hem  kendely  •  here  cu?iseile  to  ^eue, 
In  what  wise  were  best  *  to  wreke  him  f  anne. 
&  alle  seide  at  o  sawe  *  "sire,  we  $ou  rede,  1112 

strecches  forf  wif  ^our  ost  •  stintef  no  lenger, 
&  fondes  to  do  f  e  duk  •  what  duresse  36  may. 
hampres  him  so  harde  •  to  sum  cost  fat  be  drawe, 


When  William 
heard  of  it,  he 
was  very  glad. 


[Fol.  20  6.] 
and  prayed  the 
emperor  to  grant 
him  a  boon,  viz. 
to  knight  him. 


The  emperor 
gladly  knighted 
both  him  and  80 
others,  making 
William  their 
warden. 


sewes  him  to  sum  cite  *  &  a-sege  him  fere, 
til  36  wif  fin.  fors  •  f  e  freke  haue  wonne." 


1116 


The  emperor  tells 
his  men  what 
harm  the  king  of 
Saxony  has  done, 


and  asks  their 
advice. 


They  advise  him 
to  pursue  the 
duke  to  some  city, 
and  shut  him  up 
there. 


W 


hanne  f  emperour  wist   wel  •  bfel  wille  of  his  cun-  They  set  out. 

*  L  J  well  furnished 

with  provisions. 


44 


PREPARATIONS  FOR  THE  BATTLE. 


They  soon  came 
to  where  the  duke 
was. 


The  duke  sends  to 
defy 

[FoL  21.] 


and  challenge  the 
emperor. 


The  emperor  tells 
William  of  this 
challenge. 


William  says  he 
hopes  they  will 
abate  the  duke's 
pride. 


Both  hosts  pre- 
pare for  the 
battle. 


he  di}t  him  deliuerly  •  &  dede  him  on  gate 

holly  wif  al  his  herde  •  fat  he  hade  a-sembled.        1120 

&  wel  f  ei  were  warnestured  •  of  viiayles  i-now, 

plentiuosly  for  al  peple  •  to  passe  where  f  ei  wold. 

&  so  harde  f  ei  hi^ed  fan  •  i  hote  f  e  for  sof  e, 

fat  al  fe  clene  curapanye  •  com  to  fe  place  1124 

nei}  fere  as  f e  dou^ti  duk  •  duresse  so  wrou^t. 

to  f  e  duk  was  it  told  tit  *  trewli  f  e  sof  e, 

how  f  emperour  wif  ost l  '  f  ider  was  come, 

to  a-wreke  him  of  f  e  wrong  •  fat  fan  was  wrou^t  fere, 

&  swife  for  bobaur^ce  &  bost  •  burnes  he  sent         1129 

enuiously  to  f emperour  •  &  egged  him  swife 

bi  a  certayne  day  •  bataile  to  a- bide, 

or  elles,  he  sent  him  to  say  •  schortely  he  wold       1132 

bruttene  alle  hise  burnes  •  &  brenne  his  londes. 

f  ise  tyding  were  told  •  to  f  emperour  sone, 

&  wi^tly  whan  he  f  anne  wist  •  willi^m  he  calle[d],2 

fat  3ong  bold  bachiler  •  &  bliue  him  told  1136 

how  despitously  f  e  duk  •  of  fat  dede  him  warned, 

to  be  boun  be  a  certayne  day  •  batayle  to  holde. 

sir  willmm  ful  wisly  •  f  ise  wordes  fanne  seide, 

"  sir,  god  for  his  grace  •  graurct  ^ou  wel  to  spede,    1140 

to  a-bate  f  e  bost  •  of  fat  breme  duke. 

&  so  hope  i  wel,  sire  •  we  schal  atte  best." 

ful  menskfully  to  f  e  messangeres  •  f  emperour  fan  seide, 

he  wold  be  boun  blef  eli  •  f  e  bold  batayle  to  hold,    1144 

&  f  ei  bliue  dude  hem  forf  •  &  f  e  duk  tolde. 

fan  bofe  parties  prestly  •  a-paraylde  hem  fat  time 

of  alle  tristy  a-tir  •  fat  to  batayle  longed, 

&  made  hem  alle  merie  •  in  fe  mene  while,  1148 

til  f  e  selue  day  fat  was  set  •  sof  ly  was  come, 

&  bofe  partyes  here  place  •  pertiliche  hade  chosen 

In  a  ful  fayre  feld  \feifly  to  telle. 

fanne  busked  fei  here  batayles  •  on  fe  best  wise,    1152 

1  MS.  has  a  blank  space  between  "ost"  and  "  fider  ;"  see  note. 

2  Read  "  called."— M. 


WILLIAM'S  FIERCE  ONSET  ON  THE  FOE.  45 

&  whanne  f  e  renkes  were  arayed  •  redly  as  f  ei  wold, 

bugles  &  bemes  •  men  gun  blowe  fast,  S^tl8^ 

&  alle  maner  menstracie  •  fere  was  mad  f  anne,  blown. 

forto  hardien  fe  hertes  •  of  here  liei^h  burnes.          1156 

panne  bi-gan  f  e  batayle  •  breme  for  f  e  nones  ;  The  batt1e  begin3- 

Mani  strok  in  litel  stourade  *  sternely  was  f  er  ^euen, 

&  mani  a  bold  burne  •  sone  brou^t  of  line. 

but  schortly  for  to  telle  •  fe  schap  of  fis  tale,          1160 

be  duk  hade  be  doustiere  me?*  •  to  deme  be  sof  e,  The  duke>s  men 

were  most 

&  mani  mo  jjan  pemperour  *  &  pei  so  manly  fou^ten,        numerous. 

fat  balfully  pe  ferst  batayle  •  pel  brutned  to  def  e, 

&  fai  ful  fast  for  fere  •  gurcne  fle  fan  fat  mi^t  ;       1164 

but  be  almaims  seweden  sadly  *  &  slowe  dourc  rhtes.  CFoi.  21  &.] 

The  Almayns 

whan  f  emperour  say  fat  si^t  *  his  men  so  i-quelled,  prevail  against 

him  was  wonderli  wo  *  witow  for  sof  e. 

ful  pitousli  fan  preiede  he  •  to  fe  prince  of  heuene  1168 

forto  giif  him  grace  •  his  gomes  to  saue, 

&  seide,  "  hei^h  king  of  heuene  •  for  f  i  holy  name, 

ne  fauore  nou$t  so  my  [fo]  [  •  fat  falsly  me  so  marres. 

for  god  what  2,  i  na  gult  him  neuer  •  to  gif  lam  enche-  cause> 

soun  1172 

forto  wirch  me  no  wrong  •  ne  werre  on  my  londe. 
&  lord  !  he  is  my  lege  man  •  lelly  f  ou  knowes, 
for  holly  f  e  londes  fat  he  has  *  he  holdes  of  mi-selue, 
f  er-for  f  e  wronger  he  wirches  •  al  f  e  world  may  know, 
for-fi  a  mynde  on  me,  lord  •  for  fi  moder  loue,        1177 
help  me  haue  f  e  herre  hand  •  her-affter  in  my  ri^t  !  " 


TTTilKcmi  f  e  ^ong  kni^t  •  was  so  nei^h  be-side, 

bat  he  herd  be  pytous  pleint  •  bat  bemperour  made,  wmiam  hears 

'  him,  and  calls  to 

&  siked  for  sorwe  fer-of  *  sore  wif-alle.                     1181  his  men 
but  quicly  clepud  he  •  f  e  ^ong  knifes  alle, 
&  seide,  "  leue  lordinges  •  lestenes  to  mi  sawe  ; 

nouj  go  we  kife  oure  kni3thod  -for  cn'stes  lone  of  p^te  theSme  to 

heuene,                                                                 1184  k»ishthood- 

1  Bead  "  my/<*  that  falsly."—  M.  8  8io.    Eead  "  wot." 


46 


WILLIAM    IS    TAKEN,   BUT    RESCUED. 


William's  fierce 
onset. 


He  slays  six  of 
the  greatest  with 
his  own  hand, 


including  the 
duke's  nephew 
and  his  steward. 
[Fol.  22.] 


The  duke  is  mad 
with  wrath,  and 
points  out 
William  to  his 
men. 


They  rush  oflf  to 
attack  William, 


•who  is  at  last 
overpowered  and 
captured. 


Lo,  oure  folk  ginnep  to  falle  *  for  defaute  of  help. 

lettes  nou3t  for  3oure  liues  •  3our  lord  forto  socoure, 

hasteli  wip  god  hert  nou3  •  hi3es  3ou  to  pe  dede,      1187 

&  ho-so  failep  for  feyntyce  *  wild  fur  him  for-brenne  ! " 

pan  wi3tly  boute  mo  wordes  •  wilk'am  ginnes  ride, 

fresly  toward  here  fos  *  as  frek  out  of  witte  ; 

pere  pe  pres  was  perelouste  •  he  pn'ked  in  formest, 

&  blessed  so  wip  his  bri3t  bront  *  a-boute  in  eche  side, 

pat  what  rink  so  he  rau3t  *  he  ros  neuer  after.         1193 

&  sopli  forto  seie  *  wip-inne  a  schort  while, 

wilh'am  wip  his  owne  hond  •  so  wi3tliche  pleide, 

pat  he  slow  six  of  pe  grettes[t]  •  sop  forto  telle,        1196 

&  pat  dottiest  were  of  dede  •  of  pe  dukes  ost. 

pat  on  was  his  neuew  •  a  nobul  kni3t  of  armes, 

pat  oper  was  his  stiward  •  pat  s^tled  al  his  meyne. 

pe  optir  were  lordes  of  pat  lond  *  lelly  of  pe  best.     1200 

&  whanne  pe  duk  was  Avar  •  how  willzam  him  demeyned, 

&  how  balfully  he  brutned  •  Ips  burnes  to  depe, 

&  nameliche  for  his  newe  •  pat  nam  he  most  to  herte, 

he  wax  nei3  ou3t  of  his  witte  •  for  wrap  &  for  anger, 

&  clepud  on  his  kni3tes  •  pat  kene  were  &  nobul,  1205 

&  seide,  "  lordinges,  for  my  loue  •  no  lenger  ne  stintes, 

but  chases  pat  kene  knijt  •  pat  pis  kare  vs  werches. 

Loo,  how  luperly  pat  lud  •  leyes  on  oure  burnes,     1208 

non  may  is  sterne  strok  •  wipstande  pat  he  hittes." 

pus  despitusly  fie  duk  •  drayed  him  panne, 

pat  his  kni3tes  swipe  swore  *  what  [so]  it  bi-tidde, 

pei  wold  winne  wilKam  wijtly  •  oper  quik  or  dede.    1212 

pan  ride  to-gedere  a  gret  route  •  of  rinkes  ful  nobul, 

&  went  euen  to  sir  wilh'am  •  &  wonderli  him  bi-sette  ; 

ac  he  wip  dou3ti  dentes  •  defended  him  long, 

but,  sopliche  for  to  telle  •  so  was  he  ouer-macched,  1216 

pat  pei  wip  fyn  force  •  for-barred  his  strokes, 

&  wouradede  him  wikkedly  •  &  wonne  him  of  his  stede, 

&  bounden  him  as  bliue  •  him  bale  to  wirche, 

&  drowen  him  toward  pe  duk  •  his  dom  forto  hero. 


HE    TAKES    THE   DUKE   PRISONER.  47 

but  willmm  whhes  •  bat  whtly  of-sehyen,  1221  Butwmiam's 

men  come  to  his 

&  demened  hem  do^tili  *  dintes  te  dele,  rescue, 

f  e  3ong  kene  ki^tes  •  so  kudden  here  strengf  e, 

fat  fei  wonne  hem  wijtly  •  weyes  ful  large,  1224 

til  fei  hadde  perced  f  e  pres  •  pertily  to  here  maister, 

&  rescuede  him  rediliche  •  for !  rinkes  fat  him  ladden.      unbind  him. 

fan  fei  him  vnbond  bliue  •  &  broi^t  him  his  stede, 

&  triliche  was  he  a-tired  •  in  ful  tristy  armes ;         1228 

his  scheld  on  his  schulder  •  a  scharp  swerd  in  honde. 

&  whan  f  is  wilKam  was  3are  •  he  waited  him  a-boute,      wmiamSrene°w8  '' 

lef erly  as  a  lyoun  •  he  lepes  in-to  f  e  prese,  the  attack>       f 

prestly  fer  as  fe  pres  *  of  peple  was  fikkest.  1232 

f  anne   lente   he   swiche   leuere  •  to  ledes   fat   he  of- 

rau^t, 

fat  f  e  lif  sone  he  les  •  fat  lau^t  ani  dint, 
&  euer  ban  drow  he  to  be  duk  •  deland  swiche  paye.  i*°i- 22  M 

cutting  his  way 

&  as  sone  as  he  him  seia  •  he  sesed  a  spere,  1236  through  to  the 

duke. 

&  dressed  him  to  J>e  duk  •  presteli  to  iuste. 

&  whan  fe  duk  was  war  •  fat  he  wold  come,  encounters  him 

boute  feyntice  of  feuer2  *  he  festned  his  spere, 

&  grimly  wif  gret  cours  •  ei^fer  gerdef  ofer.  1240 

&  wilK#m  wif  god  wille  •  so  wel  f  e  duk  hitt, 

fat  f  urth  scheld  &  scholder  •  f  e  scharpe  spere  grint, 

&  hetterly  bof e  hors  &  man  •  he  hurled  to  fa  grouwle,    wuiiam  hurls 

fanne  li^tlylep  he  a-doun  •  &  Iau3t  out  his  brond,  1244  ground. 

&  deliuerliche  to  f  e  duk  •  deuoteliche  he  seide, 

"sire,  fou  seidest  me  3er-while  •  fou  schuldest  me  do  Sh^i^thank- 

o  n  P!  1  P  ful  for  his  °wn 

escape, 

&  madest  f  i  men  me  binde  •  meschef  to  f  ole  ; 

but  gretly  y  fonk  god  •  fat  gart  me  a-chape,  1248 

&  dede  f  e  wante  f  i  wille  •  for  fou  wrong  f  outest. 

but,  sire,  in  f  e  same  seute  •  sett  artow  nou^, 

&  y  am  prest  as  f  i  prisou7^  •  to  paye  f  e  my  ransum ! 

$eld  fe  to  me  ^eply  •  or  3erne  fou  schalt  deie,         1252 

Yor  alle  fe  men  vpon  mold  •  ne  mow  it  now  lette."          mercy« 

Head  "  fro."  «  Eead  "  boute  feyntice,  on  feuter  "  (?) 


48 


THE  ROMANS  ROUT  THE  SAXONS. 


The  duke  yields 
up  his  sword,  and 
asks  for  mercy. 


William  takes  his 
sword,  and  takes 
him  to  the 
emperor, 


who  embraces 
and  kisses  William 
for  joy. 

Then  William 
delivered  the  duke 
to  the  emperor. 


[FoL  23.] 


The  duke's  men 
fled  away  as  fast 
as  they  could. 


The  Romans 
pursued  them, 
slaying  and 
taking  prisoners, 


so  that  very  few 
of  them  got 
away. 


Night  fell,  and  it 
grew  very  dark, 


and  some  got 
away  in  the 
darkness. 


T*e  duk  fan  was  in  drede  •  &  wend  to  deie  sone, 
-•     &  lelly,  f  ou^h  him  lof  f  ou^t  •  no  lenger  to  striue, 
swife  he  jald  vp  his  swerd  •  to  saue  f  anne  his  Hue,  1256 
&  seide,  "  marc,  for  f  i  mensk  •  haue  mercy  on  me  nouf  e, 
lette  me  noujt  lese  f  e  liif  jut  •  lord,  y  f  e  bi-cheche." 
f  anne  will-tain  witly  •  as  a  wijh  hende, 
receyued  of  fat  riche  duk  *  realy  his  swerde,  1260 

&  euen  to  fempmnir  •  wif  him  fan  he  hi^ed. 
wanne  f  emperour  seijh  wilh'am  come  •  &  wif  him  f  e 

duke, 

he  was  on  fe  gladdest  gome  •  fat  mijt  go  on  erf  e ; 
&  willwtm  f  anne  to  welkome  *  he  wendes  him  ajeynes, 
&  clipte  him  kindeli  •  &  kest  fele  sifes.  1265 

fan  wilh'am  wijtly  •  as  he  wel  couf  e, 
profered  him  fat  prisoner  •  prestely  at  his  wille 
to  do  fan  wif  fe  duk  •  what  him  dere  foujt.  1268 

f emperour  fat  worf i  wilh'am  •  wel  oft  fan  f onked 
of  f e  grete  grace  fat  god  •  godliche  fere  schewede, 
&  strokes  was  f  er  delt  na  mo  •  fram  f  e  duk  was  take. 
For  al  his  folk  fan  gu/me  fle  •  as  fast  as  fei  mijt,  1272 
&  he  fat  hadde  best  hors  •  fan  held  him  best  saued. 
but  f  emperours  men  manly  •  made  f  e  chace, 
&  slowen  doun  bi  eche  side  •  wham  fei  of-take  mijt, 
but  jif  fei  manly  hem  meked  •  mercy  to  crie.          1276 
&  euer  wilh'am  so  wijtly  •  went  hem  a-mong 
to  f  e  boldest  burnes  •  as  he  bi-fore  hadde, 
fat  sof ly  dar  y  seie  •  f urth  his  socour  f anne, 
Bljt  fewe  went  a-wey  *  vn-woundet  or  take.  1280 

ac  hadde  f  e  day  last  lenger  •  lelli  to  seye, 
no  wijt  a-wei  hadde  schaped  *  i  wot  wel  f  e  sof  e. 
but  f  e  ni3t  was  so  neijh  •  fat  non  rnijt  sen  of  er 
fe  furfe  del  of  a  furlong  *  from  him  fat  time.         1284 
&  in  fat  derk  f  e  dukes  [men] l  •  wif -drow  hem  manie, 
&  ho-so  hardest  mijt  hije  •  held  him  noujt  bi-giled. 
f emperour2  wif  nioche  merf e  •  his  men  fan  meled ; 
1  Bead  "  the  dukes  men."  -M.  2  MS.  "  fempour." 


THE    SAXONS    SUBMIT    TO    THE   EMPEROE. 


&  whanne  fei  same/I  were  a-sembled  •  sof  for  to  telle, 
fei  hadde  take  fat  time  •  of  trie  grete  lordes  1289 

Fulle  fiue  hundered  •  of  ful  nobul  prisouns, 
wif-oute  alle  f  e  burnes  •  fat  in  batayle  deide. 
fan  was  f  emperour  greteli  glad  •  &  ofte  god  f  onked, 
&  williams  werk  •  fat  he  so  wel  hadde  spedde.       1293 
&  holliche  f  anne  wif  his  host  •  hi^ede  to  here  tentes 
wif  merf  e  of  alle  menstracye  •  &  made  hem  attese, 
&  turned  to  rest  at  time  *  til  erliche  a  morwe.         1296 
&  wanne  fei  were  a-rise  •  fei  remewed  to  cherche, 
&  herden  holly  here  masse  •  &  afterward  sone 
f  emperour  al  holliche  •  his  cuwseyle  dede  clepe, 
&  sone  bi  here  a-sent  •  at  fat  selue  time,  1 300 

E^t  as  william  wold  •  fat  wisly  him  radde, 
alle  f  e  dou^thi  lordes  •  of  f  e  dukis  were  take ; 
he  dede  fecche  hem  him  bi-fore  •  &  freyned  hem  swif  e, 
}if  fei  wold  of  him  holly  •  halde  alle  here  londes.   1 304 
&  fei  graunted  godli  •  ful  glad  of  fat  sawe, 
&  alle  anon  ri^tes  •  fere  omage  him  dede, 
&  f  emperour  wel  loueliche  •  deliuered  hefw]  f  enne, 
&  sonte  wif  hem  sondes  •  to  saxoyne  fat  time,        1308 
&  nomen  ornage  in  his  name  *  nou^t  forto  layne, 
Forto  ri^tleche  fat  reaurne  real  *  of  riche  &  of  pore. 
whanne  fat  dede  was  do  •  dernly  at  wille, 
and  alle  lele  lawes  •  in  fat  lond  sette,  1312 

&  alle  f  e  peple  held  hem  payed  •  pes  forto  haue ; 
whanne  f  emperour  it  wist  •  he  was  wel  a-payed, 
&  loueliche  wif  alle  his  lordes  •  to  lumbardie  fares, 
wif  alle  f  e  merf  e  vpow  molde  •  fat  man  mi^t  diuise  ; 
but  feifli  his  felachipe  •  forf  wif  him  he  hadde.      1317 
f  e  dou^ty  duk  of  saxoyne  •  f  e  duel  fat  he  made, 
for  his  peple  was  slayn  •  &  to  prison  take, 
&  wist  fan  he  hade  wrongly  •  wroi^t  f u^th  his  pride ; 
&  swiche  duel  drow  to  hert  •  for  his  dedus  ille,       1321 
fat  he  deide  on  f  e  fifte  day  •  to  talke  f  e  sof  e. 
whanne  f  emperour  fat  wist  *  wi^tly  he  comanded, 

4 


Five  hundred  had 
been  taken,  and 
many  slain. 


The  Romans 
retire  to  their 
tents. 


Next  morning, 
ttey  go  to  church 
and  hear  mass. 


The  prisoners  are 
brought,  and 
asked  if  they  will 
submit  to  the 
emperor. 

LFoL  23  ftj 

They  gladly  do 
him  homage,  and 
are  released. 


All  being  thus 
settled  as 
regarded  Saxony, 


the  emperor 
marched  to 
Lombardy. 


The  duke  of 
Saxony  felt  such 
grief  for  the 
wrong  he  had 
done. 


that  he  died  on 
the  fifth  day. 


50 


THE  EMPEROR'S  MESSAGE  TO  MELIOR. 


He  is  buried 
honourably. 


The  emperor 
returns  to  Rome, 


fending  mes- 
sengers before 
him  to  his 
daughter. 


greet  Melior,  and 
tell  their 


[Fol.  24.] 
Melior  asks  if  the 
enemy  gave 
them  much 
trouble, 


and  they  say,  it 
was  a  very  sharp 
encounter. 


The  duke's 
numerous  host 
would  have 
prevailed,  but  for 
ihe  succour  of  a 
certain  knight, 


L  e.  William,  the 
one  but  newly 
knighted. 


to  burye  him  as  out  to  be  •  swiche  a  burne  uobul, 

wif  alle  worchipe  &  wele  j  '  so  was  he  sone.1          1325 

fan  remued  f  emperour  •  toward  rome  euene, 

&  wi^tly  william  wif  him  •  fat  was  wounded  sore  ; 

but  lelly  nobul  leches  *  loked  to  his  woundes,         1328 

fat  seide  he  schuld  be  sauf  *  &  sweteliche  heled. 

messangers  ful  manly  •  f  emperour  fanne  sente, 

by-fore  to  his  dere  doubter  •  to  do  hire  to  wite 

fat  he  come  wif  his  companie  •  as2  crist  wold,  al  saf. 

f  e  messangeres  ful  manly  •  to  meliors  fanne  spedde, 

&  gretten  hire  godli  •  whan  fei  fat  gode  seie,          1334 

&  mynged  here  message  •  to  fat  mayde  hende, 

how  kir  fader  in  helf  e  •  horn  wold  come 

feifli  wif-inne  f  e  fourtene-ni^t  •  wif  his  frekes  bold. 

Gret  merfe  to  fe  messangeres  •  meliors  fan  made,  1338 

for  f  e  tidy  tidinges  •  fat  ti^tly  were  seide. 

"  nou3,  faire  frendes,  be  3our  feif  •  fond  30  ani  lette 

of  segges  of  f  e  of  er  side  •  fat  sette  3ou  a-geynes  ?  " 

"  o  madame  !  "  seide  f  e  messageres  •   "  what  mele  36 

nouf e 1 

sef  f  e  crist  deide  on  f  e  croyce  •  mankinde  to  saue, 
30  ne  herde  neuer,  y  hope  •  of  so  hard  a  cuwter,       1344 
ne  of  so  fele  burnes  •  at  on  batayle  slayne  ! " 
"  telles  how  3ou  tidde  "  •  seide  meliors  fanne. 
"  Madame,"  seide  f  e  messageres  •  "  be  marie  in  heuen, 
f  e  duk  hadde  so  gret  an  host  •  of  gode  men  of  armes, 
fat  sofli  al  oure  side  *  sone  slayn  hadde  bene,         1349 
nadde  f  e  socour  of  o  seg  •  fat  in  oure  side  dwellef , 
fat  ha]?  lengf ed  al  oure  [Hues]  3  •  leue  36  forsof e, 
Jmrth  fe  dou3ti  dedes  •  fat  he  haf  do  fere."  1352 

"swete  sire,  what  is  he ?"  •  fat  seide  meliors  sone. 
"  I-wisse,"  he  seide,  "  it  is  willmm  •  fat  is  newe  kni3ted, 
he  may  lelly  be  hold  a  lord  •  &  ledere  of  peples, 
Forto  weld  al  fe  world  •  to  wisse  &  to  rede,  1356 

1  This  line  and  the  preceding  one  are  transposed  in  the  MS. 

2  MS.  «  al."  3  Read  "  al  oure  Hues."— M.    Cf.  1.  1360. 


MELIOR'S  JOY  AT  HEARING  ABOUT  WILLIAM.  51 

for  per  nis  king  vnder  crist  •  pat  he  ouer-com  nolde. 

I-wisse,  nade  his  werk  be  •  we  mow  nouat  for-sake,          But  for  him- the 

battle  would  Lave 

pi  fader  and  al  his  folk  •  so  misfaren  hadde,  been  lost. 

pat  alle  here  Hues  in  a  stounde  •  hadde  be  lore."     1360 

panne  told  pei  hire  tijtly  •  al  pe  trewe  sope, 

at  how  miche  meschef  •  here  men  were  formest, 

&  sebbe  how  wiatly  willmm  •  went  to  here  foos,  But  wuiiam 

attacked  and  took 

&  dede  deliuerly  nym  pe  duk  •  to  talke  pus  formest ;        the  duke. 

&  seppe  pe  grettesft]  lordes  •  he  garte  here  liif 'tine,  1365 

&  also  pei  told  trewli  •  how  he  was  take  him-selue,  He  was  once 

taken  himself, 

&  reddely  wib  his  owne  rinkes  •  rescued  after  :l  butnis  men 

rescued  him. 

&  seppe  what  dedes  he  dede  •  he  tok  pe  selue  duk,   1368 

and  brou^t  purth  is  bolde  dedes  •  pe  batayle  to  hende ; 

&  sepen  how  be  duk  for  duel  *  deyde  in  here  ward,          The  duke  had 

died  of  pure  grief. 

&  how  al  saxoyne  was  set  •  wip  wel  sadde  lawes, 

to  wirche  here  faderes  wille  •  pur^th  william  dedes. 

&  whan  pis  tale  was  told  •  meliors  tyt  seide,  1373 

"  leue  lordinges,  for  my  loue  *  lelly  me  telles, 

comes  pat  willmm  wip  my  fader  •  &  weldes  his  hele  ? "    ghe[^  ?f4  6>1 

"  ^e  sertes,  madame,"  seide  ]?ei  •  "  he  sewes  ^our  fader  ;    ^m^mh^e 

but  wel  weldes  he  nou3t  his  hele  •  for  wonded  was  he  ^^  her  father- 

sore,  1377 

J>at  greiien  him  gretly  •  but  god  may  do  bote." 
"  For  mary  loue,"  seide  meliors  •  "  mai  he  be  heled  ? " 
"^a  certes,  madame  •  he  is  so  sounde  nowjje,  1380  They  said  he  was 

Jjat  he  may  redly  ride  &  rome  •  whan  jjat  him  likes."       and  weii.  though 

,._  ..  he  had  been 

Meiiors  to  pe  messageris  •  ]>an  made  gret  loye,  wounded. 

for  Jre  tyding  pat  pei  told  •  touchend  hire  fader. 

but  i  hote  pe,  in  hert  •  sche  hade  swiche  blisse,      1384  Meiior  w«  very 

glad  to  hear  of 

pat  neuer  wommaw  in  pis  world  *  mi^t  weld  more,  wniiam's  doughty 

for  hire  louely  lemmaw  *  hade  swiche  los  wonne, 

to  bere  him  best  in  pat  batayle  •  wip  so  breme  dedus. 

panne  made  pei  hem  [merie]2  •  to  make  schorttale,  1388 

1  The  MS.  has  "rescued  him  after"  ;  but  either  wn>  or  him 
must  be  struck  out. 

2  The  alliteration  would  lead  us  to  supply  merie M.     Sec 

1.  1409. 

4  • 


52 


AN  EMBASSY  FROM  THE  GREEK  EMPEROR. 


After  a  week,  the 
emperor  arrives. 


Melior  goes  out  to 
meet  him, 


kissing  her  father, 
and  William 
afterwards. 


She  whispered  to 
William  to  come 
to  her  chamber. 


The  Romans 
make  great  joy, 
only  lament  for 
their  friends 

slain. 


[Fol.  25.] 
William  went  to 
Melior  when  he 
saw  opportunity. 


Alexandrine  kept 
their  counsel  well. 


One  Easter-tide, 
the  emperor 
summons  all  his 
lords  and  ladies. 


soply  al  pat  seueni^t ;  •  &  so,  atte  last, 

pemperour  &  alle  peple  *  to  his  palays  come ; 

Receyued  was  he  of  romaynes  •  realy  as  lord. 

panne  meliors  ful  mekly  •  wip  maydenes  fele,          1 392 

ferde  out  a-^ens  hire  fader  •  &  faire  him  gret, 

&  hire  louely  lemmaw  •  lelly  next  after, 

&  made  hem  as  moche  ioye  *  as  mi^t  any  burde ; 

Kyndeliche  clipping  •  and  kessing  hire  fader,          1396 

&  wip  a  curteise  cuwtenaunce  *  wilKam  next  after, 

for  no  seg  pat  it  seye  •  schuld  schoche  but  gode. 

but  pnueli  un-perceyued  •  sche  praide  wilKam  panne, 

to  seche  softily  to  hire  chaumber  *  as  sone  as  he  mi^t. 

&  he  bi  quinte  contenance  *  to  come  he  granted,     1401 

for  he  ne  durst  openly  •  for  ouer-trowe  of  gile ; 

but  wel  sche  knew  purth  konnyng  •  at  pat  cas  his  wille. 

to  long  mater  most  it  be  •  to  myng  al  pe  ioye,         1404 

&  pe  real  romayns  array  *  foi  here  lordes  sake, 

&  pe  mochel  mornyng  •  pei  made  for  here  frendes, 

whanne  pei  wist  witterly  •  whiche  in  batayle  deyde. 

but  confort  for  pe  conquest  •  pei  caujt  sone  after,    1408 

&  made  hem  as  mery  *  as  ani  men  coupe.1 

&  wilKam  went  to  meliors  •  whan  he  sei^  time, 

&  layked  him  at  likyng  •  wip  pat  faire  burde 

pleyes  of  paramo ws  •  vn-parceyued  longe  time,       1412 

so  sliliche,  pat  no  seg  *  scouched  non  ille. 

but  algate  alysaundrine  •  atte  wille  hem  serued, 

pat  non  knew  here  cunseile  •  but  pei  pre  one. 

"Hut  panne  tidde  on  a  time  •  titly  per-after,  1416 

'  pemperour  erded  stille  in  rome  •  at  pe  ester  tide, 
&  for  pat  solempne  sesoura 2  •  dede  somourc  alle  pe  grete, 
of  lordes  &  ladies  •  pat  to  pat  lond  partened. 
and  alle  to  his  comandemewt  •  comen  ful  sone,        1420 
&  derly  at  pat  day  •  wip  deynteyes  were  pei  serued. 
as  pei  were  meriest  at  mete  •  to  menge  al  pe  sope, 


Catchword—"  &  willtom."   „ 


2  MS.  "eofou.1 


LORD    ROACHA8    GIVES    THE   MESSAGE.  53 

xxx  busy  burnes  •  barounes  ful  bolde,  As  th°y  feasted, 

30  men  came  from 

comen  in  manly  message  *  fro  femperour  of  grece,,  1424  the  emperor  of 

&  bi  kinde  of  kostant-noble  •  keper  was  f  anne. 

f  e  messageres  ri^t  realy  *  were  arayde,  for  sof  e, 

al  in  glimerand  gold  •  gref  and !  to  ri^tes,  a11  richly  attired 

It  were  tor  for  to  telle  •  al  here  atyr  riche.  1428 

but  euer  to  f  emperour  •  alle  f  ei  ^ede  in-fere, 

&  kurtesliche  vpora  here  knes  *  f  ei  komsed  him  grete 

Godli  fro  f  emperour  of  grece  •  &  fro  his  gode  sone. 

&  f  emperour  ful  semly  •  seide  to  hem  banne,  1432  The  emperor 

1  greets  them,  and 

"  he  fat  made  man  mest  •  ^our  Hues  mot  saue,  asks  their 

&  alle  ^oure  clene  cowpanie  •  crist  ^if  hew  ioye 

for  J>e  menskfulles[t]  messageres  *  fat  euer  to  me  come  ! " 


0 


n  of  fe  barons  bold  •  bi-guwne  to  schewe  here  nedes, 
fat  was  a  gret  lord  in  grece  •  roachas  he  hi3t,    1437 


&  seide  soberly  to  bemperour  *  in  bis  selue  wise.  A  great  lord, 

named  RoaChns, 

"  Leue  lord  &  hides  •  lesten  to  mi  sawes  !  replies 

fe  gode  emperour  of  grece  •  fe  grettest  of  us  alle,    1440 

whas  messageres  we  be  mad  *  to  muwge  3011  his  wille, 

sendes  you  to  seie  *  he  has  a  sone  dere,  ^  the  emPeror 

J  of  Greece  has  a 

on  f  e  triest  man  to-ward  *  of  alle  dou^ti  dedes,  d«ar  «>n 

fat  any  man  vpon  molde  *  may  of  here,  1444 

fat  schal  be  emperour  after  him  •  of  heritage  bi  kynde. 


&  he  haf  oft  herde  sayd  •  of  ^oure  semly  doubter,  emperor  after 

how  fair,  how  fetis  sche  is  *  how  freli  schapen  ;       1447 

&  for  f  e  loos  on  hire  is  leide  •  &  loue  of  ^our-selue, 

he  prayeth,  lord,  vowche-sauf  *  fat  his  sone  hire  wedde.  JjJ^wlj|^01J> 

Grucche  nou^t  f  er-a-gayn  •  but  godli,  i  rede, 

Graunte  f  is  faire  forward  •  fulfillen  in  haste. 

&  3if  ye  so  dof  ,  i  dar  seie  •  &  sofliche  do  proue,     1452 

sche  schal  weld  at  wille  •  more  gold  ban  ae  siluer  :  she  ta  *o  have 

more  gold  than  ye 

&  haue  n4o  solempne  cites  •  and  semliche  casteles,  havesUver. 

]>an  36  treuly  han  smale  tounes  •  o[r]  vnty^di  houses  ,     sY+t*» 
&  herof,  sire,  \ri$t\y  '  3our  wille  wold  we  kuowe.     1450 

1  We  ought  probably  to  read  greithed.  —  M. 


54 


WILLIAM    HEARS    HOW    MELIOB 


AS  the  emperor's 

lords  are  all  there, 

he  can  give  his 

answer  at  once. 


He  and  his  lords 


The  marriage  is 

to  be  made  at 

Midsummer. 


The  messengers 

return  to  Greece, 

loaded  with  gifts. 


The  report  of  the 

marriage  is 

spread  through 


play, 


[Foi.  26.] 


and  rode  home, 

feeUng  well-nigh 


He  went  to  bed 

and  fell  sick. 


All  who  heard  of 
it  were  much 
grieved. 


f  e  grete  lordes  of  3our  land  •  bef  lenged  now  here, 

36  mow  wi^tly  now  wite  •  ^our  wille  &  ^our  rede, 

&  wi^tly  do  vs  to  wite  •  what  answere  $ou  likes."    1459 

f  emperour  calde  his  curtseil  •  for  to  knowe  here  wille, 

&  godli  boute  grucching  •  alle  graunted  sone, 

&  setten  a  serteyne  day  •  fat  solempte  to  holde  ; 

&  sad  seurte  was  sikered  •  on  bof  e  sides  f  anne, 

fat  menskful  mariage  to  make  •  at  midesomer  after.   1464 

sone  were  f  e  messagers  made  •  mildli  at  ese, 

while  hem  liked  lende  •  &  lelly,  whan  f  ei  wente, 

Grete  ^iftes  were  giue  •  &  of  gold  &  of  seluer, 

&  fei  wi3tly  went  horn  •  wif  ioye  &  wif  merfe.      1468 

f  e  answere  of  here  herend  •  f  emperour  fei  tolde ; 

Gret  nmrf e  was  mad  •  for  fat  message  in  rome, 

&  f  e  word  went  wide  *  how  f  e  mayde  was  3eue 

rifliche  furth-out  rome  •  &  eche  a  rynk  was  blife  1472 

fat  f  e  milde  meliors  •  so  mariede  scholde  bene 

to  f  emperours  eir  of  grece  •  &  euerich  man  wif  ioye 

teld  it  forf  til  of  er  •  ti3tli  al  a-boute. 

but  fe  worfi  willzctm  *  f  er-of  wist  he  nou3t,  1476 

For  he  was  atte  a  bourdes  *  f  er  bachilers  pleide. 

whanne  f  e  tiding l  was  f  er  told  •  witow  forsof  e, 

out  of  fat  faire  felachip  •  ferde  he  fan  sone 

as  mekeli  as  he  mi3t  •  lest  eni  mysse  trowede ;        1480 

but  whan  he  was  passed  f  e  pres  •  he  pn'kede  as  swif  e 

as  he  mi3t  hi3e  his  hors  *  for  hurtyng  of  spors  ; 

for  he  schold  lese  his  lemmarc  •  his  liif  fan  he  hated.  1484 
wif  care  was  he  ouer-come  •  bi  fat  he  com  to  his  inne, 
fat  he  for  bale  as  bliue  •  to  his  bed  went, 
&  siked  fanne  so  sore  •  fe  sofe  forto  telle,  1487 

fat  uch  wi}h  fat  it  wist  •  wend  he  ne  schuld  keuer. 
&  whan  hit  was  wist  in  rome  •  fat  wilKam  was  sek, 
mochel  was  he  mened  *  of  more  &  of  lasse ; 
for  a  beter  bi-loued  barn  •  was  neuer  born  in  erf  e, 
MS.  "diting";  cf.  1.  1493. 


IS  TO  MARRY  THE  GREEK  EMPEROR  S  SON. 


55 


fan  he  was  wif  ich  wi3t  *  wil  he  woned  in  rome.    1492 

f  e  tiding  ]>an  were  ti^tly  •  to  f  emperour  i-told, 

&  he  fan  swoned  for  sorwe  •  &  swelt  nei^honde  ; 

but  kni^tes  him  vp  cau}t  *  &  comfort  him  beter. 

&  whan  he  J)urth  comfort  •  was  comen  of  his  care,  1496 

he  went  wi^tli  to  wilKam  •  to  wite  how  he  ferde, 

&  kni^tes  folwed  him  for])  •  fine  of  er  sixe. 

anon  as  he  com  him  to  •  he  asked  how  he  ferd. 

"sire!"  J>an  seide  he  softly  •  "certes,  so  ille.  1500 

f  at  i  leue  my  lif  •  last  nou^t  til  to  morwe. 

but  god,  sire,  for  his  grete  mi^t  -  graunt  $ou  ioye, 

for  f  e  worchipe  fat  $e  •  han  wn^t  to  me  $ore." 

whan  f  emperour  hade  herd  •  holly  his  wordes,        1504 

&  seie  him  so  sekly  *  fat  he  ded  semed, 

swiche  sorwe  sank  to  his  hert  •  fat  mi^t  he  nou^t  suffre 

f  er  to  be,  bot  he  mi^t  •  his  bale  haue  slaked  ; 

of  him  wi^tly  he  tok  his  leue  •  &  went  horn  a-^eine, 

weping  as  he  wold  wide  •  for  wo  &  for  sorwe,         1509 

&  deliuerli  to  his  doubter  *  his  del  fan  he  made, 

how  william  hire  worf  i  nory  •  was  nei^e  atte  def  e. 

&  sche  hire  fader  curafort  *  fast  as  sche  imjt,  1512 

but  worse  was  neuer  womaw  •  for  wo  at  hire  herte. 

as  fast  as  hire  fader  •  was  faren  of  J>e  weie, 

sche  wept  &  weiled  •  as  sche  wold  haue  storue, 

&  swoned  ofte  sijje  •  her  sche  sese  nn^t.  1516 

but  alisandrine  anon  •  fat  al  hire  cuwseile  wist, 

comfort  hire  as  sche  coujje  *  wi)>  alle  kinde  speches, 

&  bad  hire  wi}tly  wende  *  to  wite  how  he  ferde. 

"  &  sofliche,  madame  *  so  may  hit  bi-tide,  1520 

^our  comfort  mai  him  keuere  *  &  his  sorwe  slake." 

fan  meliors  mekly  •  hire  maydenes  dede  calle, 

&  many  of  hire  meyne  •  for  drede  of  missespeche, 

&  went  ful  wijtly  •  to  will[i]ams  inne,  1524 

as  nou^t  were  bot  [to]  wite  •  how  fat  he  ferde. 

&  whan  sche  drow  to  his  chauwber  •  sche  dede  ful 


The  emperor 
hears  William  in 
ill,  and  swoons 
for  sorrow. 


He  goes  with  five 
or  six  knights  to 
ask  him  how  he 
fares. 


William  thanks 
him  for  his 
kindness. 


The  emperor  sees 
he  is  almost  dead, 


and  returns  home, 
and  tells  Melior. 


When  her  father 
had  left  her,  she 
wept  and  wailed. 

[Pol.  26  M 


Alexandrine 
comforts  her,  and 
advises  to  go  and 
see  Wiluam. 


Melior,  with 
many  of  her 
maidens,  goes  to 
William's  abode. 


sone 


56 


MELIOR    RENEWS    HER    VOWS    OF    LOVE. 


She  and 
Alexandrine  go 
into  Iris  chamber. 

She  sits  by  his 
bed,  and  prays 
him  to  say  what 
ails  him. 


He  greets  her 
lovingly, 


and  asks  why  she 
has  forsaken  him. 


Yet  he  thanks  her 
for  coming  to  see 
him  now. 


[Fol.  27.] 


Melior  sighs  sadly 
and  weeps, 


arid  assures  him 
he  has  not 
lost  her,  for  she 
will  not  perform 
her  father's  will. 


here  inaydenes  &  of  er  meyne  •  rnekeli  a-stente,  /)&$> 

al  but  alisaundrine  *  alone  fei  tweyne.  1528 

fei  went  in-to  wilh'am  •  wif-oute  any  more, 

&  busked  hem  euen  to  Ms  bed  •  £  bi  him  gunne  sitte, 

&  seide  sone  softly  •  "  my  swete  lemmaro  dere, 

allone  but  alisauwdrine  •  am  i  come  to  fe  1532 

forto  wite  of  f  i  wo  •  &  what  fat  f  e  eiles. 

Mi  perles  paramowrs  l  •  my  pleye  &  my  ioye, 

spek  to  me  spakli  •  or  i  spille  sone." 

\I7illmm  ti3tly  him  turned  •  &  of  hire  tok  hede,  1536 

&  seide  aswif  e  •  "  sweting,  wel-come  ! 
Mi  derworf  e  derling  •  an  my  dere  hert, 
Mi  blis  &  mi  bale  *  fat  botelesse  wol  ende  ! 
but  comliche  creature  •  for  cristes  loue  of  heuene,    1540 
for  what  maner  misgelt  *  hastow  me  forsake, 
fat  lelly  haue  f  e  loued  •  &  wile  i  Hue  f  enke  ? 
feif  H  boute  feintyse  •  J>ou  me  failest  nouf  e, 
fat  hast  turned  fin  entent  *  forto  take  a-nofer.        1544 
Gret  wrong  hastou  wrou^t  •  &  wel  gret  sinne, 
to  do  me  swiche  duresse  •  to  deye  for  f  i  sake. 
but  loueliche  lemmaw  •  oure  lord  mot  f  e  ^eld 
fat  fi  worfi  wille  was  •  to  come  to  me  noufe  ;         1548 
for  J/ow  hast  lengf  ed  my  lif  •  &  my  langour  schortet 
f  urth  f  e  solas  &  f  e  sijt  •  of  f  e,  my  swete  hert  !  " 
&  whan  melior  hadde  herd  *  holly  al  his  wille, 
sche  siked  sadly  for  sorwe  *  &  wel  sore  wepte,         1552 
&  seide,  "  loueliche  lemmas  *  leue  f  ou  for  sof  e, 
alle  men  vpon  molde  *  no  schuld  my  Hif  saue, 
}if  f  ou  wendest  of  f  is  world  •  fat  i  ne  wende  after  ! 
ne,  lemmaw,  lore  hastow  me  nou3t  •  leue  f  ow  forsof  e, 
for  f  ou^h  mi  fader  folliche  •  haue  forwardes  maked,  1557 
wenestow  fat  i  wold  •  his  wille  now  parfourme  ? 
nay,  bi  god  fat  me  gaf  •  fe  gost  and  fe  soule, 
al  fat  trauaile  he  has  tynt  •  what  euer  tyde  after  !  1560 

1  MS.  "  paramo  wrrs." 


WILLIAM    IS    HEALED    OF    HIS   SICKNESS. 


57 


for  pere  nis  maw  vpcw  molde  •  fat  euer  schal  me  haue 

but  36,  loueliche  lemman  •  leue  me  for  trewe, 

In  feij)  fei  y  schold  f  er-fore  •  be  fordon  as  swif  e, 

doluen  dep  quic  on  erf  e  •  to-drawe  or  on-honged ! "  1564 

"  36,  wist  y  fat,"  seide  willmm  •  "  witterly  to  speke, 

of  alle  harmes  were  ich  hoi  *  hastely  ri^t  nouf  e  !  " 

"  3is,  be  marie,"  seide  meliors  •  "  misdrede  3ow  neuer  ; 

I  wil  fulfille  alle  forwardes  •  leifli  in  dede  ! "          1568 

fan  was  willmin  ful  glad l  •  witow  for  sof  e, 

&  etyer  kindeli  clipped  of  er  •  and  kest  wel  ofte, 

&  wrout  elles  here  wille  •  whil  hem  god  liked. 

&  treuly  whan2  time  com  •  fat  f ei  twynne  scholde,    1572 

Meliors  wif  hire  meyne  *  mekeliche  horn  wente ; 

wilh'am  a  stoiwde  stinte  stille  •  at  his  owne  inne, 

of  alle  his  harde  haches  •  heled  atte  best. 

alle  fe  surgens  of  salerne  •  so  sone  ne  cofen  1576 

haue  lesed  his  langour  •  and  his  liif  saued, 

as  f  e  maide  meliors  *  in  a  mile  wei  dede. 

f e  word  wide  went  sone  •  fat  willmm  was  heled, 

&  vche  gome  was  glad  •  and  oft  god  f  onked,  1580 

&  William  on  f  e  morwe  *  wel  him  a-tyred 

Gayli  in  clof  es  of  gold  3  •  &  of  er  gode  harneis, 

&  komes  euen  to  kourt  *  as  kni3t  hoi  &  fere, 

heriend  heiliche  god  •  fat  his  liif  saued.  1584 

&  sofli  as  sone  as  f  emperour  •  say  him  wif  ei3en, 

he  hi3ed  him  hastely  •  &  hent  him  in  his  arm.es, 

&  clupte  him  &  keste  •  kyndeliche  ful  ofte, 

&  fus  fei  left  in  likyng  •  a  god  while  after.  1588 

T>ut  now  more  to  minge  *  of  f  e  messagers  of  grece. 

'  as  tyt  as  fei  had  told  •  trewli  to  here  lord, 
how  realy  fei  were  resceyued  •  in  rome  f  e  riche, 
&  fe  gracious  graunt  •  fei  gaten  of  here  herande,    1592 
f  emperour  of  grece  gretly  •  was  gladed  in  herte. 
swif e  sent  he  sondes  •  to  somoun  fat  time 

1  MS.  "said."  *  MS.  «  wahan."  3  MS.  "glod." 


None  shall  ever 
have  her  but 
William, 

though  she  were 
buried  alive, 
drawn,  or  hanged. 


She  will  never 
break  her  pledge. 


Then  they  kissed 
and  comforted 
each  other. 


Melior  went 
home,  and 
William  was 
healed. 


It  is  soon  known 
that  he  is  healed, 
and  all  men 
thank  God. 


[Fol.  27  &.] 
The  emperor  is 
very  glad,  and 
embraces  him. 


The  messengers 
from  Greece 
return,  and  report 
how  well  they 
were  received. 


58 


MEETING    OF    THE    GREEKS    AND    ROMANS. 


The  emperor  of 
Greece  summons 
his  lords, 


and  they  set  off 
to  ride  to  Rome. 


When  they  draw 
near  Rome, 


the  Roman 
emperor  comes  to 
meet  them. 


The  emperors 
embrace  and 
greet  each  other. 


All  ride  to  Rome, 
where  they  find 
flowers  strewn, 
and  rich  hangings, 


[Fol.  28.] 
and  hear 
minstrels  and 
songs. 


The  Greeks  are 
harboured  in 
tents  outside  the 
«ity, 


alle  f  e  grete  of  grece  •  and  of  er  gaie  pepul, 

fat  no  mon  vpow  mold  •  mi^t  ayme  f  e  noumber ; 

al  jjat  real  aray  *  reken  schold  men  neuer, 

ne  purueaunce  fat  prest  was  •  to  pepul  a-grei]>ed, 

but  so]>  atte  f  e  day  set  •  wif  solempne  merf  e, 

f  is  gaye  genge  of  grece  *  to  rome  gurane  ride, 

&  riden  in  real  aray  •  to-ward  rome  euene. 

forto  reken  al  f  e  arai  •  in  rome  fat  time, 

alle  f e  men  vporc  mold  •  ne  mi3t  hit  deuice, 

so  wel  in  alle  wise  •  was  hit  arayed, 

&  plente  of  alle  purueauwce  *  purueyed  to  ri^ttes. 

whan  f  emperour  of  grece  •  neiyed  nei^h  rome, 

wij>  alle  his  bolde  burnes  •  a-boute  f  re  mile, 

f  emperour  of  rome  redeli  •  romed  him  a-^ens, 

wij>  f  e  clennest  cumpanye  •  fat  euer  king  ladde. 

&  whan  f  e  clene  cumpanyes  •  comen  to-gadere, 

f  e  si3t  was  ful  semly  •  and  louely  for  to  se, 

whan  eif  er  of  f  emperoures  •  er  f  ei  wold  stint, 

eif  er  of  er  keste  •  kindeliche  fat  time, 

&  sef  f  e  f  e  same  wif  f  e  sone  *  also  he  wrou^t ; 

f  e  murf  e  of  fat  metyng  •  no  man  may  telle. 

Into  rome  al  fat  route  *  riden  forf  in-fere,  /9M^r 

&  eche  a  strete  was  striked  •  &  strawed  wif  floures, 

&  realy  railled  •  wif  wel  riche  clof  es, 

&  alle  maner  menstracie  •  maked  him  a-^ens  ;    i    t 

and  also  daunces  disgisi  •  redi  di^t  were,  ,->•  1620 

&  selcouf  songes  •  to  solas  here  hertes ; 

so  fat  sof li  to  say  •  f  ei3h  i  sete  euer, 

I  schuld  nou3t  telle  f  e  merf  e  •  fat  maked  was  fere ; 

forfi  to  miwge  of  fat  matere  •  no  more  i  ne  fenk.  1624 

but  alle  f  e  genge  of  grece  •  was  gayli  resseyued, 

&  herbarwed  hastely  •  ich  hete  f  e  for  sof  e, 

In  a  place,  f  er  were  pi$t  •  pauilounns  &  tentes, 

bi  o  side  of  fe  cite  *  for  swife  moche  pepul;  1628 

for  f  ei  fat  seie  it  forsof  e  •  saiden  f  e  truf  e, 

f  e  place  of  f  e  pauilons  •  &  of  f  e  price  tentes 


1596 


1600 


1604 


1608 


1612 


1616 


WILLIAM   AND    MELIOR   PLAN    THEIR   ESCAPE. 


59 


semede  as  moche  to  sht  •  as  be  cite  of  rome.  the  tents 

covering  as 

bemperour  &  eueriman  *  were  esed  to  mttes,          1632  much  ground  as 

did  Rome  itself. 

&  haden  wi^tly  at  wille  •  what  fei  wolde  3erne. 

but  now  a  while  wol  i  stinte  •  of  fis  wlonke  mwrf  e,1  fy*-M 

&  muwge  now  of  meliors  •  fat  blisful  burde, 

&  of  f  e  worf  i  willmm  •  fat  was  here  lemmas  dere,          Meiior. 

&  teUe  J>e  tale  leUy  •  what  hem  bitidde  after.          1637 


I 


TTThan  f  ese  pepul  was  inned  •  wel  at  here  hese, 

"   willmm  wel  wi3tli  *  wif-oute  any  fere, 
Mornyng  out  mesure  •  to  melior  he  wendes,  1640 

&  siked  ful  sadli  •  and  seide  to  hire  sone, 
"  a  !  worf  iliche  wi^t  •  wel  wo  is  me  nouf  e  ! 
f  ur^th  destine  my  def  is  di^t  •  dere,  for  f  i  sake  ! 
I  may  banne  fat  i  was  born  •  to  a-bide  f is  time,     1 644 
forto  lese  f e  lef  •  fat  al  mi  liif  weldes. 
foule  f  ow  me  fodest  •  wif  f  i  faire  wordes, 
elles  had  i  deide  for  duel  •  many  dai  sef  f  e, 
&  so  god  for  his  grace  •  goue  y  hadde  ! "  1648 

Meliors  seide  mekli  •  "  whi  so,  mi  dere  hert  1 
forwardes  fat  i  haue  fest  •  ful  wel  schal  i  hold, 
I  hope  to  f  e  hei^h  king  •  fat  al  heuen  weldes. 
fer-for  stint  of  fi  striif  •  &  stodie  we  a-nofer,          1652 
what  wise  we  mow  best  •  buske  of  f  is  lond." 
whan  he  [wist]  f  ese  wordes  *  wilKam  wel  liked, 
seide,  "  mi  hony,  mi  hert  •  al  hoi  f  ou  me  makest, 
wif  fi  kinde  cumfort  •  of  alle  mi  kares  kold."         1656 
fan  studied  f ei  a  gret  stourcde  •  stifli  to-gadere, 
bi  what  wise  f  ei  mi^t  best  •  buske  of  fat  f  ede, 
priueli  vnperceyued  *  for  peynes  fat  hem  tidde ; 
al  in  wast  f  ei  wrou^t  •  here  witte  wold  nou^t  seme, 
alisauftdrine  to  curcseile  *  fei  clepud  sone  fanne,     1661 
&  telden  hire  trewli  •  what  tent  fei  were  inne, 
}if  fei  wist  in  what  wise  •  to  wende  of  fat  londe, 
&  preyed  hire  par  charite  •  and  for  profites  loue,    1664 


William  goes  to 
Melior,  and 
sighing  eays, 


"Now  must  I  die 
for  thy  sake ; 


and  I  would  I 
were  dead 
indeed ! " 

Melior  assures 
him  she  will  keep 
her  troth,  and 
they  must  devise 
a  plan  of  escape. 


[Fol.  28  6J 


They  strive  in 
vain  to  think  of 
some  way  of 
flight. 


They  therefore 
ask  Alexandrine 
her  advice. 


MS.  "mi«Tj>e." 


GO 


ALEXANDRINE    SEWS    UP    HER    FRIENDS 


She  answers, 
weeping,  that  she 
can  think  of  no 
way  at  all; 


for  the  cry  would 
soon  be  raised, 
and  every  pass 
guarded. 


They  would  soon 
be  found  out  if 
disguised ;  the 
only  way  is  this. 


The  men  in  the 
kitchen  are 
always  flaying 


Of  all  beasts, 
bears  seem  the 
most  grisly. 


[Fol.  29.J 
None  would  know 
them  if  they       / 
were  wrapped  up 
in  white  bears'  C 
•kins. 


They  thank  her 
tor  her  counsel, 
and  beg  her  to 
get  the  skins. 


to  kenne  hem  sum  coyntice  *  }if  sche  any  couf  e, 

to  wisse  hem  forto  wend  •  a-wey  vnperceyued. 

alisauwdrine  a-non  •  answered  fan  and  seide, 

wepand  wonderli  fast  •  for  fei  wende  wold,  1668 

"  bi  fat  blisful  barn  *  fat  bou^t  us  on  f  e  rode, 

I  kan  bi  no  coyntyse  •  knowe  nou$  f  e  best, 

how  ^e  mowe  un-hent  •  or  harmles  a-schape. 

for  be  hit  witerly  wist  •  fat  [30] l  a- went  bene,       1672 

eche  a  kuntre  worf  kept  •  wif  kud  men  i-nou^e, 

eche  brug,  eche  payf  e 2  •  eche  brode  weye, 

fat  nof er  clerk  nor  kni3t  •  nor  of  cuwtre  cherle 

schal  passe  vnperceyued  •  &  pertiliche  of-sou^t.       1676 

&  $ef  30  were  disgised  •  &  di3t  on  any  wise, 

I  wot  wel  witerli  •  30  wold  be  aspied. 

sef  f  e  no  nof  er  nel  be  •  but  nedes  to  wende, 

craftier  skil  kan  i  non  *  fan  i  wol  kufe.  1680 

In  f  e  kechene  wel  i  knowe  *  arn  crafti  men  manye, 

fat  fast  fonden  alday  •  to  flen  wilde  bestes, 

hyndes  &  hertes  •  wif  hydes  wel  fayre, 

bukkes  and  beris  *  and  ofer  bestes  wilde,  1684 

of  alle  fair  venorye  •  fat  falles  to  metes. 

ac  f  e  bremest  best  •  f  e  beres  me  semen, 

f  e  gon  most  grisli  •  to  eche  gomes  si^t ; 

Mi3t  we  by  coyntise  *  com  bi  tvo  skynnes,  1688 

of  f  e  breme  beres  •  &  bi-sowe  3ou  f  er-inne, 

f  er  is  no  liuawd  lud  •  i-liue  3ou  knowe  schold, 

but  hold  3ou  ou3t  of  heie  gates  •  for  happes,  i  rede. 

rediliche  no  better  red  •  be  resun  i  ne  knowe,         1692 

fan  to  swiche  a  bold  beste  •  best  to  be  disgised, 

for  f  ei  be  alle  maners  •  arn  man  likkest." 

fan  willz'am  ful  wif  tli  •  &  his  worf i  burde 

ful  froly  hire  fonked  •  many  fousand  sife  1696 

of  hire  crafty  CUT? say  1  •  &  kindliche  hire  bi-sou3t, 

wi3tly  wif  sum  wyl  •  winne  hem  tvo  skinnes 

of  f o  breme  bestes  •  fat  beres  ben  called, 

1  Read  "  that  ze  a  went  bene."— M.  2  Or  "  pafjrc." 


IN  TWO  WHITE  BEARS'  SKINS. 


61 


pryuely  vnperceyued  *  for  peril  fat  may  falle. 
&  alisaiwdrine  a-non  •  as  an  hende  mayde, 
seide  sche  wold  deliuerly  •  do  f  er-to  hire  n^t, 
Forto  sane  hem  fro  sorwe  •  hir-self  forto  deye. 


1700 


She  says  she 
will  try. 


TTTi^tly  boute  mo  wordes  •  sche  went  fo[r]f  stille,  1704 

'    &  bliue  in  a  bourde  •  borwed  boi^es  clones, 
&  talliche  hire  a-tyred  •  ti3tli  f  er-inne, 
&  bogeysliche  as  a  boye  •  busked  to  f  e  kychene, 
fer  as  burnes  were  busy  *  bestes  to  hulde ;  J^^/j  1708 
&  manly  sche  melled  hire  *  f  o  men  forto  help, 
til  sche  say  tidi  time  •  hire  prey  for  to  take, 
sche  a-wayted  wel  •  f  e  white  bere  skinnes, 
fat  loueli  were  &  large  *  to  lappen  inne  hire  frendes, 
&  went  wi^tly  a-wei  *  wel  vnparceyued,  1713 

&  lepef  f  er-wif  to  hire  lady  •  &  hire  lemmaw  dere, 
seide  softily,  "  now  sef  *  how  sone  i  haue  spedde  *!  " 
&  fei  ful  glad  of  f  e  gere  •  gretly  here  fonked,        1716 
&  preiede  here  ful  presteli  •  to  put  hem  f  er-inne, 
so  semli  fat  no  seg  •  mi^t  se  here  clof es. 
&  sche  melled  hire  meliors  •  ferst  to  greif  e, 
&  festened  hire  in  fat  fel  *  wif  ful  gode  fonges      1720 
aboue  hire  trie  a-tir  •  to  talke  f  e  sof  e, 
fat  no  man  vpow  mold  •  nn^t  of er  perceyue 
but  sche  a  bere  were  *  to  baite  at  a  stake ; 
so  iustislich  eche  lif  ioyned  *  bi  ihesu  of  heuen.     1724 
whan  sche  in  fat  tyr  *  was  tiffed  as  sche  schold, 
Meliors  in  here  merf  e  •  to  hire  maiden  seide, 

1"  Leue  alisauwdrine,  for  mi  loue  •  how  likes  f  e  nowf  e  ? 
am  i  nou3t  a  bold  best  >a  bere  wel  to  seme  ? "        1728 
"  $is,  madame,"  seide  f  e  mayde  •  "  be  marie  of  heuene, 
;  ^e  arn  so  grisli  a  gost  •  a  gom  on  to  loke, 
fat  i  nold  for  al  f  e  god  •  fat  euer  god  made, 
i  abide  }ou  in  a  brod  weie  •  bi  a  large  mile ;  1732 

'  so  breme  a  wilde  bere  •  36  bi-seme  nowf  e." 
alisatiTidrine  f anne  anon  •  after  fat  ilk, 


She  dresses  herself 
in  boy's  clothes. 


and  helps  the  men 
in  the  kitchen. 


She  makes  off 
with  the  two 
skins,  and  goes  to 
William  and 
Melior. 


They  beg  her  to 
sew  them  up. 


She  fastens  Melior 
up  in  one  with 
good  th  njrs, 
clothes  and  all. 


[Po:.  29  '/.] 
Melior  asks  her  if 
she  does  not  make 
a  bold  bear? 


"Yes,  madame, 
you  are  a  grisly 
ghost  enough,  and 
look  furious." 


I 


62 


WILLIAM   AND    MELIOR   SET    OFF. 


Then  she  laces  up 
William  in  the 
other  skin ; 


who,  when  sewn 
up,  asks  Melior 
what  she  thinks 
of  him? 


"  I  am  quite 
frightened  at  so 
hideous  a  sight." 

William  proposes 
that  they  start  at 
once. 


Alexandrine  lets 
them  out  by  a 
postern-gate. 


She  prays  that 
they  may  be 
preserved  from 
all  peril. 


[Fol.  30.] 


I  must  now  tell 
you  about  the  two 
white  bears. 


In  fat  of  er  bere-skyn  •  be-wrapped  wilh'am  f  anne, 

&  laced  wel  eche  leme  •  wif  lastend  f  onges,  1 736 

craftili  a-boue  his  clof  es  •  fat  comly  were  &  riche. 

&  whan  he  was  sowed  •  as  he  schold  bene, 

willzam  ful  merili  •  to  meliors  fan  he  seide, 

"  sei  me,  loueli  lemmas  •  how  likes  f  e  me  nowf  6?"  1740 

"  bi  marie,  sire,"  seide  meliors  •  "  f  e  milde  quen  of 

heuene, 

so  breme  a  bere  30  be-seme  *  a  burn  on  to  loke, 
fat  icham  a-grise  •  bi  god  fat  me  made, 
to  se  so  hidous  a  si^t  •  of  youre  semli  face  ! "          1744 
fan  seide  wilKam  wi^tli  •  "my  derworfe  herte, 
to  hei3  vs  hastily  henne  •  ich  hope  be  f  e  best, 
euenly  fis  euen  while  •  or  men  to  mochel  walk." 
&  3he  to  worche  as  he  wold  •  wi^tli  fan  grauwted.  174& 
alisauwdrine  sone  •  as  sche  saw  hem  founding, 
wept  as  sche  wold  a-wede  •  for  wo  &  for  sorwe, 
but  naf  eles  as  bliue  •  sche  bro^t  hem  on  weie 
priuely  be  fe  posterne  •  of  fat  perles  erber,  1752 

fat  was  to  meliors  chauraber  •  choisli  a-ioyned. 
&  alisauwdrine  as  sone  •  as  f  ei  schuld  de-parte, 
swoned  fele  sif  e  •  &  sef  f  en  whan  sche  mi^t, 
preide  ful  pituosli  •  to  fe  prince  of  heuene  1756 

to  loke  fro  alle  langour  •  f  o  louely  makes, 
fat  put  hem  for  paramours  •  in  perriles  so  grete ; 
&  sof  li  forto  say  •  a-sunder  f  ann  f  ei  went, 
alisauwdrine  anon  •  attelede  to  hire  boure,  1760 

&  morned  nei^h  for  mad  *  for  meliors  hire  ladi. 
More  to  telle  of  hire  f  is  time  •  trewly  i  leue, 
telle  i  wil  of  f  e  beres  *  what  hem  tidde  after. 


William  &  fe  mayde  •  fat  were  white  beres,        1764 


gon  forf  fur^th  fe  gardin  •  a  wel  god  spede, 
Fersly  on  here  foure  fet  •  as  fel  for  swiche  bestes. 


~=  MVJ  ^cu. 
garden  on  aii 

a°oroek,  who  had  fan  3ede  a  grom  of  grece  •  in  f  e  gardyn  to  pleie, 

it,  to  bi-hold  ]je  estres  *  &  fe  herberes  so  faire, 


1768- 


THEY    HIDE    THEMSELVES    IN    A    DEN. 


63 


&,  or  he  wiste,  he  was  war  •  of  f  e  white  beres, 

f  ei  went  a-wai  a  wallop  •  as  f  ei  wod  semed. 

&  nei$  wod  of  his  witt  •  he  wax  nei}  for  drede, 

&  fled  as  fast  homward  •  as  fet  mi^t  drie,  1772 

for  he  wend  witterly  *  f  ei  wold  him  haue  sewed, 

to  haue  mad  of  him  mete  •  &  mwrf  ered  him  to  def  e. 

whanne  he  his  felawes  fouwde  •  of  his  fare  ])ei  wondred, 

whi  he  was  in  fat  wise  •  wexen  so  maat,  1776 

&  he  hem  told  ti^tly  •  whiche  tvo  white  beres 

hadde  gon  in  f  e  gardyn  •  &  him  agast  maked, 

for  he  wende  witerli  •  f  ei  wold  him  haue  slawe, 

"  but  f  ei  seie  me  now$t  '  sofli  i  hope,  1780 

to  me  tended  f  ei  nou^t  •  but  tok  forf  here  wey 

wilfulli  to  sum  wildernesse  •  where  as  f  ei  bredde." 

f  anne  were  his  felawes  fain  *  for  he  was  adradde, 

&  la^eden  of  fat  gode  layk ;  •  of  hem  ich  leve  nouf  e, 

to  telle  for])  what  tidde  •  of  fe  beres  after.  1785 

nou}  fro  f  e  gardin  *  J>ei  gon  a  god  spede 

toward  a  fair  forest  •  fast  f  er  bi-side. 

whiluw  f  ei  went  on  alle  four  *  as  do])  wilde  bestes, 

&  whan  fei  wery  were  •  J)ei  went  vp-ri^ttes.  1789 

so  went  ])ei  in  ])at  wildernesse  *  al  J)at  long  ni3t, 

til  it  dawed  to  day  •  &  sunne  to  vp-rise, 

Jjei  drow  hem  to  a  dern  den  •  for  drede  to  be  sei^en, 

&  hedde  hem  vnder  an  holw  hok  •  was  an  huge  denne, 

as  it  fel  a  faire  hap  •  fei  fond  ])er-on  to  rest. 

Fer  it  was  fro  wei^es  •  &  of  wode  so  J>ikke, 

fat  no  wi$t  of  J)e  world  •  wold  hem  J)ere  seche,        1796 

&  })ei  for-waked  were  weri  *  wittow  for  sof  e. 

&  hi^liche  })ei  heriede  god  •  of  fat  hap  fallen, 

fat  had  hem  di^t  swiche  a  den  •  dernly  on  to  rest. 

fen  seide  wilh'am  soberli  •  to  meliors  so  hende,       1800 

"  a  !  my  loueliche  lemmara  •  our  lord  now  vs  help, 

he  fat  was  in  bedleem  born  •  &  bou^t  vs  on  f e  rode, 

schilde  us  fram  scljenchip  •  &  schame  in  f  is  erf  e, 

&  wisse  vs  in  what  wise  •  to  winne  vs  sum  mete  ;  1804 


perceived  them 
galloping  along. 


He  fled  home  in 
ertreme  fear. 


His  fellows  asked 
him  what  ailed 
him. 


He  said  he  had 
seen  two  white 
bears  in  the 
garden, 


which,  fortu- 
nately, did  not 
perceive  him. 


The  two  bears 
went  to  a  fair 
forest, 


going  on  all  night 
till  the  sun  rose. 


In  the  day  time 
they  hid  them- 
selves in  a  den. 

[Fol.  30  b.} 


They  were  very 
weary,  and  praised 
God  for  their  good 
fortune. 


Then  said 
William,  "God 
preserve  us,  and 
teach  us  how  to 
get  some  meat.  * 


THE    WERWOLF    PROVIDES    THEM    WITH    FOOD. 


Mclior  says  they 
can  easily  live  on 
love, 


and  bullaces  and 
blackberries, 


and  haws,  hips, 
acorns,  and  hazel- 
nuts. 


William  says  she 
is  not  used  to 
such  hard  fare. 


He  had  better  go 
and  see  if  he  can 
find  any  churl  or 
child  with  meat 
or  drink. 


"  Nay,"  said  she, 
"for  the  loser  will 
raise  the  cry,  and 
tell  it  in  Rome. 


[Fol.  31.] 
Better  to  live 
upon  fruit." 


They  rested  in  the 
den  all  that  day. 


I  must  now  tell 
sibout  the 
werwolf. 


For,  dere  lef,  i  drede  •  we  schul  deie  for  hunger." 

soburli  seide  meliors  •  "sire,  leues  youre  wordes, 

we  schul  Hue  bi  oure  loue  •  lelli  atte  best ; 

&  Jrarjth  fe  grace  of  god  •  gete  vs  sumwat  elles,     1808 

bolaces  &  blake-beries  •  fat  on  breres  growen, 

so  fat  for  hunger  i  hope  •  harm  schul  we  neuer ; 

hawes,  hepus,  &  hakernes  •  &  f>e  hasel-notes, 

&  ofer  frut  to  fe  fulle  •  fat  in  forest  growen  ;         1812 

I  seie  $ou,  sire,  bi  mi  liif  •  f  is  liif  so  me  likes." 

"  nay,  i-wisse,"  seid  wilKam  *  "  mi  worf  liche  herte, 

better  be-houis  it  to  be  •  or  baleful  were  J?i  happes  ; 

For  here-to-fore  of  hardnesse  •  hadestow  neuer,        1816 

but  were  brou^t  forf  in  blisse  •  as  swiche  a  burde  ou3t, 

wif  alle  maner  gode  metes ;  •  &  to  misse  hem  nowf  e, 

It  were  a  botles  bale  •  but  beter  haue  i  ment. 

I  wol  wend  to  sum  weie  •  onwhar  here  nere,  1820 

&  waite  ^if  any  wei^h  •  comes  wending  alone, 

ofer  cherl  ofer  child  •  fro  chepinge  or  feyre, 

fat  beris  out  him  a-boute  •  bred  ofer  drinke, 

&  redeli  i  wol  it  reue  •  &  come  a-^ein  swife,  1824 

ofer  coyntyse  know  i  non  •  to  kepe  wif  our  Hues." 

"  nay,  sire,"  sche  seide  •  "  so  schul  $e  nou$t  worche  ; 

For  f ei  fat  misseden  here  mete  •  wold  make  gret  noyse, 

&  record  it  redeH  •  in  rome  al  a-boute,  1828 

so  )>at  we  mi^t  f ur^th  hap  *  haue  harm  in  fat  wise. 

f  er-for  is  fairer  we  be  stille  •  &  bi  frut  to  Hue, 

fat  we  finde  in  wodes  •  as  we  wende  a-boute." 

&  bofe  fan  as  bliue  •  a-sented  bi  a  stounde,  1832 

&  kindeli  eche  oj?er  dipt  •  and  kessed  ful  oft, 

&  darkeden  fere  in  fat  den  •  al  fat  day  longe, 

slepten  wel  swetly  •  samli  to-gadere, 

&  wrou^t  elles  here  wille; —  *  leef  we  now  here,     1836 

&  a  while  to  f  e  werwolf  •  i  wol  a-^en  turne, 

fat  f  e  tale  touchef  •  as  tellef  f  is  sof  e. 

f  e  self  nijt  fat  wilk'am  •  went  wif  his  leef  dere, 

fe  werwolf,  as  god  wold  •  wist  alle  here  happes,      1840 


WILLIAM    IS    GLAD    TO    FIND    THE    BREAD    AND    BEEF. 


65 


&  J?e  fortune  fat  wold  falle  •  for  here  dedes  after. 

whan  f  ei  went  in  fat  wise  •  wi3tli  he  hem  folwes, 

Ful  bliue  hem  bi-hinde  •  but  f  ei  nou^t  wist. 

&  whan  f  e  werwolf  wist  •  where  fei  wold  rest,       1844 

he  herd  how  hard  •  for  hunger  fei  hem  pleyned, 

&  go]?  him  to  a  gret  hei3-waye  •  a  wel  god  spede, 

3if  he  mi^t  mete  any  man  •  mete  of  to  winne. 

fan  fel  f  e  chaunce  fat  a  cherl  •  fro  cheping-ward  com, 

&  bar  bred  in  a  bagge  •  and  fair  bouf  wel  sode.       1849 

f  e  werwolf  ful  wi^tli  •  went  to  him  euene, 

wif  a  rude  roring  *  as  he  him  rende  wold, 

&  braid  him  doun  be  fe  brest  •  bolstra^t  to  fe  erfe.1 

fe  cherl  wende  ful  wel  •  haue  went  to  defe,  1853 

&  harde  wif  herte  *  to  god  f  anne  he  prayde, 

to  a-schape  schafles  •  fram  fat  schamful  best. 

he  brak  vp  fro  fat  beste  •  &  bi-gan  to  flene  185G 

as  hard  has  he  mi^t  •  his  liif  for  to  saue. 

his  bag  wif  his  bilfodur  •  wif  f  e  best  he  lafte, 

glad  was,  he  was  gon  •  wif-oute  gretter  harmes. 

f  e  werwolf  was  glad  •  he  hade  wonne  mete,  1860 

&  went  wi^tli  f  er-wif  •  f  er  as  wilU'am  rested, 

be-fore  him  &  his  burde  •  f  e  bagge  f  er  he  leide, 

&  busked  him  bliue  a-^ein  •  boute  more  wordes, 

For  he  wist  ful  wel  •  of  what  fei  nede  hadde.         1864 


He  knew  all  their 
fortunes,  and 
followed  them  all 
the  way. 


Knowing  their 
hunger,  he  goes  to 
»  highway, 

where  he  saw  a 
man  with  somo 
bread  in  a  bag 
and  some  boiled 
beef. 


He  rushes  on 
him,  roaring,  and 
frightens  the  man 
terribly, 


who  broke  away 
and  fled  for  his 
life,  glad  to  get  off. 


The  werwolf  goes 
off  with  the  meat, 
and  lays  it  before 
William,  and 
runs  away. 


"TTTilKam  f o  wondred  moche  •  of  fat  wilde  best, 

what  he  brou^t  in  f  e  bag  •  &  wold  nou3t  a-bide. 
he  braide  to  him  f  e  bagge  •  &  bliue  it  opened, 
&  fond  fe  bred  &  fe  bouf  *  blife  was  he  fanne,      1868 
&  mekli  to  meliors  •  "  mi  swete  hert,"  he  saide, 
"  loo  !  whiche  a  gret  grace  •  god  haf  vs  schewed ! 
he  wot  wel  of  our  werk  •  &  wel  is  apai3ed, 
fat  he  sendef  f  us  his  sond  •  to  socour  vs  atte  nede, 
so  wonder  a  wilde  best  *  fat  weldes  no  mynde.        1873 
swiche  a  wonder  i-wisse  •  was  i-seie  neuer, 


[Fol.  31  b.] 


William  opens  the 
bag,  and  finds  the 
bread  and  beef, 
saying, 


"  See  what  grace 
God  has  shewn  us! 


Such  a  wonder 
was  never  seen.' 


1  MS. 


66 


THE   WERWOLF    GETS    THEM    SOME    WINE. 


44 1  would  not  that 
our  work  were 
undone,"  said 
Melior. 


They  ate  it  gladly 
without  any  salt 
or  sauce. 


But  the  werwolf 
knew  what  more 
they  wanted. 


He  finds  a  man 
with  two  flagons 
of  wine. 


The  man,  seeing 
the  werwolf 
coming,  lets  them 
fall  and  flees 
away. 


The  werwolf 
seizes  them  and 

[Fol.  32.] 
takes  them  to 
William,  and 
goes  off. 


William  and 
Melior  are 
blithe  because  of 
the  beast's  help. 


They  ate  and 
drank  their  fill, 


to  herien  god  hei^li  •  alden  ar  we  bofe." 

"  bi  marie,"  seid  meliors  •  "  30  mi^gef  )>e  sofe  ;      1876 

for  al  f  e  world  i  nold  •  our  werk  were  vndone." 

wilh'am  wel  mekli  •  f  e  mete  out  takes, 

seid,  "  lemmaw,  lef  liif  •  of  fat  our  lord  vs  sendes, 

Make  we  vs  merie  •  for  mete  haue  we  at  wille."      1880 

f  ei  ete  at  here  ese  •  as  f  ei  mi^t  f  anne, 

boute  salt  of  er  sauce  •  or  any  semli  drynk, 

hunger  hadde  hem  hold  •  f  ei  held  hem  a-paied. 

but  white  wel,  f  e  werwolf  •  wist  what  hem  failed ;  1884 

he  went  to  an  hei}  weie  *  to  whayte  sum  happes. 

fan  bi-tid  fat  time  •  to  telle  f  e  sof  e, 

fat  a  clerk  of  f  e  cuntre  •  com  toward  rome 

wif  tvo  flaketes  ful  *  of  ful  fine  wynes,  1888 

bou^t  were  for  a  burgeis  *  of  a  borwe  bi-side. 

f  e  werwolf  him  awayted  •  &  went  to  him  euene, 

bellyng  as  a  bole  •  fat  burnes  wold  spille. 

whan  fe  clerk  saw  him  come  •  for  care  &  for  drede,1 

fe  flagetes  he  let  falle  •  &  gan  to  fle  3erne,  1893 

f  e  Ii3tliere  to  lepe  *  his  liif  for  to  saue. 

f  e  werwolf  of  f  e  clerkes  werk  *  was  wonder  blif  e, 

&  flei  to  fe  flagetes  •  &  swife  hem  vp  hentes,         1896 

&  wendes  euen  to  wilKam  •  a  wel  god  spede, 

&  to  meliors  his  make  •  and  mildeliche  f  anne 

f  e  flagetes  hem  bi-for  •  faire  doura  he  settes, 

&  went  wi^tli  a-wei  •  wif -out  eni  more.  1900 

willmm  &  his  worf  i  wenche  •  fan  were  blif  e 

of  f  e  help  fat  f  ei  hade  •  of  f  is  wild  best, 

&  preid  f  ei  ful  pn'ueli  •  to  f  e  prmce  of  heuene, 

saue  fe  best  fro  sorwe  ;  fat  so  wel  hem  helped.      1904 

fei  made  hem  f  an  mirie  *  on  alle  maner  wise, 

eten  at  al  here  ese  •  &  afterward  dronken, 

&  solaced  hem  same/a  •  til  hem  slepe  lust. 

fan  eif er  lapped  ofer  •  ful  loueli  in  armes,  1908 

&  here  drede  &  here  doel  •  deliuerli  for-^eten, 


1  MS.  "  dredre."     See  1.  1909. 


ALL    ROME    PREPARES    FOR    MELIORS    WEDDING. 


67 


&  slepten  so  swetli  •  in  here  semly  denne, 
til  it  wax  so  nei^li  ni^t  •  fat  nerre  it  no  mijt. 
fan  a- waked  f  ei  wi^tli  •  &  went  on  here  gate, 
faire  on  f  er  tvo  fet  •  f  ei  ferde  vp-on  ni^tes, 
but  whan  it  drow  to  f  e  dai  •  f  ei  ferde  as  bestes, 
ferd  on  here  foure  fet  •  in  fourme  of  tvo  beres  ; 
and  euer  f  e  werwolf  •  ful  wijtly  hem  folwed, 
fat  will/am  ne  wist  •  hendeli  hem  bi-hinde  ; 
"but  whan  f  ei  were  loged  •  where  hem  best  liked, 
Mete  &  al  maner  f  ing  •  fat  hem  mister  neded, 
f  e  werwolf  hem  wan  •  &  wi^tli  hem  bro^t. 
fan  f  ei  lade  f  is  liif  •  a  ful  long  while, 
•cairende  ouer  cuntreis  '  as  here  cas  ferde. 
Leue  we  now  f  is  lesson  •  &  here  we  a-nof  er ; 
to  hem  a^eyn  can  i  turne  •  whan  it  time  falles. 
I  wol  minge  of  a  mater  •  i  mennede  of  bi-fore, 
of  f  e  reaute  a-raied  •  in  rome  for  here  sake, 
&  of  f  e  worf  i  wedding  •  was  bi-fore  graunted 
bi-twene  f  e  meyde  meliors  •  &  f  e  prince  of  grece ; 
now  listenes,  lef  lordes  •  f  is  lessourc  ]?us  i  ginne. 


and  then  slept 
till  night-time. 

1912    By  night  they 

went  on  two  feet, 
but  by  day  on  all 
fours, 


1916    the  werwolf 
following, 


who  procured 
them  all  they 
1920    wanted. 


1924 


1928 


I  must  now  tell 
of  the  wedding 
that  was  to  have 
been  between 
Melior  and  the 
prince  of  Greece. 
[Fol.  32  &.] 


ll/Tanly,  on  f  e  morwe  •  fat  mariage  schuld  bene, 

-L'-*-  f  e  real  emperours  a-risen  •  &  richeli  hem  greijjed, 

wij?  alle  worfi  wedes  •  J?at  wi3hes  were  schold.       1932 

no  man  vporc  molde  •  schuld  mow  deuise 

men  richlier  a-raid  •  to  rekene  alle  finges, 

]>an  eche  rink  was  in  rome  •  to  richesse  ]?at  Jjei  hadde ; 

fe  grete  after  here  degre  •  in  fe  gaiest  wise,  1936 

&  menere  men  as  fei  mijt  •  to  minge  ]je  sofe. 

])e  sesoun  was  semly  •  j?e  suwne  schined  faire  ; 

)>empe?*our  of  grece  *  &  alle  his  gomes  riche 

hi^ed  hem  to  here  hors  •  hastili  and  sone  ;  1940 

but  for  [to]  telle  J?e  a-tiryng  •  of  fat  child  fat  time, 

fat  al  fat  real  route  •  were  araied  fore, 

he  fat  wende  haue  be  wedded  •  to  meliors  fat  time, 

It  wold  lengef  fis  lessoiw  •  a  ful  long  while.  1944 


The  emperors 
put  on  their 
richest  clothes. 


All  were  arrayed 
in  the  gayest 


The  Greek 
emperor  and  his 
men  mounted 
their  horses. 


The  attire  of  his 
son  would  take 
too  long  to 
describe. 


68 


THE    BRIDE    IS    NOT    TO    BE    FOUND. 


The  Roman 
knights  numbered 
20.000. 


The  minstrelsy 
and  revels  begin. 


All  gO  tO  St 

Peter's  church, 
where  the  pope, 
cardinals,  and 
bishops  were 
ready. 

[FoL  33.] 


They  wait  for 

Melior. 


The  Roman 
emperor  wondered 
where  his 
daughter  was. 

He  sends  a  baron 
to  her  chamber, 


who  finds  no  one 
there. 


The  emperor,  at 
hearing  this, 
goes  himself, 

drives  at  the  door 
like  a  devil,  and 

Hi  I  OUtS  OUt. 


but  sof  li  for  to  seie  •  so  wel ]  was  he  greif  ed, 

fat  amendid  in  no  maner  •  ne  mi^t  it  haue  bene. 

&  whan  f  e  gomes  of  grece  •  were  alle  to  horse, 

araied  wel  redi,  of  romayns  •  to  rekkene  f  e  numbis, 

treuli  twenti  fousand  •  a- tired  atte  best,  1949 

alle  on  stalworf  stedes  •  stoutliche  i-horsed. 

alle  maner  of  menstracye  *  maked  was  sone, 

&  alle  merfe  fat  any  man  •  euer  mi^t  deuise  ;         1952 

and  alle  real  reueles  •  rinkes  rif  bi-gunne, 

Eidende  f  urth  rome  •  to  rekene  f  e  sofe, 

Ei^t  to  f  e  chef  cherch  •  fat  chosen  is  ^utte, 

&  clepud  f  urth  cmtendom  •  f  e  cherche  of  seynt  petyr. 

f  e  p[ope] 2  wif  many  prelates  •  was  purueyd  to  ri^tes, 

wif  cardenales  &  bischopus  •  &  abbotes  fele,  1958 

alle  richeli  reuested  •  fat  reaute  to  holde, 

wif  worchep  of  fat  wedding  •  fat  f ei  wende  haue. 

f e  gryffouras  fan  gayli  •  gonne  stint  atte  cherche, 

fe  bri3t  burde  meliors  •  to  abide  fere.  1962 

f  emperour  of  rome  f  amie  •  was  rede  ^are, 

&  alle  f  e  best  barounes  •  &  boldest  of  his  reaume. 

f  emperour  wax  a-wondred  •  wite  36  for  sofe,  1965 

whi  his  doubter  fat  day  •  dwelled  so  longe, 

sef  f  e  f  e  gomes  of  grece  •  were  gon  to  cherche. 

fan  bad  he  a  barourc  •  buske  to  hire  chaumber,       1968 

to  hi^en  hire  hastily  •  to  him  for  to  come, 

&  wi3tli  he  wendes  *  wite  30  for  sofe. 

he  fond  fere  burde  no  barn  •  in  fat  bour  f anne, 

for  no  coyntise  fat  he  coufe  •  to  carp  him  a3ens ;   1972 

&  he  Ii3tli  a3en  lepes  •  &  f  e  lord  so  telles. 

f  emperour  whan  he  it  wist  •  wod  wax  he  nere, 

&  went  him-self  in  wraf e  *  to  fat  worf ies  chaumber, 

&  driues  in  at  fat  dore  •  as  a  deuel  of  helle.  1976 

he  gan  to  clepe  &  crie  •  &  gan  to  kurse  fast ; — 

"where  dwelle  36,  a  deuel  wai  •  36  damiseles,  so  long?  '* 

1  MS.  repeat*  "  wel." 

8  This  word  is  purposely  erased ;  part  of  the  p  can  be  traced. 


ALEXANDRINES    EXCUSES    FOR    MELIOR. 


69 


Alexandrine  is 
terrified,  and 
oasts  about  for  an 
excuse. 


alisaimdrine  as  sone  •  as  sche  him  fere  herde, 

was  delfulli  a-drad  •  fe  def  for  to  suffre,  1980 

ac  bi  a  coynt  co?7ipaceme^t  •  caste  sche  sone, 

how  bold  }he  mi^t  hire  bere  •  hire  best  to  excuse, 

fat  f  emperour  ne  schuld  souche  •  jja  ^he  absent  were, 

fat  his  doubter  wif  wilh'am  •  was  went  away  f  anne. 

boldli  wif  milde  mod  •  ^he  buskes  of  hire  chauraber, 

&  kom  ketly  to  fempe?'our  *  &  kurteisly  him  gret,  1986  she  battens  to 

D        i      ,,-,..•,•,  .    .,  ,      ,  him,  greets  him, 

&  what  fat  his  wille  were  •  wijtly  fan  asked,  and  asks  his  wm. 

&  he  seide  ful  sone  *  "  sertes,  ich  haue  wonder 

where  my  doubter  to-day  •  dwelles  bus  longe  1  H"  wants  to 

know  where  his 

for  al  fe  pepul  is  parayled  •  &  passed  to  cherche.  1990  daughter  is. 

I  haue  sent  hire  to  seche  •  sef  J>e  a  gret  while, 

ac  no  frek  mai  hire  finde  *  f  er-fore  i  am  tened." 

alisauwdrine  a-non  •  answered  f  anne  &  seide, 

"  to  blame,  sire,  ar  f o  burnes  •  fat  so  blef eli  gabbe  ; 

For  my  lady  lis  3 it  a-slape  •  lelly,  as  i  trowe."         1995 

"  Go  wi^tly,"  seide  f  emperour  •  "  and  a-wake  hire  3erne, 

bid  hire  busk  of  hire  bed  •  &  bliue  be  a-tyrid." 

"  I  dar  nou^t,  for  sof  e  "  *  seide  alisaimdrine  f  anne  ; 

"  wif  me  sche  is  wrof  *  god  wot,  for  litel  gilt."      1999 

"  whi  so  ? "  saide  f  emperour  •  "  saie  me  nou^  bliue  ! " 

"  Ful  gladli,  sire,"  sche  seide  •  "  bi  god  fat  me  made, 

$if  36  no  wold  be  wrof  •  whan  36  f  e  sof  e  wist." 

''nay,  certes,"  seide  femperour*  "f er-fore  seieonsone." 

alissau/idrine  fan  anon  •  after  fat  ilke,  2004 

seide  ful  sobeiii  •  sore  a-drad  in  herte, 

"  sire,  for  sof  e,  i  am  hold  •  to  saie  ^ou  f  e  treufe ; 

Mi  ladi  made  me  to-nijt  •  long  wif  hire  to  wake 

boute  burde  or  barn  •  bot  our  selue  tweie.  2008 

f  anne  told  sche  me  a  tiding  •  teld  was  hire  to-fore, 

of  on  fat  knew  f  e  kostome  •  of  f  e  cuwtre  of  grece, 

fat  eue?ich  gome  of  grece  •  as  of  grete  lordes, 

whan  f  ei  wedded  a  wiif  •  were  3he  neuer  so  nobul,  2012 

of  emperours  or  kinges  come  •  &  come  into  grece, 

sche  chold  sone  be  bi-schet  •  here-selue  al-one, 


She  says  she  is 
still  asleep. 
[FoL  33  6.] 

"  Wake  her,  then* 
and  tell  her  to 
dress." 

She  says  she  dares 
not,  and  he  asks 
Why. 


She  says,  "Melior 
made  me  watch 
all  night  with 
her, 


and  told  me 
she  had  heard  it 
was  a  custom  in 
Greece 


70 


THE    EMPEROR    IS    VERY    WROTH. 


to  shut  up  a  bride 
in  a  tower  by 
herself. 


Wherefore  she 
declared  she 
would  never  be 
married  to  a 
Greek. 


She  also  told  me 
another  tale  that 
sorely  grieved  me. 


[Fol.  34.] 


She  said  she  had 
given  her  love  to 
another,  who  was 
very  bold  and 
fair, 


that  worthy 
William  who 
fought  so  well 
for  you. 


J  told  her  I  should 
tell  you  of  it. 


She  sent  me  out 
<>f  her  chamber, 
and  I  have  not 
neen  her  since. 


I  dure  not  go  to 
»ier  again." 


In  a  ful  tristy  tour  •  timbred  for  f  e  nones, 
&  Hue  f  er  in  langour  *  al  hire  lif-time,  2016" 

neuer  to  weld  of  worldes  merf  e  *  f  e  worf  of  a  mite. 
)>er-fore  for  sof  e  *  gret  sorwe  sche  made, 
&  swor  for  pat  sake  •  to  suffur  alle  peynes, 
to  be  honget  on  hei}  *  or  wif  horse  to-drawe,          2020 
sche  wold  neuer  be  wedded  •  to  no  wi^h  of  grece. 
hire  were  leuer  be  weded  •  to  a  wel  simplere, 
fere  sche  rnijt  lede  hire  lif  •  in  liking  &  murf  e. 
&  also,  sire,  sertaynly  *  to  seie  f  e  treuf  e,  2024 

sche  told  me  a-nof  er  tale  •  fat  me  tened  sarre, 
wher-fore  i  wan  hire  wraf  •  er  we  departed." 
"  warfore  ? "  seide  f  emperour  •  "  seye  me  now  ^erne." 
"  For  sof  e,  sire,"  qua])  alisaur^drine  *  "  to  saue  30111 
mensk,  2028 

I  wol  3ow  telle  tijtly  *  what  turn  sche  as  wrou^t. 
sche  clepud  me  to  curcseil  •  whan  sche  f  is  case  wist 
fat  sche  schold  be  wedded  •  &  seide  me  f anne, 
sche  hadde  leid  hire  loue  •  fer  hire  beter  liked,      2032: 
on  on  f e  boldest  barn  •  fat  euer  bi-strod  stede, 
&  f  e  fairest  on  face  •  and  i  freyned  is  name. 
&  sche  me  seide  chortly  •  f  e  sof  e  to  knowe, 
It  was  fat  worfi  wilUYzm  •  fat  wi^es  so  louen,        2036> 
&  fat  brou^t  3ou  out  of  bale  •  wif  his  cler  strengf e. 
&  whan  i  wist  of  f  is  werk  •  wite  36  for  sof  e, 
It  mislikede  me  mochel  •  mi3t  no  man  me  blame, 
&  manly  in  my  maner  •  missaide  hire  as  i  dorst,    2040 
&  warned  hire  wi^tly  *  wif -oute  disseyte, 
I  wold  alle  hire  werk  *  do  3ou  wite  sone. 
&  whan  sche  fat  wist  •  for  wraf  al  so  3ern, 
sche  dede  me  deliuerly  •  deuoyde  f  er  hire  chauraber, 
&  het  me  neuer  so  hardi  be  •  in  hire  si^t  to  come.  2045* 
&  i  busked  of  hire  hour  •  sche  barred  hit  sone, 
&  sef  f  e  saw  i  hire  nou^t  '  sire,  bi  my  treuf  e. 
I  ne  dar  for  drede  •  no  more  to  hire  drawe,  2048 

J>er-for,  sire,  3our-self  •  softili  hire  a-wakes, 


HE    SEEKS    FOR    MELIOR    EVERYWHERE. 


71 


&  fodes  hire  wif  faire  wordcs  •  for  ^our  owne  menske, 
til  ]>is  mariage  be  mad  •  &  wij)  murfe  ended." 


w 


han  bemperour  had  herd  *  holly  bise  wordes,   2052  The  emperor  at 

this  was  mad 

he  wax  nei}!!  out  of  wit  •  for  wraf  fat  time,  with  grief, 


&  for  dol  a-dotef  •  &  dof  him  to  hire  chaumber, 

&  busked  euene  to  hire  bed  •  but l  nof  ing  he  no  fond, 

wif -inne  hire  comly  cortynes  •  but  hire  clof  es  warme. 

wi}tly  as  a  wod  man  •  fe  windowe  he  opened,        2057 

&  sou^t  sadli  al  a-boute  •  his  semliche  doubter, 

but  al  wrou^t  in  wast  •  for  went  was  fat  mayde. 

&  whanne  he  mijt  in  no  manere  •  meliors  f  er  finde, 

he  deraied  him  as  a  deuel  ••  &  dede  him  out  a-^eine, 

&  asked  of  alisauwdrine  *  anon  after  f  anne,  2062 

"  f  ou  damisele,  deliuerli  *  do  telle  me  now  ^erne, 

whider  is  mi  doubter  went  •  }he  nis  nou^t  in  bedde." 

alisauwdrine  for  fat  cas  •  was  sorwful  in  herte,       2065 

&  seide,  "  sire,  i  sei}  hire  nou}t  •  sef  hie}  midni^t, 

I  wene  sche  went  to  will-tarn  *  for  wraf  of  my  sawe, 

sendef  swifteli  f  edir  *  to  scheche  hire  at  is  inne.    2068 

&  jif  wilKam  be  nou^t  went  •  witef  36  forsof  e, 

Mi  ladi  for  ani  lore  •  lengef  in  f  is  cite  jut. 

&  }if  wilKam  be  went  *  neuer  leue  30  of  er, 

Mi  ladi  lengef  him  wif  •  for  lif  or  for  dede."          2072 

f  emperour  for  treie  &  tene  •  as  a  tyrauwt  ferde, 

wax  ney  wod  of  his  witte  •  &  wrof liche  seide,  •  Jf-'^tJ 

"  a  !  has  fat  vntrewe  treytour  •  traysted  me  noufe,  /      "Ah|" 

For  f  e  welf  e  &  welfare  *  i  haue  him  wrou^t  fore,  2076 

&  fostered  fro  a  fundeling  •  to  f  e  worf  iest  of  mi  lond  ? 

&  for  his  dedes  to-day  •  i  am  vndo  for  euer ; 

eche  frek  for  f  is  fare  •  false  wol  me  hold, 

&  J?e  grewes  for  gremf  e  •  ginnef  on  me  werre, 

&  eche  wei}h  schal  wite  *  f  at  f  e  wrong  is  myne. 

f  er-fore  bi  grete  god  *  }>at  gart  me  be  fourmed, 

&  bitterly  wif  his  blod  •  bou^t  me  on  f  e  rode, 


and  went  to 
Melior's  bed,  but 
found  only  the 
warm  bed-clothes. 


[Fol.  34  6.J 

Finding  her  no- 
where, he  asks 
Alexandrine 
where  she  is  gone 
to. 


"  Sire,"  she  says, 
"  I  have  not  seen 
her  since  mid- 
night; perhaps 
she  is  with 
William. 


If  he  is  not  gone, 
she  is  there ;  but 
if  he  is  gone,  be 
sure  Melior  is 
with  him." 


said  th» 
."has 


deceived  me  ? 


2080  The  Greeks  will 
make  war  u;*>u 
me. 


MS.  "  bud.' 


72 


THE  WEDDING    IS    PUT    OFF    PERFORCE. 


If  he  is  taken,  he 
shall  be  hanged 
and  drawn  in 
pieces." 

Sixty  sergeants 
are  sent  to  look 
for  William. 


[Fol.  35.] 


They  were  glad 
when  they  could 
not  find  him. 


The  emperor 
swoons  for  sorrow 
and  shame. 


His  lords  advise 
him  to  tell  the 
emperor  of 
Greece  the  whole 
truth. 


He  does  so,  and 
asks  him  how  he 
can  best  avenge 
himself. 


All  mirth  ceases 
in  the  city. 


The  Greek 
emperor,  seeing 
how  he  of  Rome 
was  grieved, 


alle  men  vpon  molde  *  ne  schuld  mak  it  ofer,         2084 

^if  fat  traytour  mow  be  take  •  to-day,  er  i  ete, 

lie  schal  be  honged  heie  •  &  wif  horse  to-drawe  !  " 

f  emperour  fill  kenely  •  dede  kalle  kni^ttes  fele, 

and  ofer  semly  seriaurcs  •  sixti  wel  armed,  2088 

het  hem  wi^tli  to  wende  •  to  wilh'ams  inne, 

&  ^if  f  ei  found  out  fat  freke  •  for  out  fat  bi-tidde, 

to  bring  him  bliue  •  bounde  fast  him  to-fore. 

fai  durste  non  ofer  do  •  but  dede  hem  on  gate,      2092 

&  sou^te  him  wif  sore  hertes  *  so  wel  f  ei  him  louede. 

fei^fli  when  f  ei  founde  him  nou^t  •  fayn  were  f  ei  alle, 

&  turned  a^ein  to  f  emperour  •  &  told  he  was  a-weie. 

fanbrayde  he  brayn-wod  •  &  alle  his  bakkes  rente,  2096     IJOUA 

his  berde  &  his  bri^t  fax  •  for  bale  he  to-twi^t ; 

&  swowned  sixe  sif  e  •  for  sorwe  &  for  schame, 

fat  fals  he  schold  be  fouwde  •  ful  ofte  he  seide  "  alias," 

&  banned  bitterli  fe  time  •  fat  he  was  on  Hue.        2100 

f  anne  kinges  &  kud  dukes  •  comforted  him  beter, 

bede  him  sese  of  his  sorwe  *  &  swiftili  wende, 

&  telle  f  emperour  of  grece  •  treuli  f  e  sof  e, 

&  meke  him  [in] l  his  merci  •  for  his  misse-gilt.      2104 

&  he  ketly  for  al  kas  •  after  cuwseyl  wrou^te, 

&  gof  to  f  emperour  of  grece  •  vnglad  at  his  herte, 

knelef  to  him  karfully  *  &  mercy  him  krief , 

and  told  him  as  titly  •  al  fe  treufe  sone,  2108 

how  his  doubter  was  went  *  wif  on  fat  he  fostred, 

&  preide  him  par  charite  •  fat  he  him  wold  wisse, 

In  what  wise  fat  he  mi^t  •  best  him  a-wrek. 

&  whan  fis  tiding  was  told  •  trowef  fe  sofe,          2112 

In  fat  cite  was  sone  •  many  a  sori  burne, 

for  missing  of  fat  mariage  •  al  nmrf e 2  was  seced, 

riuedliche  f  urth  rome  •  &  reuf  e  bi-gunne. 

fe  gode  emperour  of  grece  •  was  a-greued  sore,        2116 

of  fat  fortune  bi-falle  •  but  for  he  sei  fat  of  er 

so  meken  in  his  mercy  •  for  fat  misgilt, 

1  MS.  omits  in.     See  1.  2118.  2  MS.  "mw;Tj>e." 


THE    GREEK   EMPEROR    GIVES    HIS    ADVICE. 


73 


f  e  li^tere  he  let  f  er-of  *  ac  lourand  he  seide  ; 
"  sire,  be  god  fat  me  gaf  •  f  e  gost  &  fe  soule,         2120 
wist  i  now  witerli  •  f  is  were  wrou^t  for  gile, 
alle  f  e  mew  vpon  mold  •  no  schuld  make  it  of  er, 
fat  i  nold  brenne  f  i  borwes  •  &  f  i  burnes  quelle, 
&  sece  neuer  til  fi-self  •  were  chamly  destruyed.     2124 
but  i  wene  wif  f  i  wille  •  was  neuer  wrou^t  f  is  gile, 
fere-fore  f  e  cuwseil  fat  y  kan  •  i  schal  f  e  kif  e  sone, 
do  quikliche  crie  f  urth  eche  cuwtre  *  of  f  i  king-riche, 
fat  barouws,  burgeys,  &  bonde  •  &  alle  of er  burnes, 
fat  mowe  wi^tly  in  any  wise  •  walken  a-boute,       2129 
fat  f ei  wende  wijtly  •  as  wide  as  f i  reauine, 
f  urth  wodes  &  wastes  *  &  alle  maner  weies, 
forto  seche  fat  seg  •  fat  he  haf  so  bitraied ;  2132 

&  fat  mayde  him  mide  •  Meliores  f  i  doubter. 
&  to  make  eche  man  •  f  e  more  beter  wilned, 
bi-hote  hoo-so  hem  findes  *  to  haue  so  gret  mede, 
Riche  to  be  &  reale  •  redly  al  his  Hue  time.  2136 

&  ho-so  hastely  nou^t  him  hie}  •  f  is  hest  to  worche, 
do  him  in  hast  be  honged  *  &  wif  horse  to-drawe. 
&  loke  fat  hirde-men  wel  kepe  •  f  e  komime  passage, 
&  eche  brugge  f  er  a-boute  •  fat  burnes  ouer  wende, 
&  to  seche  eche  cite  •  and  alle  smale  f  ropes,  2141 

&  vnparceyued  passe  f  ei  nou^t  •  }if  f  i  puple  be  treuwe." 


says,  that  had  it 
been  done  in 
guile,  he  would 
have  burnt  all  his 
towns ; 


but  as  it  is  not 
so,  he  will  give 
him  his  counsel. 

[Fol.  35  6.] 
"  Proclaim 
through  all  your 
lands  that  every 
man  shall  seek 
everywhere, 


till  they  find 
William  and 
Melior, 


Whoever  finds 
them  is  to  be 
richly  rewarded, 
and  whoever  is 
remiss  is  to  be 
hanged. 

Passes  and 
bridges  should  be 
guarded." 


T%e  real  emperour  of  rome  •  f  anne  redli  him  thonked 
•*     of  fat  konyng  cuwseyl  •  &  his  kynde  wille.       2144 
&  bliue  fan  bi  eche  side  •  fat  bode  let  he  sende ; 
as  hastyli  as  men  nn^t  hi^e  •  his  hest  was  wrou^t, 
&  sone  was  sembled  swiche  an  host  •  to  take  hem  tweie, 
fat  neuer  burn  to  no  bataile  *  brou^t  swiche  a  puple. 
f  ei  sou3t  alle  so  serliche  •  f  urh  cites  &  smale  townes, 
In  wodes  &  alle  weies  •  fat  was  fer  a-boute,  2150 

fat  no  seg  for  no  slei^f e  •  no  schuld  haue  schapit. 
but  }it  as  god  ^af  f  e  grace  •  no  gom  mi^t  he?%  finde, 
fere  fei  leye  lonely  a-slepe  •  lapped  in  armes.          2153 


The  emperor 
sends  the 
message  every- 
where, and  all 
men  set  out  to 
hunt  them. 


They  sought  in 
every  wood  and 
path,  but 
fortunately  did 
not  find  them. 


74 


ALL    SET    OUT    TO    SEEK    THE    BEARS. 


When  it  was  told 
that  they  could 
not  be  found, 


the  Greek  who 
had  seen  the 
bears  told  his 
adventure, 
[Fol.  36.] 


and  how  the 
bears  had  not 
noticed  him,  but 
went  away  by  the 
postern-gate. 


The  Greek 
emperor  says  it 
will  be  best  to 
send  to  the 
kitchen  and  see  if 
any  skins  are 
missed. 


Two  white  bears' 
skins  are 
missing. 


All  set  out  again, 
with  hounds,  to 
hunt  the  bears, 


and  some  came 
close  to  their 
liding-place. 


hiding-] 


rThe  werwolf 
/determined  to 
leave  them, 


and  to  get  the 
hounds  away. 


but  whan  f  is  bode  was  broi^t  •  to  f  empe/-our[s]  bof  e, 

fat  no  wi^t  in  no  wise  *  ne  mi3t  wilh'am  finde, 

ne  fe  maide  Meliors  •  in  no  maner  wise,  2156 

per  stod  a  gome  of  grece  •  fat  god  gif  him  sorwe  ! 

he  fat  of  f  e  white  beres  •  so  bremli  was  a-fraied, 

he  seide  sone  to  f  emperours  •  "  sires,  wol  $e  here  ? 

I  sai  a  selkoufe  si$t  •  mi-self  3ister-neue,  2160 

wel  wif -inne  ni^t  •  as  i  went  in  the  gardyn ; 

tvo  fe  bremest  white  beres  •  fat  euer  burn  on  loked, 

&  semede  f  e  most  to  sijt  *  fat  euer  $ut  i  sawe. 

I  wende  deliuerli  for  drede  •  f  e  def  to  haue  sufFred, 

but  treuly  fe  beres  •  to  me  tok  no  hede,  2165 

but  passeden  out  priueli  •  at  f  e  posterne  gate, 

ac  whiderward  f  ei  went  *  wot  i  no  more." 

"  be  god,"  qua])  f  emperour  of  grece  •  "  fat  gart  me  b& 

fourmed,  2168 

I  der  leye  mi  lif  •  hit  was  f  e  lifer  trey  tour 
went  a-wey  in  fat  wise  •  for  he  ne  wold  be  knowen. 
Lete  wite  swif  e  at  f  e  kichen  •  wef  er  f ei  misse  any 

skinnes.  2171 

whan  men  kome  to  f  e  koke  •  he  was  be-knowe  sone, 
fat  sum  burn  a-wei  had  bore  *  tvo  white  beres  skynnes* 
fan  was  it  kenly  komanded  •  a  kri  to  make  newe, 
fat  eche  burn  schuld  bisily  •  tvo  white  beres  seke, 
his  trauayle  schold  nou^t  tyne  •  fat  tittest  hem  founde. 
fan  hastely  hi^ed  eche  wi^t  *  on  hors  &  on  fote,     2177 
huntyng  wijt  houndes  *  alle  heie  wodes, 
til  f  ei  ney^f  ed  so  neijh  *  to  nymphe  f  e  sof  e, 
fere  wilKam  &  his  worfi  lef  •  were  Hand  i-fere,      2180 
fat  busily  were  thei  a  bowe  schote  •  out  of  f  e  burnes  sijt. 
but  whan  f  e  witthi  werwolf  •  wist  hem  so  nere, 
&  sei^e  blod-houndes  bold  •  so  busili  seche, 
he  fou^t,  wil  his  lif  last  *  leten  he  nolde,  2184 

forto  saue  and  serue  •  f  o  tvo  semli  beres  ; 
&  prestly  fan  putte  him  out  •  in  peril  of  def e, 
bi-fore  f  o  herty  houndes  *  hauteyn  of  cryes, 


THE    BEARS    ARRIVE    AT    BENEVENTO. 


75 


2200 


to  winne  hem  alle  a-weiwardes  •  fro  f  e  white  beres. 

whan  fe  houndes  hadde  feute  •  of  fe  hende  best,   2189 

f  ei  sesed  al  here  sechyng  •  &  sewed  him  fast, 

ouer  mourctaynes  &  mires  •  many  myle  f  ennes. 

alle  men  fat  mut  herde  •  of  fe  muri  houndes,         2192 

seweden  after  ful  swif  e  *  to  se  fat  mury  chase, 

&  left  f  e  loueli  white  beres  •  ligge  in  here  rest, 

fat  wisten  no-f  ing  of  f  is  werk  *  fat  was  hem  a-boute. 

f  e   puple  f  anne  porsewed  forf   •  &  of  here  prey  f  ei 

missed,  2196 

as  god  gaf  f  e  werwolf  grace  •  to  go  a-wei  so  ^erne, 
fat  horse  ne  hourcde  for  non  hast  •  ne  mijt  him  of-take. 
whan  f  emperour  was  warned  •  in  wast  fat  f  ei  ^ede, 
alle  gergeis  for  grame  •  gonne  take  here  leue, 
&  cayred  to  Jjaire  cuwtre  •  earful  and  tened. 
but  ward  was  f  er  set  •  wide  wher  a-boute, 
of  bold  burnes  of  armes  •  f  e  beres  forto  seche, 
fat  l  f  e  witti  werwolf  •  so  wel  f  anne  hem  helped, 
fat  no  wi}t  for  wile  •  m^t  wite  where  f  ei  lenged  ; 
&  hastili  whan  f  ei  hade  nede  •  halp  hem  of  mete, 
&  wissed  hem  wel  f  e  wei3es  •  to  wende  a-wei  bi  ni^t  ; 
&  whan  it  drou^  to  f  e  dai  *  ful  dernli  he  hem  tau^t, 
bi  cowtenauwce  wel  thei  kneu  *  where  f  ei  rest  schold 

take.  2209 

&  busily  him-self  •  wold  buske  in  eche  side, 
to  help  hem  fro  harm  •  ^if  any  hap  bi-tidde. 
fus  fat  witty  werwolf  •  fe  weyes  hem  kenned  ;      2212 
lorkinde  f  urth  londes  bi  nijt  •  so  lumbardie  f  ei  passed, 
&  comew  into  f  e  marches  •  of  f  e  kingdam  of  poyle. 


The  hounds 
followed  him 
many  miles  over 
mountains  and 
mires, 


and  left  the  bears- 
lying  there. 

[Fol.  36  &.J 


The  chase  being 
all  in  vain,  all 
the  Greeks  go 
home. 

Watches  are  set 
everywhere. 


2204    i  Bead  but. 


But  the  werwolf 
found  them  food, 
and  was  their 
guide. 


Thus  they  passed 
Lombardy,  and 
came  to  Apulia. 


TTit  bi-tidde  fat  time  •  f  ei  trauailed  al  a  n^t, 

L  out  of  forest  &  frif  es  •  &  alle  faire  wodes  ;       2216 
no  couert  mi^t  f  ei  kacche  •  f  e  curatre  was  so  playne. 
&  as  it  dawed  Ii3t  day  •  to  mene  f  e  sof  e, 
fai  hadde  a  semli  sijt  •  of  a  cite  nobul, 


They  could  find 
no  covert  there. 


They  see  a 
castellated  city, 

enclosed  comeliche  a-boute  •  wif  fyn  castel-werk ;  2220  named  Benevento. 


76  THE    BEARS    FALL   ASLEEP    IN    A   QUARRY. 

bonuewt  fat  ricbe  borwe  •  burnes  }ut  clepun. 
wiiiiam  is  afraid    whan  wilh'am  ber-of  war  was  •  he  wax  a-drad  sore, 

they  will  be  seen.  ' 

lest  eny  segges  of  fat  cite  *  hem  of-se  schuld, 

&  mekly  seide  to  meliors  *  "  myn  owne  swete  herte, 

our  lord,  $if  his  liking  be  •  oure  Hues  now  saue  !     2225 

tohide* nowhere  f°r  i  no  wot  in  f  is  world  •  where  we  mowe  vs  hide, 
f  e  perles  prince  of  heuen  •  for  his  pite  &  his  grace, 
saue  vs  for  his  pite  •  fat  we  ne  slayn  bene  !  "          2228 
"  amen,  sire,"  seide  meliors  •  "  Marie  fat  vs  grauwt, 1 
for  fat  blessed  barnes  loue  •  fat  in  hire  bodi  rest !  " 2 

AtiaS  t!ie37found  f*11116  wijtly  wif-inne  a  while  •  as  fei  waited  a-boute, 

a  quarry  under  a    fei  saie  a  litel  hem  bi-side  •  a  semliche  quarrere,    2232 
vnder  an  hei}  hel  *  al  holwe  newe  diked ; 
deliuerli  fei  hie^ed  hem  f ider  •  for  drede  out  of  doute, 

and  crept  into  a     &  crepten  in-to  a  caue  •  whanne  bei  beder  come, 

cave  there,  and 

lay  down  there  to  al  wery  for-walked  •  &  wold  take  here  reste.  2236 

In  armes  louely  eche  lau^t  of  er  •  &  leide  hem  to  slepe, 
al  bonden  in  f  e  bere  skynnes  *  bi-fore  as  fei  ^ede. 

The  werwolf  kept  &  j,a{;  wftty  werwolf  •  went  ay  bi-side, 

&  kouchid  him  vnder  a  kragge  •  to  kepe  f  is  tvo  beris. 
ac  fei  ne  hadde  redly  rested  •  but  a  litel  while,       2241 

some  workmen      fat  werkmen  forto  worche  *  ne  wonne  bidere  sone, 

came  there  to 

dig.  stifly  wif  strong  tol  •  ston  stifly  to  digge,3 

&  as  fei  come  to  fe  caue  •  to  comse  to  wirche,        2244 

One  of  them  saw    on  of  hem  sone  of-sei  •  fo  semliche  white  beres, 
loueli  ligand  to-gadir  •  lapped  in  armes. 
but  feif  li  as  fast  •  to  his  felawes  he  seide, 

and  bid  his          "  herkenes  nowe,  hende  sires  •  ^e  han  herd  ofte,     2248 

fellows  remember 

the  cry  that  had    wich  a  cri  has  be  cried  •  f  urth  cuwtres  fele, 

fat  what  man  vpon  molde  •  mi^t  onwar  finde, 

tvo  breme  wite  beres  •  fe  bane  is  so  maked,  2252 

he  schold  winne  his  wareson  •  to  weld  for  euere, 

1  MS.  graut ;  but  the  u  has  a  crooked  line  over  it  (the  contraction 
for  ra  or  «)  instead  of  a  straight  one. 

2  Catchword—"  J?anne  wi^tly."       3  Read  "  ston  for  to  digge"(?). 


THE    PROVOST    AND    HIS    MEN    SEEK    THE    BEARS. 


77 


Jjurth  f  e  grete  god  of  gold  •  fat  him  bi  3iue  schold." 
"  3a,  ibrsof  e,"   seide   his  felawes   •   "  ful  wel  fat  we 

knowe ; 

but  wharhi  seistow  so  •  so  f  e  god  help  ?  "  2256 

"fe  sofe,  felawes,  ful  sone  *  36  schol  it  wite, 
3if  36  tentifly  take  kepe  *  &  trewe  he  to-gadere  ; 
I  wol  winne  our  warisun  •  for  i  wot  where  fei  are." 
"  3is,  certes,"  seide  fei  •  "so  trewe  wol  we  hene,     2260 
fat  no  fote  schal  we  fle  •  for  nou^t  hi-tides." 
"  ek,  sires,"  seide  fat  ofer  •  "so  30113  crist  rede, 
standes  alle  a  stounde  stille  •  in  f  is  ilk  place, 
I  wil  husk  to  honeuent  •  of  f  e  heris  telle,  2264 

to  f  e  prouost  &  ofer  puple  •  &  hem  preie  in  hast 
to  come  hider  &  hem  cacche  •  for  in  caue  f  ei  lyen, 
&  slepen  samen  y-fere  •  y  saw  hem  ri^t  nowe." 
f  enne  were  his  felawes  ful  fayn  •  &  fast  had  him  renne, 
&  fei  wold  a-bide  boldly  •  f  e  beres  fere  to  kepe.    2269 
fat  ofer  [went],1  wi^tly  f  enne  •  to  warne  f  e  prouost 
lelliche  hou  he  hade  seye  •  in  f  e  harde  quarrer, 
f  e  tvo  white  beris  •  &  bad  him-self  3erne  2272 

to  come  wif  gret  pouwer  •  &  cacche  hem  in  haste. 
"  wostou  wel,"  seyede  f  e  prouost  •  "  fat  fei  are  fere 

3ete?" 

"  36,  certes,"  seide  he  •  "  y  saw  hem  rijt  now  bof  e ; 
&  fine  of  my  felawes  •  ful  faste  fere  hem  way  ten,  2276 
fat  fei  no  wende  a-way  *  wil  y  hider  sterte." 


and  how  great 
was  the  reward 
offered  for  finding 
them. 


He  will  shew 
them  how  to  get 
the  reward. 


They  must  watch 
there  while  he 
goes  to  Benevento 

[Fol.  87  &.] 
to  tell  the 
provost. 


They  watch 
while  he  runs  off. 


He  tells  the 
provost  the  bears 
are  found, 


and  five  of  his 
fellows  are 
watching  them. 


"Ue  prouost  fan  prestely  •  fe  pepul  dede  warne,  The  provost 

gathers  all  the 

-•     as  fei  nold  lese  here  lif  •  here  londes  &  here  godes,  people  of  the 

fat  alle  hie3den  hastily  •  on  hors  &  on  fote,  2280 

&  bi-set  sone  saddeli  *  f  e  quarrer  al  a-boute, 

ti3tli  for  to  take  •  f  e  tvo  white  beres, 

fat  f emperour  comanded  crie  •  in  cu^tre  al  a-boute. 

sone  eche  man  fat  mijt  •  ful  manliche  him  armed,  2284 

&  he3eden  hastely  to  hors  •  f o  fat  hade  any, 

1  Perhaps  we  should  read  "  That  other  went  wiztly." — M. 


78  MELIOR    HAS    A    WARNING    DREAM. 

and  frekes  on  fote  •  hi^ede  hem  fast  after, 
so  fat  f  e  ciwtre  f  urth  fat  cri  •  was  al  bi-cast  sone, 
&   quikliche  a-boute   f  e  quarrer  *  were  kene  men  of 
armes,  2288 

2200  men  in  ail.     twenty  hundered  &  tvo  •  trewli  in  numbre, 

to  take  as  bliue  f  e  beres  •  but  god  now  hem  help, 

slayn  worf  f  ei  slepend  •  ac  selcouf  now  heres. 

as  fo  bold  beres  •  so  nei^h  here  bale  slepten,  2292 

just  then,  Meiior   Meliors  burth  a  metyng  *  was  marred  new  for  fere, 

had  a  dream, 

which  she  teiis  to  &  f  urth  jmt  sojrwful  sweuene  •  swif  e  sche  a-waked, 
&  wi3%  to  will/am  •  f  ese  wordes  sche'  sede, 
"  a  !  louely  lemmaii  •  lestene  now  my  sawe,  2296 

~~  I  am  ney  marred  &  mad  •  f  is  morwe  for  a  sweuene. 

"  i thought  that     for  me  bout  bat  ber  com  •  to  bis  caue  noube 

bears,  apes,  bulls,  r    . 

[Foi.  88.]        wilde  beris  &  apes  •  bores,  boles,  and  baucynes, 
bLt  oufcave, led  a  brem  numbre  of  bestes  •  fat  a  lyoun  ladde,          2300 
fat  his  kene  komandmertt  •  kidden  wel  to  wirche, 
to  haue  taken  vs  tvo  *  to-gader  in  f  is  denne. 
The  lion's  cub  \      ban  was  ber  a  litel  IVOUTZ,  •  of  be  lederes  bi-sete, 

was  with  them ; 

come  wif  fat  companye  •  fis  case  to  bi-holde.         2304 
&  r^t  as  f  e  breme  bestes  •  vs  bof  e  schuld  haue  take, 
and  our  werwolf    our  wurf  i  werwolf  •  .fat  euer  wel  vs  helpef , 

came  and  caught  .,  ,   ,  p    „         n  i 

up  the  cub,  and     com  W1P  a  gre^  kours  •  &  lor  alle  f  e  kene  bestes, 

ran  off  with  it,         &  lau^  yp  ^  ?ong  lvoun  .  Ii3tly  in  hig  m()U^e}         230g 

&  went  wif  him  a-wei  •  whedir  as  him  liked, 
and  they  left  off     &  alle  f  e  breme  bestes  •  fat  a-boute  vs  were, 
TrentDafter  Mm."    for-lete  vs  &  folwed  him  forf  -  for  f  e  $ong  lyouns  sake  , 
&  certes,  sire,  of  fat  sweuen  •  ri^t  so  y  a-waked,     2312 
&  am  a-drad  to  fe  def  •  for  destine  fat  wol  falle." 

wiiiiam  says  it  is  "  \Ta7>  loueli  lef,"  seide  william  •  "leue  al  fat  sorwe, 

-^   forsof e  it  is  but  fanteme  •  fat  36  fcre-telle  ; 
/     we  mo  we  reste  vs  redili  •  rijt  sauf  here  at  wille."   2316 

ac  sof li,  as  che  had  seide  •  ri3t  wif  fat  ilke, 
But  then  they       f  ei  herd  an  huge  route  of  horse  •  fat  hel  al  a-boute, 

hear  the  sound  of      .  . 

many  horsemen,    &  herd  fat  quarrero  vmbe-cast  •  <fc  al  f  e  cuwtre  wide. 


WILLIAM    BIDS    MELIOB    SAVE    HERSELF. 


79 


ful  wi3tly  •  wayted  out  at  an  hole,  2320 

<&  seie  breme  burnes  busi  *  in  ful  bri3t  armes, 
brandissende  wif  gret  bost  •  &  of  f  e  beres  speke, 
In  what  wise  f  ei  wold  wirche  l  •  wi3tly  hem  to  take. 
fe  prouost  wif  al  fe  puple  •  presed  for]?  formast,    2324 
&  many  mi^ti  man  manliche  •  medled  fat  time, 
&  sof  liche  for  to  seie  •  swiche  grace  god  lente, 
fat  f  e  prouost  sone  •  a  semli  3ong  barne, 
was  brout  fider  wif  burnes  •  fe  beres  to  bi-holde,  2328 
for  f  e  selcouf  e  sty  to  se  •  how  J>ei  schuld  be  take. 
whan  wilKam.  was  war  •  f  ei  were  so  nei^L  nome, 
to  meliors  wif  mornyng  •  mekliche  he  sayde, 
"  alias  !  my  loueliche  lemniaw  •  fat  euer  y  lif  hadde, 
to  be  for  al  our  bale  •  brou3t  to  swiche  an  hende  !  2333 
alias  !  lemmas,  fat  our  loue  •  f  us  luf  erly  schal  departe, 
fat  we  now  dulfulli  schul  deye  •  ac  do  now,  god,  f  i 

grace, 

&  late  me  haue  al  f  e  harm  *  hei3eliche  i  beseche  ;  2336 
for  i  haue  wrou^t  al  fis  wo  •  &  worf  i  am  f  er-tille. 
for  meliors,  my  dere  hert  *  be  marie  in  heuene, 
holly  al  fis  harde  *  f  ow  hast  al  for  my  gelt  ; 
f  er-fore,  yf  godes  wille  were  •  i  wold  haue  al  f  e  payne, 
to  mede  36  were  fro  fis  quarrere  *  quitly  a-schaped.  2341 
&  dere  hert,  deliuerli  •  do  as  ich  f  e  rede, 
dof  bliue  fis  bere-skyn  *  &  be  stille  in  f  i  clof  es, 
&  as  sone  as  f  ou  art  seie  •  f  ou  schalt  sone  be  knowe, 
fan  worf  f  i  liif  lengeyd  '2  •  for  loue  of  f  i  fader  ;      2345 
so  mi3tow  be  saued  •  for  sof  e,  neuer  elles  ; 
<fe  f  ouh3  f  ei  murf  er  me  f  anne  •  i  no  make  no  strengf  e. 
but  god  for  his  grete  grace  •  gof  i  hadde  now  here  2348 
horse  &  alle  harneys  •  fat  be-houes  to  werre, 
I  wold  wend  hem  tille  •  wif-oute  ani  stint, 
&  do  what  i  do  n^t  •  or  ich  f  e  deth  soffred  ;          2351 
suwme  fat  bere  hem  now  brag  •  schuld  blede  or  euen. 


and  William  sees 
men-in-arms, 
and  hears  them 
speak  of  the 
bears. 


The  provost's 
was  in  the 
company. 


William  laments 
their  hard  fate. 
[Fol.  38  6.J 


He  says  he  ought 
to  have  all  the 
harm* 


He  advises 
Melior  to  doff  her 
bearskin,  and 
reveal  herself. 


No  matter  if 
they  murder  Aim, 
yet  he  wishes  he 
had  a  horse  and 
armour, 


and  he  would  do 
what  he  could. 


*  Or  "  lengeyd,"  miswrittenfor  lengj?ed  (?).    Cf.  11.  1040,  1944. 


80 


THE   WERWOLF    BUNS    OFF   WITH    THE   PROVOST*S    SON. 


ac  botles  is  now  f  is  bale  •  but  be  hit  a  goddes  wille, 


she  must  take  off  &  buske  f  e  of  f  is  bere  fel  •  bi-liue,  i  f  e  rede, 

her  bearskin  and 
save  herself. 


2355 


&  wende  listly  hennes  •  &  late  me  worf  after  ; 
swif  e  saue  f  i-self  *  for  so  is  f  e  best." 
Meliors  wepande  wonder  sore  •  to  wilKam  fan  seide, 
"what?  leuestow,  leue  lemmas  •  fat  i  fe  leue  wold 
for  def  or  for  duresse  *  fat  men  do  me  mi^t  ?  2359 

nay  ft  him  fat  wif  his  blod  •  boust  vs  on  be  rode, 
f  e  beres  fel  schal  neuer  fro  my  bac  •  siker  be  f  er-fore. 
having  no  wish  to  al  f  is  world  to  winne  *  i  no  wold  be  aliue, 

live  if  he  is  slain.         ,  T      r>,        •        •  -,    , 

sof  li  alter  i  seie  :$ou  •  sufltere  f  e  def  e  ; 
wif   god  wille   take  we  f  e  grace   •  fat  god  wol  us 
sende."  2364 


Meiior  vows  she 

will  not  do  so, 


The  provost 
advances  to  take 
the  bears, 

[Fol.  39.] 


but  the  werwolf 
attacks  them, 


snatches  up  the 
provost's  son, 


and  runs  off, 
roaring  loudly. 


The  provost  cries 
out  for  help. 


All  begin  to  chase 
the  werwolf, 


Whan  fat  sawe  was  seid  *  sof  for  to  telle, 
f  e  prouost  bad  bold  burnes  •  f  e  beres  go  take, 
&  f  ei  hastily  at  his  hest  •  hi^ed  inward  atte  roche. 
but  godli,  as  god  wold  •  swiche  grace  bi-tidde,         2368 
f  e  werwolf  was  war  *  &  wist  of  here  tene, 
&  be-f  out  how  best  wore  *  f  e  beres  to  saue  ; 
&  wi^tly  as  a  wod  best  *  went  hem  a-^ens, 
Gapand  ful  grimli  •  &  gof  f  anne  ful  euene  2372 

to  f  e  semli  prouost  sone  •  &  swif  e  him  vp-cau^t 
be  f  e  middel  in  his  mouf  e  •  fat  muche  was  &  large, 
&  ran  l  forf  for  al  fat  route  •  wif  so  rude  a  noyse,      ~ 


as  he  wold  fat  barn  •  bliue  haue  for-frete. 


1376 


whan  f  e  prouost  fat  perceyued  *  to  f  e  puple  he  cried, 
"  helpes  hastily,  hende  men  *  i  hote,  vp  ^our  Hues  ! 
ho  wol  winne  his  wareson  •  now  wijtly  him  spede 
forto  saue  my  sone  *  or  for  sorwe  i  deye  ! "  2380 

ful  sone  after  fat  sawe  •  se  fere  men  mi^t 
Many  a  bold  burn  •  after  fat  best  prike, 
&  of  er  frekes  on  fote  •  as  fast  as  f  ei  n^t, 
so  holliche  to  fat  hunting  •  i  hote  fe  forsofe,          2384 
fat  noif  er  burde  ne  barn  *  bi-laft  at  f  e  quarrer, 

1  MS.  "  J>an."     Both  sense  and  alliteration  require  "  ran." 


WILLIAM    AND    MELIOR    DOFF    THE    BEAR-SKINS.  81 


but  went  after  f  e  werwolf  •  &  warned  from  f  e  beres, 

hotend  out  wib  homes  •  &  wif  buge  cries,  ™th  horns  and 

loud  cries. 

&  sewed  him  sadly  *  wij)  so  selkouf  noyse,  2388 

fat  alle  men  vpora  molde  •  mi3t  be  a-wondred. 


euer  when  be  werwolf  •  was  out  to-fore  Every  time  the 

werwolf  was  half 

f  e  moufttaunce  of  half  a  myle  •  or  more  $if  it  were,          a  mile  away, 

lest  f  e  segges  wold  haue  sesed  •  here  seute  to  folwe,  2392 

he  wold  abide  wib  be  bam  •  be  bliber  hem  to  make,         h«  waited  for 

them  to  come  up, 

In  hope  fei  schuld  of  him  •  hent  f  e  litel  knaue. 

but  whan  fei  were  ou3t  him  nei^  •  noujt  he  nold  abide, 

but  dede  him  deliuerli  awey  •  as  he  dede  bi-fore,    2396 

&  bus  lelly  he  hem  ladde  *  alle  be  longe  daie.  and  80  led  thera 

on  all  day  long. 

fat  neuer  man  vp07^  molde  •  mi^t  him  of-take  ; 

&  schete  durst  fei  nou^t,  for  drede  *  f  e  child  to  hurte, 

but  folwed  him  so  forf  •  as  fast  as  fei  mi^t.  2400 

whanne  be  wite  beres  wist  •  bat  were  in  be  quarrer,  [Fo1-  39  6-l 

The  white  bears, 

fat  al  f  e  puple  was  passed  •  to  pursue  f  e  best,  finding  that  ail 

of  fat  witti  werwolf  •  to  winne  f  e  child,  sone  away, 

&  sei  wel  for  here  sake  *  he  suffred  f  o  peines          2404 

to  socour  hem  &  saue  •  fra??&  alle  sory  def  es, 

&  bo  be  bliue  for  bat  best  •  bi-ofunne  to  preie  prayed  for  the 

werwolf's  safety, 

fat  god  for  his  grete  mi^t  •  schuld  gete  him  fro  harm  ; 

witterli  fei  wist  wel  '-fat  f  ei  nere  bot  dede,  2408 

nere  goddes  grete  rnijt  •  &  f  e  gode  bestes  help. 

&  whan  bei  bobe  had  so  bede  *  bei  be-bout  after,  and  began  to 

think  they  had 

It  were  best  as  bliue  •  to  buske  hem  of  fat  caue.  better  make  off. 

&  wilKam  fese  wordes  wijtly  '  to  meliors  seide,     2412 

"  Mi  swete  wi^t,  sof  to  seie  •  me  semeth  l  it  f  e  best, 

to  buske  2  vs  of  be  bere  felles  •  to  be  be  lasse  knowe.        William  says  they 

had  better  take 

for  eche  wi^h  wol  more  a-weite  •  after  fe  white  beres,      off  the  skins. 

fan  fei  wol  after  any  wi3t  *  fat  walkef  i-clofed,     2416 

berfor  wiitly  in  oure  owne  wedes  •  wende  we  hennes."     and  so  away  in 

their  own  clothes. 

Mekli  seide  meliors,  "  sire  *  be  marie  in  heuen, 

to  do  holli  as  36  ban  seide  •  i  hope  be  f  e  best."      2419 

as  bliue  be  bere  schinnes  •  frow  here  bodi  bei  hent,          They  rend  off  the! 

skins,  and  are 

1  MS.  "semeht."  2  MS.  "buskes." 

G 


82 


WILLIAM    AND    MELIOR    HIDE    IN    A    FOREST. 


glad  to  see  one 
another  once 
more. 


William  looks 
out,  but  can  see 
no  one  near. 


They  take  the 
skins  with  them, 
being  loath  to 
part  with  them 


They  were  in 
much  dread,  but 

[Fol.  40.] 

happily  met  with 
no  one. 

After  going  three 
miles,  they  find  a 
forest. 


Melior  is  so  tired, 
she  can  go  no 
farther. 


So  they  rest  in 
the  forest,  and 
fall  asleep. 


The  provost  and 
bis  men  chased 
the  werwolf  till 

sunset. 


The  werwolf 
thought  there 
was  no  need  to 
go  farther ; 


&  wi^tly  wrapped  hem  to-gadere  •  wittow  for  sof  e, 

&  blif  e  were  fei  bof  e  f  anne  *  to  bi-hold  on  of  ei- ; 

for  feif  li  a  fourteni^t  •  new  hadde  seie  of  eres  face. 

f  anne  dipt  fei  &  kest  •  for  al  here  cares  colde,       2424 

&  will?  am  ful  wijtly  •  waited  out  of  f  e  caue, 

&  bi-huld  ful  busili  •  a-boute  on  eche  a  side, 

}if  eny  wijt  were  walkende  •  but  he  non  seie.          2427 

he  lau^t  loueli  Meliors  •  &  ladde  hire  bi  f  e  honde ; 

closed  in  here  clones  •  out  of  ])e  caue  fei  went, 

wif  hem  bof  e  bere-felles  •  fei  bere  in  here  armes, 

so  lof  hem  was  f  o  to  lese  •  or  leue  hem-  bi-hinde  ; 

&  deden  hem  deliuerly  *  ouer  dales  and  helles,       2432 

ferrest  fro  alle  weies  •  f  er  any  folk  walkes. 

dolfulli  fei  were  adrad  >dar  no  mew  hem  wite, 

last  fei  schuld  mete  any  man  •  fat*  mi^t  hem  be-wrie ; 

but  fan  as  god  wold  •  or  eny  man  hem  seye,  2436 

fei  hade  walked  in  fat  wise  •  wel  a  f re  myle, 

&  founden  fan  a  fayr  forest  •  floriched  ful  f ik, 

&  f  ider  wi^tly  f  ei  went  •  wel  vnparceyued. 

what  of  here* hard  hei3ing  •  &  of  f  e  hote  weder,      2440 

Meliors  was  al  mat  *  sche  ne  mi^t  no  furf  er, 

&  prestly  in  a  f icke  place  *  of  fat  pris  wode, 

wel  out  from  alle  "weyes  •  for-wery  f  ei  hem  rested, 

&  f onked  god  gretliche  •  fat  so  godliche  hem  saued  ; 

&  seffen  softli  to  slepe  •  samen  fei  hem  leide,        2445' 

as  fei  fat  were  wery  •  for- waked  to-fore. 

Nou^  leue  we  of  hem  a  while  •  &  speke  we  a-nof  er  ; 

For  of  f  e  witti  werwolf  •  a  while  wol  i  telle.  2448 

Oo  long  fat  ferli  folk  •  folwed  him  after, 
^  to  haue  be-nom  him  f  e  barn  •  fat  he  nam  fat  time, 
huntyng  holliche  fat  day  *  on  hors  &  on  fote, 
till  f  e  semli  sunne  •  was  setled  to  reste.  245  21 

&  whan  it  was  so  nei}  ni3t  •  to  neuen  f  e  sof  e, 
f  e  werwolf  wist  wel  *  it  was  no  more  nede 
to  bere  fat  [barn]  no  forf  er  l  •  for  f  e  beres  sake. 
1  Read  "to  bere  that  bam."— M.     See  1.  2459. 


THE   WERWOLF    DROPS    THE   PROVOST'S    SON. 


83 


fei  hadde  folwed  him  so  fer  '  pat  forsope  he  wist,  2456 
pat  no  seg  pat  hade  sewed  •  no  schuld  horn  winne, 
hi^ed  pei  neuer  so  hard  •  of  al  pa  long  ni^t. 
&  panne  as  bliue  pat  barn  •  pe  best  a-doun  sette, 
wip-oute  eny  maner  wem  *  pe  worse  it  to  greue,      2460 
for  non  schold  in  pat  barnes  bodi  •  o  brusure  finde 
as  of  pat  bold  best  •  but  bold  it  was  &  faire. 
&  as  sone  as  he  hade  •  sette  it  a-downe, 
he  went  wi^tly  a-weie  •  wip-oute  eny  more,  2464 

deliuerli  as  he  nadde  pat  day  •  gon  half  a  myle. 
when  pe  prouost  &  pe  puple  •  parceyued  pat  ilk, 
pat  pe  best  hade  left  pe  barn  •  blipe  were  pei  panne, 
pe  prouost  bi-fore  pe  puple  •  priked  pider  formest,  2468 
&  hent  it  vp  in  hast  •  ful  hendli  in  his  armes, 
and  clipt  it  &  kest  •  oft  &  many  sipes ; 
bi-huld  a-boute  on  his  bodi  •  }if  it  blenched  were ; 
whan  he  saw  it  al  sound  *  so  glad  was  he  panne,    2472 
pat  na  gref  vnder  god  •  gayned  to  his  ioye. 
al  pe  puple  prestly  *  pat  him  porsewed  hadde, 
gretliche  ponked  god  *  of  pat  grace  bi-falle, 
&  tijtli  al  here  tene  •  was  turned  in- to  ioye,  2476 

&  as  bliue  wip  blisse  •  pei  busked  hem  homward, 
wip  al  pe  murpe  vpora  molde  •  pat  men  mi^t  diuise. 
but  eche  man  al  nijt  •  inned  him  where  he  mi^t, 
&  whan  hit  dawed,  deliuerli  •  dede  hem  homward.  2480 
&  wi3tli  whan  pei  horn  come  •  wittow  for  sope, 
pe  prouost  ful  prestli  •  al  pat  puple  warned, 
to  buske  bliue  to  pe  quarrer  •  pe  beres  to  take, 
pei  went  wip  god  wille  *  but  wan  pei  pider  come,  2484 
pei  founde  al  awei  fare  •  bi-fore  pat  per  wore, 
po  ne  wist  pei  in  pe  world  •  whider  hem  to  seche, 
but  hi^ed  hem  homward  *  fast  as  pei  rr^t, 
&  token  redli  here  rest  •  at  here  owne  wille.  2488 

pe  prouost  dede  pertli  •  prefer  al  a-boute, 
what  man  vpon  mold  *  mi^t  pe  beres  take, 
he  schuld  gete  of  gold  •  garissouft  for  euere. 
6  * 


so  he  put  the 
provost's  son 
down,  quite 
unharmed. 


and  went  off  as 
nimbly  as  if  he 
had  but  gone 
half  a  mile. 


The  provost  rides 
up,  recovers  his 
son, 

[Fol.  40  &.] 
and  looks  to  see 
if  he  is  harmed. 


and  is  glad  to  find 
him  whole. 


The  people's 
sorrow  is  turned 
into  joy. 


They  rested  all 
night  where  they 
could, 


and  repaired  next 
day  to  the  quarry. 


Finding  nothing 
there,  they 
return  home. 


The  provost  pro- 
claims a  reward 
for  taking  the 
bears; 


THE    WERWOLF    BRINGS    THE    FUGITIVES    FOOD. 


and  many  men 
looked  for  them, 
but  none  found 


The  werwolf 
returned  to 
William  and  his 
mate. 


well  charged  with 
wine  and  meats. 


He  then  goes 
away  again,  to 
their  great 
wonder. 

[Fol.  41.] 


They  feel  sure  the 
beast  is  of  man's 
nature. 


He  never  fails 
them  at  need. 


They  eat  and 
drink,  and  rest  a 
day  and  a  night. 


Early  next 
morning,  some 
colliers  come  near 
their  hiding-place. 


The  colliers  begin 
to  talk,  and  one 
says  if  the  white 
l>ears  were  there, 


nothing  should 
fctvethem; 


Many  man  by  his  mi^t  •  medled  him  f  er-after,         2492 

a-boute  bi  eche  side  •  f  o  bestes  for  to  seche. 

but  as  god  ^af  f  e  grace  •  no  gom  mi^t  hem  finde, 

so  happiliche  f  ei  hem  hidde  *  f  ei  hadde  swiche  grace. 

&  forto  telle  what  tidde  •  of  fat  tide  werwolf,         2496 

fat  ni^t  fat  hadde  •  f  e  prouost  sone  for-left, 

he  wan  a-^eii  to  willmm  •  &  to  his  worf  make, 

wel  i-charged  wif  wyn  •  &  wif  gode  metes, 

fat  he  wan  bi  f  e  weie  •  as  he  f  ider  went.  2500 

&  bliue  fat  he  bar  •  be-fore  wilKam  hit  leide, 

&  went  him  wi}tly  •  a-wei  fro  hem  sone. 

f  erof  was  willmm  a-wondred  •  &  meliors  alse, 

why  f e  best  nold  abide  *  fat  so  wel  hem  helped,    2504 

&  seide  eif  er  til  of  er  •  "  now  sertes,  for  sof  e, 

f  is  best  lias  ma?mus  kynde  •  it  may  be  non  of  er. 

se  what  sorwe  he  suffres  •  to  saue  vs  tweine  ! 

&  namli,  when  we  han  nede  •  neuer  he  ne  faylef ,  2508 

fat  he  ne  bringef  wher  we  ben  •  fat  to  vs  bi-houes. 

he  fat  suffred  for  our  sake  •  sore  wondes  fiue, 

he  our  buxu?ft  best  saue  *  &  hald  vs  his  Hue." 

"  amen,  sire,"  seide  meliors  •  "  marie  fat  graunt  !  2512 

nade  his  help  hende  ben  •  we  hade  be  ded  ^ore." 

f ei  made  hem  fan  merye  •  wif  mete  fat  f ei  hadde, 

&  eten  at  here  ese  •  for  f  ei  were  for-hungred, 

&  rested  fere  redeli  •  al  fat  longe  day,  2516 

&  al  f  e  ni}t  next  after  •  to  neuen  f  e  sof  e, 

for  meliors  was  so  wery  *  fat  sche  ne  walk  1013 1. 

&  erliche  on  f  e  morwe  *  er  f  e  sunne  gan  schine, 

choliers  fat  cayreden  col  •  come  fere  bi-side,          2520 

&  of  er  wi^es  fat  were  wont  •  wode  forto  fecche, 

fast  f  er  wilh'am  was  •  &  his  worf  burde. 

f  e  kolieres  bi-komsed  to  karpe  •  kenely  i-fere ; 

on  of  hem  seide  sadli  •  f  ise  selue  wordes  :  2524 

"  wold  god  f  e  white  beres  *  were  here  nowf  e, 

alle  f  e  me?^  on  mold  •  ne  schuld  here  liues  saue, 

for  wi3tly  wold  ich  wende  •  and  warne  f  e  prouost, 


SOME   COLLIERS    COME   NEAR   THE   HIDING-PLACE.  85 

&  titliche  schuld  J?ei  be  take  *  &  moche  tene  suffre  ; 

for  breme  beres  fbel  l  bei  none  •  as  bei  be-semen,   2529  that  they  are  not 

/.  really  bears,  but 

It  is  bemperours  dou3ter  •  bat  so  digised  wendej),  the  emperor's 

.  ,        r          i>iii      •   ,  o  daughter  and  a 

wib  a  LcomlicneJ  kni^t  2  •  j>at  kai^t  nab  hire  loue.  knight. 

J?er-fore  Jjese  cries  ben  •  so  kenliche  maked,  2532 

what  man  on  molde  *  mow  hem  first  fynde, 

he  mai  gete  so  moche  gold  *  J>at  pore  worb  he  neuer. 

wonderli  a  werwolf  *  yesterday  hem  saued.  A  werwolf  had 

saved  them 

ba  pertly  be  prouost  barn  •  bar  a-way  from  alle  ;    2536  yesterday, 

wliile  me??  hunted  after  hem  •  bai  han  a-wai  schaped.  [Foi.  41  »j 

bi  him  bat  me  bou^t  •  were  jjei  bobe  here, 

jjei  schuld  wicche  wel  •  ^if  bei  a-wei  went, 

bomh  ber  were  werwolfs  •  wib  hem  foure  schore  !  "          not  8ave  them  t0* 

day. 

jjen  was  meliors  nei^  mad  •  al-most  for  fere,  2541  Meiior  was  very 


vere 


lest  bat  foule  felbe  •  schold  haue  hem  fouwde  bere, 

&  darked  stiile  in  hire  den  •  for  drede,  boute  noyse. 

wi3%  a-noj>e>-  werkman  •  bat  was  ber  be-side          2544 

gan  flite  wib  bat  felbe  •  bat  formest  hadde  spoke,  one> 

seide,  "do  bi  deuer  *  bat  bow  hast  to  done. 

what  were  be  be  beter  nou^  *  bei^h  be  beris  were  here, 

to  do  hem  any  duresse]  •  J>ei  misdede  ]>e  neuer.      2548  nothing  to  M». 

Mani  hard  hape  •  han  bei  a-schapet, 

&  so  i  hope  bei  schal  ^it  *  for  al  )>i  sori  wille. 

god  for  his  grete  n^t  •  fram  greues  hem  saue,  pwenre  «»em  .' 

&  bring  hem  bo>e  wib  blis  •  bere  fei  be  wold.        2552  fj^/^8'  our 

do  we  bat  we  haue  to  done  •  &  dijt  we  vs  henne,  business." 

sum  seluer  for  our  semes3  •  in  ]?e  cite  to  gete." 

o    ,  .  j  So  they  returned 

bei  hadde  blme  here  burbenes  *  &  bi-gunne  to  wende,      to  the  city. 


ne  is  swete  wi^t  •  seie  hem  na  more  ;         2556 
but  holliche  had  herd  •  al  here  huge  speche. 
jjan  seide  wilb'am  wi^tly  •  bese  selue  wordes, 
"  Meliors,  my  swete  hert  •  now  mow  we  no  more  Jj™  more  U8e  to 

In  bise  breme  bere-felles  •  a-boute  here  walke,        2560 

1  Read  "  beres  be  thei  none."—  M. 

3  Read  "  With  a  komli  knizt,"  or  something  similar.—  M.    See 
L  2637.  3  See  note. 


86 


THE   WERWOLF    KILLS    A    HART    AND    A    HIND. 


Melior  says  that 
any  one  who 
meets  them  in 
their  own  clothes 
will  know  them. 


What  is  to  be 
done? 


}if  we  wist  in  what  wise  •  how  to  worche  beter." 
"  certes,  sire,  pat  is  so])  "  *  seide  meliors  pan, 
"  }if  we  walken  in  pes  wedes  •  i  wot  wel  for  sope, 
&  al  pe  curctre  knowep  •  what  cas  we  ben  inne,      2564 
what  man  so  vs  metes  •  may  vs  sone  knowe. 
I  ne  wot  in  wat  wise  •  to  worche  be  best." 
"  nor  ich,  i-wisse,"  sede  will/am  •  "  but  worpe  god  wij> 
alle." 


Just  then,  the 
werwolf  killed  a 
huge  hart  and  a 
hind,  and  left 
them. 

IFoL  42.] 


William  perceived 
that  the  werwolf 
meant  them  to 
use  the  skins,  and 
to  leave  the 
bearskins. 


They  pray  that 
the  werwolf  may 
never  come  to 
barm. 


Said  William, 
"  Let  as  flay  these 
beasts,  and  array 
ourselves  in  the 
skins." 


William  nays  the 
hart,  and  Melior 
the  hind. 


They  sew  each 
other  up  in  the 


While  pfe  tvo  derlinges  •  talked  to-gadere,  2568 

pe  werwolf  an  huge  hert  •  hade  hunted  rijt  pider, 
&  ri^t  be-fore  hem  bope  •  brou3t  hit  to  depe ; 
&  hastilyche  pan  hi^ed  *  &  an  hinde  brou^t, 
serued  it  in  pe  same  wise  •  as  pe  hert  bi-fore,  2572 

&  went  wi^tly  a-wei  *  wit-oute  any  more, 
pan  wist  wilk'am  wel  •  bi  pe  bestes  wille, 
pat  he  pe  hert  &  pe  hinde  •  hade  pere  slayne, 
him  &  his  loueliche  lemmas  *  to  lappe  in  pe  skinnes, 
&  bileue  pere  pe  beres  felles.  *  pat  so  busili  were  a-spied. 
&  mekli  pan  to  meliors  •  he  imwged  what  he  pou^t, 
&  seide,  "  se  wich  a  selcoup  •  pis  semliche  best  worchep, 
for-pi  cnst,crouned  king  •  kepe  him  fro  sorwe,        2580 
&  late  man  neuer  haue  mi}t  •  him  to  misdone." 
"pat  graunt  god,"  seide  meliors  •  "for  his  swete  mi^t ; 
for  nere  pe  help  of  heuen  king  •  &  pe  hende  best, 
oure  lines  hadde  be  lore  •  many  a  day  seppe."         2584 
"  }a,  i-wisse,"  seide  will/am  '  "  my  derworp  herte  j 
for-pi  at  oure  bestes  wille  •  worche  we  noupe. 
hastili  hulde  we  •  pe  hides  of  pise  bestes,     ,  ,' " 
Greipe  we  vs  in  pat  gere  •  to  go  ferper  hennes."      2588 
wilh'am  hent  hastili  pe  hert  •  &  meliors  pe  hinde, 
&  a[s]  smartli  as  pei  coupe  •  pe  skinnes  of-turned. 
eiper  gamliche  gan  grepe  oper  •  gailiche  per-inne, 
pat  pe  skinnes  sat  saddeli  •  sowed  to  hem  bope,      2592 
as  hit  hade  ben  •  on  pe  beste  pat  hit  growed. 
&  better  pei  semed  pan  to  si^t  *  semliche  hertes, 


THEY  DRESS  UP  AS  A  HART  AND  HIND. 


87 


fan  fei  semed  be-fore  •  beres  whan  fei  were,          2595 
so  iustili  on  ef  er  of  he??^  •  were  ioyned  f  e  skinnes. 


I  nd  whan  fei  were  greif  ed  •  gayli  in  fat  gere, 
•"•  fei  seten  in  here  solas  •  til  swine  jede  to  rest. 
whan  it  neijet  nijt,  J>ei  nold  •  no  longer  a-bide,      2599 
but  went  for]?  on  here  weie  *  for  wel  list  he?Ji  gone, 
&  here  semli  werwolf  *  sewed  fast  after, 
fat   wittily  taujt  hem  fe  weies   *  whider  f ei  wende 

scholde, 

sechande  towarde  cisile  •  f  e  sotilest  weyes. 
<fe  namliche  on  fe  morwe  •  many  men  hem  sou3t    2604 
In  wodes  &  wildernesse  •  wide  where  a-boute, 
&  as  f  ei  walked  in  wodes  *  wif  ful  gode  hoiwdes, 
f  ei  founde  f  e  beres  skinnes  •  &  f  e  bestes  flayne. 
fat  it  was  an  hert  &  an  hinde  •  hastili  f  ei  knewen, 
&  wist  wel  fat  fei  went  *  wrapped  in  fe  skinnes,  2609 
f  ei  fat  bi-fore  had  be  •  as  tvo  white  beres, 
&  wist  fat  f ai  in  wast  •  wroujt  f er  to-fore 
for  al  fe  hard  huntyng  •  fat  fei  hadde  maked.        2612 
&  folwe  hem  durst  fei  no  ferre  •  for  a  gret  werre, 
fat  was  wonderli  hard  •  in  f  e  next  londe, 
<fe  f  o  f  e  seute  sesed  •  after  f  e  swete  bestes. 
Mujzge  mai  [i] l  no  more  •  of  noma?i  fat  hem  folwed, 
ac  of  fe  hert  &  f  e  hinde  •  herkenes  now  ferfer.      2617 


At  night-time 
they  set  out 
again, 


the  werwolf 
following, 

[Fol.  42  &.] 
who  guided  them 
towards  Sicily. 


Next  day  some 
men  found  the 
bearskins,  and  the 
flayed  beasts, 


and  knew  that 
they  were  now 
dressed  as  a  hart 
and  a  hind. 


But  they  dared 
not  pursue  them, 
be  cause  of  a  great 
war  that  was  in 
the  next  land. 


I 


ji  went  fast  on  here  way  •  fe  werwolf  hem  ladde        The  werwolf  led 

them  over  country 

ouer  mures  &  muwtaynes  •  &  many  iaire  pleynes  ;     that  ws 
but  alwei  as  fei  went  •  wasted  fei  it  founde.          2620 
for  burwes  &  bold  tounes  •  al  for-brent  were,  /    < 

but  jit  were  fei  wif  walles  •  warchet  a-boute.  fy^ 
&  al  was  wilk'am  landes  •  wittow  wel  for  sobe,  it  w« 


he  fat  fere  was  an  hert  ;  •  heres  f  encjiesoun, 
whi  f  e  wer  &  fat  wo  •  f  o  was  in  fat  londe. 
^e  han  herd  here  bi-fore  •  as  ich  vnderstonde, 
1  Read  "  mai  t  no  more."—  M. 


2624 


It  was  William'* 
own  country. 


88  THE    SPANIARDS   BESIEGE    PALERMO. 

For  Ebrouns,        of  ebroufis  f  e  kud  king  •  fat  fat  kingdom  out 

was  king  of      '    of  poyle  &  of  cisile  '  of  pallerne  &  calabre,  2628 

Palermo, 'and'       &  was  willmms  fader  *  fat  went  fere  as  an  hert, 

Calabria,  and  was    pij  PJI  •       j        VP 

dcad  &  aed  was  &  doluen  •  mam  a  day  bi-iore. 

&  his  comeliche  quene  •  as  god  wold,  jit  liuede, 

wniiam's  mother  fat  was  willmms  moder  •  &  was  a  menskful  lady.  2632 
sche  had  a  derworf  e  doujter  •  to  deme  f  e  sof  e, 
on  f  e  fairest  on  face  *  and  frelokest  i-schapen,  S*^1 
fat  euere  man  vpon  molde  •  mijt  [on]  diuise  ; ! 

wniiam's  sister     sche  was  jonger  fan  wilKam  *  bi  fulle  fre  jeres.     2636 
&  f  e  kud  king  of  spayne  •  hade  a  comliche  sone, 
fat  was  a  kud  knijt  •  and  kene  man  of  armes  ; 
for  him,  was  f  e  werwolf  •  so  wickedli  for-schaped 
f  urth  malice  of  his  stepmoder  •  as  je  mow  here  after  ; 
ac  bref  er  were  f  ei  bof  e  •  as  bi  on  fader.  2641 

had  been  sought    be  kud  king  of  spayne  •  coueyted  for  his  sone 

in  marriage  by  the   *  . 

king  of  Spain's      fat  worfi  may  den  •  fat  was  wilh'ams  suster ; 

son,  the  werwolf  a 

half-brother.         ac  f  e  quen  lor  no  cas  no  wold  •  fat  wedding  graunt ; 

for-fi  fe  king  &  his  sone  •  swiche  werre  a-rered.     2645 
°n  i!r  ref"»a1'.     for  f  ei  hadde  luferli  here  lond  •  brend  and  destrued, 

the  king  of  Spain 

had  invaded  the     brent  bold  borwes,  &  burnes  •  bruttened  to  def  e, 

&  of-sette  hire  so  harde  •  f  e  sofe  for  to  telle,          2648 
fat  prestli  to  hire  puple  *  to  palerne  sche  ferde ; 


younger  than 
himself  by  three 
years, 


and  besieged  the    &  i,e  king  bi-seget  be  cite  •  selcoubli  harde, 

queen  in  Palermo.          r 

&  mani  a  sad  sau3t  •  his  sone  f  er-to  made, 
ac  doujti  men  deliuerli  •  defended  it  wif-inne  ;       2652 
but  sertenli  on  bof  e  sides  •  was  slayn  muche  puple, 
&  fat  lasted  so  longe  •  leue  me  for  so  be, 
its  defenders         j,ei  Of  i,^  cj^e  .  Of  |j0  seorcres  al  sad  were, 

advised  the  queen    r 

to  surrender,         &  come  ofte  to  fe  quen  •  &  curcseiled  hire  ^erne     2656 
to  acorde  wif  f  e  king  *  &  graiwte  his  wille, 
for  f  ei  no  lenger  in  no  maner  •  n^t  nieyntene  fat  sege, 
for  moche  folk  of  here  fon  •  fel  algate  newe, 
&  here  men  flebled 2  fast  •  &  faileden  of  here  mete,  2660 
fat  f  ei  mijt  in  no  maner  •  nieyntene  f  e  sege. 

1  See  1.  4436.  2  Read  "  febled  "  (?) 


THE    QUEEN  ASKS    FOR    A    TRUCE. 


89 


father,  the 
emperor  of 
Greece, 


banne  bat  comliche  quen  *  curteyseliche  seide,  but  she  exhorts 

them  to  be  brave, 

"lordinges,   30  ben  my  lege  men   •  fat  gode  ben  &  and  hold  out, 

trewe, 

bold  burnes  of  bodies  *  batailes  big  to  gye  ;  2664    A  j 

but  fat  30  grettli  aren  a-greued  •  gaynli  i  knowe,       I**- 
for  f  ise  tenful  trauayles  *  but  titli,  i  hope,    /yrf* 
al  it  worf  wel  amended  •  for  f  is  30  witen  alle,  [Foi.  43  6.] 

fat  i  haue  sent  after  socour  •  to  my  semly  fader,    2668  for  she  has  sent 

.  for  succour  to  her 

fat  grece  haf  godh  to  gye  •  as  emperour  &  sire. 

&  i  wot  witterli  •  wif -oute  eni  faile, 

fat  socur  he  wol  me  sende  •  or  elles  com  him-selue. 

It  is  so  fer  to  bat  curctre  •  ae  knowe  wel  be  sofe,    2672  who  would 

' \       _  require  some 

fat  he  may  nou3t  saile  •  swiftli  as  he  wold.  time  for  the 

for-f  i  alle  my  bolde  burnes  •  i  beseche  &  preie, 

fo[r]   lone   fat   36   owe  to   fe   lord-*  fat   let   3011   be 

fourmed, 

Meyntenes  jit  joure  manchip  *  manli  a  while, 
til  god  of  his  grete  mijt  *  god  tyding  vs  sende." 
&  bad  f  o  tvo  bold  barouns  *  bliue  forf  wende 
to  f  e  king  of  spayne  •  &  curtesly  him  seie, 
fat  sche  preied  par  charite  *  in  pes  to  late  hire  lengf e 


2676    So  she  prays  them 
to  hold  out  a 
little  longer. 


fulle  a  fourteni3t  •  for-oute  alle  greues 

of  saujtes  to  f  e  cite  •  or  any  sorwe  elles. 

&  but  hire  fader  com  *  bi  fe  fourteiiijtes  hende, 

or  sende  hire  sum  socour  •  bi  f  e  same  time, 

sche  wold  wif  god  wille  •  wif -oute  more  lette 

Meke  hire  in  his  merci  *  on  f  ise  maner  wise, 

to  giue  him  boute  grucching  •  al  fat  gode, 

so  fat  sche  mijt  saufli  *  wif  hire  semli  dorter 

wende  wijtli  a-wei  •  winder  hire  god  liked. 

f  e  messegeres  manli  •  in  here  weye  went, 

spagli  to  f  e  king  of  spayne  *  f  is  speche  f  ei  tolde. 

but  he  swor  his  of  •  fat  he  a-sent  nold, 

for  no  man   vpo%   molde   •  but   he   most   haue 

dorter  • 
&  f  ei  titly  turned  a3en  •  &  told  so  f  e  quene. 


2681 


She  asks  the  king 
of  Spain  to  grant 
a  truce  of  14  days, 


and  if  her  father 
did  not  come 
2684   then,  she  would 
submit, 


2688    on  condition  that 
she  and  her 
daughter  might 
have  free  passage 
anywhere. 


2692    The  king  of  Spain 
,  .        refuses. 

hire 


THE    HART    AND    HIND    COME    TO    EEGGIO. 


The  queen  retires 
to  her  chamber, 
praying  to  Christ 
and  Mary  for 
help. 


[Fol.  44.] 


She  and  her 
daughter  are  in 
great  grief. 


No  more  of 
the  defenders  of 
the  city,  and  the 
assaults  on  it, 

but  hear  about 
the  hart  and  the 
hind,  and  the 
werwolf. 


&  whan  sche  wist  witerli  •  f  e  vville  of  f  e  king, 

as  a  woful  wommarc  •  sche  went  to  hir  chaumber,  2696 

&  preyed  ful  pitousli  •  to  f  e  prmce  of  heuene, 

for  marie  his  moder  lone  •  to  mayntene  hire  &  help, 

fat  hire  foos  for  no  cas  •  wif  fors  hire  cowquerede, 

to  winne  a^ens  hire  wille  *  hire  worliche  doubter.  2700 

"  no  niadame,"  !  seide  hire  doubter  •  "  marie  fat  graunt, 

for  f  e  blissful  barnes  loue  *  fat  hire  brestes  souked  !  " 

f  us  fei  dwelled  in  duel  •  ni^tes  and  daies, 

bof  e  fat  corteys  quen  •  &  hire  comliche  doubter.    2704 

had  fei  wist  witterli  •  whiche  help  god  hem  sente, 

al  hire  gref  in-to  game  •  gaynli  schold  haue  turned. 

now  sece  we  of  f e  segges  •  fat  f e  sege  holden, 

&  of  f  e  selcouf  a-sautes  •  fat  fei  samen  ^olde,        2708 

&  of  f  e  dou^thi  defens  •  of  wie^s  f  er  wif -inne. 

&  listenes  now  a  litel  •  of  f  e  tvo  leue  bestes, 

fat  as  an  hert  &  an  hinde  •  holden  here  weye, 

as  fe  witty  werwolf  •  wold  hem  euer  lede.  2712 


The  werwolf 
guided  them  till 
they  came  to  the 
cityofReggio, 


where  they  would 
have  to  cross  the 

straits 


They  lay  hid  near 
the  harboir  till 
night, 


Af  f  is  hert  &  f  is  hinde  •  hende  now  listenes. 

^  so  long  fei  caired  oner  cuntres  •  as  fat  crist  wold, 

ouer  dales  &  downes  *  &  disgesye  weyes, 

as  f  e  werwolf  hem  wissed  •  fat  was  here  hole  frend, 

fan  fei  samerc  sou^t  •  to  fe  riche  cite  of  rise,  2717 

fat  set  is  ful  semli  •  vpon  f  e  see  bonke. 

a  gret  number  of  naueye  *  to  fat  hauen  longet, 

&  fere  fe  buxum  bestes  •  bi-houed  ouer  passe.        2720 

&  so  brod  was  f  e  see  *  fat  sayle  hem  bihoued 

holliche  al  a  ni^t  •  &  vp  happe,  wel  more.   xiW 

al  day  f  e  bestes  darked  •  in  here  den  stille 

In  a  ragged  roche  •  rijt  be  fe  hauen  side,  2724 

til  it  was  wif-inne  iii^t  •  &  alle  wi^es  slepten. 

fan  hi^ed  fei  hem  to  f  e  hauen  •  hastily  &  sone, 

1  MS.  "  made."  Read  "madame."  The  word  in  the  text  is 
called  by  Bryant  a  provincialism,  but  without  reason. — M.  The 
same  error  occurs  in  1.  3184,  but  it  is  corrected  in  1.  3191. 


HOW   THE   WERWOLF    SWAM   ASHORE. 


•us  f  e  werwolf  hem  wissed  •  fat  was  al  here  gye, 
<fe  stalkeden  ful  stilly  •  ])er  stoden  fele  schippes.     2728 
f  e  werwolf  waited  wi^tly  •  which  schip  was  Barest, 
to  fare  for])  at  fat  flod  •  &  fond  on  sone, 
fat  was  gayly  greyt  •  to  go  to  f  e  seile, 
&  feif  liche  frau^t  •  ful  of  fine  wines.  2732 

f  e  werwolf  went  f  er-to  *  to  wite  ho  were  fere  ; 
f  e  segges  were  a-slepe  fan  *  fat  it  schuld  jeme,    l^1 
al  but  f  e  mest  maister  •  to  munge  f  e  sof  e. 
fei  were  turned  to  towne  •  to  pleie  fer  whiles,        2736 
In  nmrf  e  til  f  e  mone  arise  •  arst  inijt  j>ei  nou^t  passe. 
&  whan  f  e  werwolf  wist  •  fat  alle  slept  fast, 
to  f  e  hert  &  f  e  hinde  •  he  turned  him  a-^eine, 
&  bi  certeyn  signes  •  sone  he  hem  ta^t,  2740 

&  f  ei  folwed  him  fayre  •  fayn  for  fat  grace, 
&  he  ful  listli  hem  ledes  •  to  fat  loueli  schippe, 
&  tau3t  bi-hinde  tunnes  •  hem  to  hude  fere. 
f  e  maistres,  whan  fe  mone  a-ros  •  manli  in  come,  2744 
&  faire  at  f  e  fiille  nod  •  f  ei  ferden  to  sayle, 
&  hadde  wind  at  wille  •  to  wende  whan  hem  liked. 
f  e  werewolf  wist  wel  •  f  ei  were  nei3  ouer, 
.&  bi-fout  how  were  best  •  fe  bestes  to  help,  2748 

fat  f  ei  mi3t  scaf  eles  •  schape  of  fat  schip. 
whan  f  e  ludes  where  nei3  lond  •  he  leped  ouer  borde, 
sadli  in  al  here  si$t  *  for  f  ei.  him  sew  schold  — 
whil  f  e  hert   &   fe  hinde  scaped  —  •  to  hunte   him 
a-boute.  2752 

.sone  as  f  e  schipmerc  •  seie  Lim  out  lepen, 
hastili  hent  eche  man  •  a  spret  or  an  ore, 
&  laurcced  luf  erly  after  him  •  his  lif  to  haue  reued. 
-on  so  hetterli  him  hitte  •  as  he  lep  in  fe  water,      2756 
fat  he  for  dul  of  f  e  dent  •  diued  to  f  e  grounde, 
&  hade  nei$  lost  is  lif  •  but,  as  our  lord  wold, 
for  al  fat  sterne  strok  •  stifli  he  vp-keuerede, 
&  swam  swiftili  awei  •  fat  fei  se3en  alle,  2760 

<&  lai^t  listli  f  e  lond  •  a  litel  hem  bi-side. 


91 


when  they  went 
down  to  the  ships. 


The  werwolf 
found  a  ship 
ready  to  sail. 


The  men  were  all 
asleep. 

[Fol.  44  6.] 


The  we  wolf  led 
the  hart  and  hind 
to  the  ship, 


and  they  all  hid 
themselves 
behind  tuns  of 
wine. 


The  men  came  on 
board,  and  set 
sail. 


When  they  were 
nearly  over, 
the  werwolf  leapt 
overboard. 


The  shipmen, 
seeing  him, 
seized  sprits  and 
oars, 


and  one  of  them 
hit  him  so  hard 
that  he  dived  to 
the  bottom, 


yet  he  swam 
away  to  land. 


92  THE  HART  AND  HIND  ESCAPE  TO  LAND. 

&  f  ei,  as  folk  fat  were  fayn  •  to  forfare  fat  best, 
The  men  jumped    saileden  swife  to  londe  •  &  sewed  him  after. 
fonowednhim.       f  e  werwolf  was  wily  •  &  went  so  soft,  2764 

f  e  schipmen  wend  wel  •  at  wille  him  take, 
AH  went  after       &  him  alle  seweden  '  fat  to  f  e  schip  longede, 
ie1ggedUboV.are      but  a  barlegged  bold  boie  *  fat  to  fe  barge  3emed. 

whan  fe  schipme/i  wif  fe  wolf  •  were  wel  passed,  2768 
[Poi.  45.]       f  e  hert  &  f  e  hinde  •  fan  hoped  wel  to  schape,  ^^^T 
Mnd  come  on       &  busked  hem  bobe  sone  •  a-boue  be  hacches. 

deck 

The  boy  sees         but  whan  f  e  boie  of  f  e  barge  •  f  e  bestes  of-seie, 

^Crtr       he  was  nei3  wod  of  llis  witt  '  witow>  for  fere>         2772 

&  be-f  0113  1  him  fere  •  f  e  bestes  for  to  quelle. 
hit  the  hind  so      <fc  happili  to  be  hinde  •  he  hit  banne  formest, 

that  she 

tumbled  top  over   &  set  hire  a  sad  sfciok  '  so  sore  in  fe  necke, 

hatches.  fat  sche  top  oner  tail  •  tombled  oner  fe  hacches.    2776 

But  the  hart        but  f  e  hert  ful  hastili  '  hent  hire  vp  in  armes, 


* 

and  carried  her      &  bare  hire  forf  outfr4x>id  •  on  a  brod  planke, 
piank,  &  nas  bold  wif  f  e  boye  •  no  debate  make, 

but  fayn  was  a-way  to  fle  •  for  fere>  of  mo  gestes,    2780 

fer  away  fro  f  e  see  *  or  he  stynt  wold. 
and,  when  out  of  £  whan  he  wist  bat  he  was  •  wel  out  of  sht, 

sight,  looked  to 

see  if  the  hind       he  be-hilde  ^if  be  hinde  •  euel  hurt  were. 

was  hurt  ; 

&  fond  sche  nas  but  a-fri^t  *  for  fere  of  fat  dint.     2784 
fan  saide  f  e  hert  to  f  e  hinde  •  hendly  &  faire, 
saying  that,  if  he    u  a  j  worj,m  wht  •  wonder  ar  fine  happes, 

had  but  weapons, 

the  barge-boy        batow  hentest  al  be  harm  •  bat  i  haue  deserued  ! 

should  suffer 

death  for  it.         wold  god  for  his  grace  •  &  his  grete  mi^t,  2788 

fat  i  hade  here  •  fat  to  werre  falles, 
f  e  boye  fat  f  e  barge  ^emes  •  a-beye  schold  sore  ; 
for  f  e  dint  he  fe  dalt  •  his  def  were  marked." 

"Nay,"  said         "  nay.  my  worbi  make"  *  seide  meliors  banne,        2792 

Melior,  "  let  us 

rather  thank  God  «  Greue  f  e  nou^t,  for  goddes  loue  '  fat  gart  f  e  be  fourmed, 
fat  we  so  scafli  ar  a-schaped  •  god  mo  we  [we]  l  fonk, 
&  cure  worf  i  werwolf  •  fat  wel  him  by-tyde  ! 
dere  god,  for  deth  •  he  drei3h  for  vs  alle,  2796 

1  Read  «  mowe  we  thonk."—  M.     Cf.  1.  2559. 


THE    ASTONISHMENT    OF    THE    BARGE-BOY. 


93 


late  no  seg  mi^t  haue  •  to  sle  our  gode  best ! 

nere  his  wit  &  his  werk  *  we  were  schent  bof  e." 

"  sertes,  sweting,  fat  is  so])  "  •  seide  wilh'am  f  anne, 

"Go  we  on  oure  gate  •  for  goddes  loue,  bliue,         2800 

to  recuuer  sum  resset  •  fere  we  vs  rest  mi^t." 

ful  mekli  seide  meliors  •  wif-oute  any  fare, 

"  Go  we  now  on  goddes  halue  ;"  •  fan  went  f  ei  god  spede, 

cleppende  comely  eiper  ofer  '  to  karpe  fe  sofe.      2804 


May  no  one  harm 
or  slay  our 
werwolf ! " 


William  proposes 
that  they  should 
seek  a  hiding- 
place  to  rest  in, 

[Fol.  45  &.] 
and  Melior 


Whan  f  e  hert  &  f  e  hind  •  were  of  so  harde  a-chaped, 
fe  boye-  fat  f  e  barge  jemed  *  of  f  e  bestes  hade 

wonder, 

fat  on  bar  of  f e  barge  •  so  boldeli  fat  of er, 
wif  so  comely  contenaurcce  *  clippend  in  armes,      2808 
&  ferden  ferst  on  foure  fet  *  &  sef  f  e  vp  tweyne. 
&  wi^tly  after  f  e  werwolf  *  was  we!  a-schaped, 
fram  alle  f  e  sory  chipme»  •  fat  sewed  him  to  quelle, 
but  treuli  non  him  take  •  to  tene  namore  ;  2812 

&  to  fe  hert  &  fe  hinde  •  he3ed  him  faste. 
&  whan  f  e  hert  &  f  e  hinde  •  had  si^t  of  here  best, 
f  ei  were  gretli  glad  *  &  oft  god  f  onked  ; 
fat  he  sauf  was  &  sou[w]d l  •  fro  f  e  men  a-schaped.  2816 
fan  ferde  f  ei  alle  forf  i-fere  •  fayn  of  here  Hues, 
f  e  chipme?z  fat  f  e  worwolf  •  so  sadly  hade  chased, 
buskeden  a^en  to  here  barge  •  &  f  e  boye  hem  tolde 
wiche  an  hert  &  an  hinde  *  hadde  f  er-out  schaped,  2820 
wi^tli  wen  f  ei  went  •  f  e  wolf  for  to  sewe  ; 
&  how  he  hitte  f  e  hinde  •  also  he  told, 
&  how  f  e  hert  hire  hent  •  &  hi^ed  ouer-borde, 
&  wif  how  coynte  curctenaurcce  •  he  cuuerede'hire  after, 
&  went  wi3tly  a-wey  'but  whider  wist  he  neuer.  2825 
f  er-of  were  f  ei  a-wondred  •  but  wist  f  ei  no  bote, 
whederward  forto  fare  •  to  finde  f  e  bestes ; 
but  lefte  f  ei  in  lisse  •  now  listenes  of  f  es  bestes,    2828 
jmrth  wildernesse  hou  f  ei  went  *  &  wat  hem  tidde  after. 


The  barge-boy 
was  astonished  to 
see  them  go  first 
on  four  feet,  and 
then  on  two. 


The  werwolf, 
having  escaped 
safely,  went  after 
the  hart  and 
hind. 


The  shlpmen 
returned  to  the 
barge,  and  the 
boy  told  them  his 
story, 


how  the  hart 
caught  up  the 
hind,  and  hied 
overboard. 


1  Read  "  sound." — M. 


THE    HART    AND   HIND    COME    TO    PALERMO. 


The  hart  and 
hind  found  all  the 
country  laid 
waste. 


The  werwolf  led 
them  to  a  rich 
and  fair  town, 
named  Palermo, 
[Fol.  46.] 


the  very  place 
whence  the 
werwolf  took 
away  William  at 
first. 

William's  mother 
is  in  a  hard  strait, 
being  besieged  by 
the  king  of  Spain. 


Near  her  palace 
was  a  park, 


where  the  hart 
and  hind  hid 
themselves. 


The  werwolf  got 
meat  and  drink 
for  them. 


TTThiderward  as  f  ei  werct  •  al  wast  f  ei  it  foimde, 

'    bolde  burwes  for-brent  •  a-boute  on  eche  side, 
&  e\wr  as  f  e  witty  werwolf  •  wold  hem  lede,          2832 
faire  ]>ei  him  folwed  *  as  here  freiid  holde. 
&  so  longe  he  hem  ladde  •  as  he  him-self  f  oi^t, 
he  brou^t  hem  to  a  borw^  •  fat  bold  was  &  riche, 
&  fairest  of  alle  fason  •  for  eny  riche  holde,  2S3& 

fat  euer  man  vpon  mold  •  mi3t  on  loke. 
perles  was  f  e  paleis  •  and  palerne  it  hi^t. 
f  e  werwolf  wan  wilKam  *  ferst  fro  fat  place, 
whan  he  was  in  childhod  *  as  j>e  cliauftce  be-fore  told. 
&  treuli,  ri}t  fat  time  •  to  telle  al  fe  sofe,  2841 

Williams  moder  in  meschef  •  wif  moche  folk  fere  lenged  ; 
for  f  e  king  of  spayne  •  bi-seged  hire  harde, 
In  maner  as  f  e  mater  *  was  minged  bi-fore.  2844 

a  pris  place  was  vnder  f  e  paleys  •  a  park  as  it  were, 
fat  whilom  wif  wilde  bestes  •  was  wel  restored  ; 
but  f  e  segges  fat  held  f  e  sege  •  had  it  al  destruyt. 
fe  hert  &  f  e  hinde  fere  •  fanne  hem  hed  sone,       2848 
as  f  e  werwolf  hem  wissed  •  fat  ay  was  here  gye, 
vnder  a  coynte  crag  •  fast  bi  f  e  quenes  chaumber, 
&  al  fat  day  in  fat  den  *  f  ei  darked,  &  f  e  ni^t  ; 
f  e  werwolf  went  wijtly  •  &  whan  hem  mete  &  drink, 
so  fat  f  ei  mad  hem  as  mime  •  as  f  ei  mijt  fat  time.  2853 
now  of  f  e  buxum  bestes  *  be  we  a  while  stille, 
&  carpe  we  of  f  e  curteys  quen  *  fat  in  f  e  castel  lenged. 


L 

Oo  hard  was  sche  be-seged  •  sof  for  to  telle, 
^  &  so  harde  sautes  •  to  f  e  cite  were  ^euen, 


2856 


The  battlements 
of  the  city  were 
broken  by  the 
war-engines,  and 
many  men  were 
slain. 


fat  f  e  komli  kerneles  •  were  to-clatered  wif  engines, 
&  mani  of  here  mi^thi  men  •  murdred  to  def  e. 
f erfor  fe  quen  was  earful  •  &  oft  to  crist  preyed,   2860 
to  sende  hire  sum  socour  •  fat  sche  saued  were, 
for  marie  his  moder  loue  •  fat  is  of  mercy  welle. 
it  was  ail  because  I[~nl  swiche  lif  hade  sche  liued  •  a  long  time  to-fore, 

of  the  queen's 

daughter.  &  al  duel  fat  sche  drey  •  was  for  hire  doubter  sake.  2864 


THE  QUEEN  OF  PALERMO  S  DREAM. 


95- 


2868 


but  seff  e  on  f  e  selue  ni^t  •  f  e  sof  e  forto  telle, 
fat  f  e  hert  &  f  e  hinde  *  &  here  f  ridde  fere 
vnder  f  e  castel  in  a  crag  •  cau^t  here  rest, 
_be  quen  was  wery  for-wept  •  &  went  to  bedde. 
a  selcof  e  sweuen  sone  •  in  hire  bed  sche  mette ; 
hire  f  oujt  fat  sche  &  hire  [doi^ter]  •  on  a  dai  al-one 
weren  passed  pnueli  f  e  paleys  •  bi  a  posterne  ^ate 
to  pleie  hem  pn'ueli  in  J>e  park  •  fat  to  f  e  paleis  longed, 
hire  fou^t  an  hundered  M.  *  were  hire  a-boute        2873 
of  lebardes  &  beres  •  &  alle  bestes  boute  number, 
Grmili  gapande  to  greue  •  hire  &  hire  doubter ; 
&  ri^t  as  f  o  breme  bestes  •  hem  bof  e  schold  haue  take, 
here  f  oujt,  a  wi^t  werwolf  •  &  to  white  beres          2877 
hie^eden  harde  hem  to  help  *  in  fat  ilk  nede  ; 
&  whanne  f  o  two  white  beres  •  were  com  hem  nere, 
fei  semde  to  hire  sijt  •  tvo  semli  hertes  ;  2880 

&  etyer  of  hem  a  faire  figure  •  in  here  for-hed  hadde. 
f  e  huger  hert  in  his  hed  •  had,  as  hire  semede, 
f  e  fasoura  &  f  e  forme  •  of  a  fair  kni^t  in  feld,         2883 
&  semde  hire  owne  sone  •  fat  sche  long  hade  missed, 
fat  of  er  hert,  as  hire  f  ou^t  •  f  e  schap  hade  of  a  mayde, 
fairest  of  alle  fetures  •  fat  sche  to-for  hadde  seie, 
&  eif  er  hert  on  his  hed  *  hadde,  as  hire  f  out, 
a  gret  kroune  of  gold  •  ful  ol  gode  stones, 
fat  semli  was  to  si^t  •  &  schined  ful  wide, 
fan  f  ou^t  hire  f  e  werwolf  •  &  f  e  maide  bi-laft ; 
&  f  e  huge  hert  him-self  •  hastili  fat  time, 
a3ens  alle  f  e  bestes  *  bliue  went  al-one, 
&  bar  douft  bi  eche  side  •  ay  f  e  boldest  formast ; 
was  non  so  stef  him  wif-stod  •  so  sternli  he  wrou^t. 
f  e  grettest  of  f  e  grim  bestes  *  he  gat  to  prison  sone ; 
a  lyon  &  a  lybard  •  fat  lederes  were  of  alle,  2896 

hire  f ou^t,  fat  huge  hert  *  hastili  hade  take, 
&  putte  hem  in  hire  prisoun  •  to  peyne  hem  at  hire 

wille. 
f  e  stoutest  &  f  e  sternest  *  he  stijtled  sone  after,    ?   ' 


2888 


2892 


Whilst  the  hart 
and  hind  slept, 
the  queen  went 
to  bed, 


and  dreamt  that 
she  and  her 

[Fol.  46  &.] 
daughter  were  in 
the  park, 


when  100,000 
leopards  and 
bears  attacked 
them, 


but  a  werwolf 
and  two  white 
bears  came  to 
her  assistance. 
The  bears 
changed  into 
harts  as  they 
came  nearer. 

The  larger  hart 
had  on  his  fore- 
head the  figure  of 
a  knight  like  her 
own  son. 

The  other  had 
the  shape  of  a 
maid. 


Crowns  were  on 
their  heads. 


The  hart  bore 
down  all  the 
beasts, 


taking  the  largest 
ones  prisoners. 


96 


The  rest  of  the 

beasts  fled  away 

for  fear. 


[Foi.  47.] 
Next  she  dreamt 


and  that  her 
IteStehed  over 


Spain. 

Awaking,  she 

Tn^wentwee 
to  the  chapel. 


THE    PRIEST    MOSES    EXPOUNDS    THE    DREAM. 

fat  he  ga[r]te  !  f  e  grettest  •  to  hire  prison  loujte  j  2900 

&  redli  al  bo  remnant  *  of  be  rude  bestes 

for  fere  be-gunne  to  fle  *  as  fast  as  f  ei  mijt, 

oMer  dales  &  dounes  •  for  drede  of  the  hert. 

sone  as  fe  hende  hert  *  hire  hade  deliuered,'2  2904 

&  put  here  frara  alle  peril  •  fro  f  e  perilous  bestes, 

here  f  ou^t,  sche  went  wijtli  *  a-^en  to  f  e  castel, 

&  turned  vp  to  fe  heisest  tour  •  to  bi-hold  a-boute. 

J>an  Ip0^  n^re'  fa*  ^e  Tty  arm  *  ^as*  Ouer  TOme,        2908 
IIV  ^e^  arni  '  ^  ^  OUer  sPayn6, 

I30  komly  kingdomes  •  komen  to  hire  wille, 
£orto  her^en  ai  }^e  ^ggt  •  &  hire  wille  worche. 
here-of  was  sche  al  a-wondred  *  &  a-waked  sone,     2912 
&  for  drede  of  hire  drem  •  deulfulli  quaked, 
&  wepud  wonder  sore  •  &  wijtli  hire  closed, 
&  romed  ]?an  redli  *  al  redles  to  hure  chapel, 
&  godly  be-sou^t  god  •  to  gode  turne  hire  sweuen.  2916 


She  had  a  priest 
to  whom  she  'told 

her  dream. 


He  said,  "Mourn 

not,  it  betokens 

succour. 


The  beasts  that 


AS  for  the  white 

bears  or  harts 

with  crowns. 


t  comli  quen  hade  a  prest  *  a  konyng  man  of  lore, 
]>at  moche  coujje  of  many  •  &  moyses  he  hi^t, 
to  cowsaile  sche  him  clepud  *  &  be  cas  him  told, 
sojjliche  al  J?e  sweuen  •  fat  hire  a-ni^t  mette.  2920 

&  as  tit  as  sche  had  told  •  fe  prest  tok  his  bokes, 
&  sey  sone  of  fat  sweuen  *  hou  it  schuld  turne. 
he  loked  on  fat  comeli  quen  *  &  curtesli  seide, 
"  Madame,  mourne  36  namore  •  36  mow  wel  seie     2924 

_,  ...  .     . 

fat  f  e  prince  of  heuerc  *  ^ou  haf  prestli  in  mynde, 

&  socor  sendef  ^ou  sone  •  hi  f  is  sweuera  i  knowe. 

f  6  bestes  fat  bi-sett  $ou  so  *  &  ^our  semli  doubter, 

&  duelfulli  to  def  e  •  wold  haue  ^ou  don  bofe,         2928 

f  o  ar  sofli  f  o  segges  •  fat  hard  $ou  bi-sege, 

&  don  hard  here  mi^t  •  to  destruye  ^ou  here. 

wite  2e  of  be  white  beres  •  bat  waxen  sebbe  hertes, 

&  haue  f  e  fourme  in  here  hed  •  of  tvo  faire  chi[l]deren,3 

1  MS.  "gate."    See  1.  1365.        2  Catchword—"  &  put  hire." 
2  Read  "  childeren."—  M. 


THE   QUEEN  IS    GREATLY    COMFORTED. 


97 


2933 


2936 


&  gode  crounes  of  gold  •  on  here  hedes  graif  ed, 

f  e  hert  fat  3ou  helped  *  so  hastili  wif  strengf  e, 

f  e  lyon  &  f  e  lebard  •  to  3our  prisourc  ladde, 

&  alle  f  e  bremest  bestes  •  brou^t  [to]1  3our  wille, 

what  fat  it  tokenef  •  telle  wol  ich  sone. 

It  is  a  ful  kud  kni3t  •  schal  come  3ou  to  help, 

&  fu[r]th2  his  dou^thi  dedes  •  destruye  fis  werre, 

&  cacche  f  e  king  of  spayne  •  f  urth  his  cler  strengf  e, 

&  sef  fe  after  is  sone  *  fat  al  f  e  sorwe  is  fore,  Ap    2941 

&  put  hem  in  3our  prison  •  f  e  proddest  of  hem  alle 

schul  be  buxu?w  at  3our  wille  •  &  blinne  al  fis  fare, 

&  meke  hem  to  3our  merci  •  fat  now  be  misseproude. 

&  fat  ilke  kud  kni3t  •  fat  schal  f  e  kome  to  help,   2945 

I  not  where  he  schal  •  3ou  to  wiue  welde, 

but  i  wot  wisli  he  worf  *  king  of  fis  reaume. 

also  fat  werwolf  •  fat  wif  f  e  hertes  comes,  2948 

he  is  a  kud  kni3t  •  &  schal  be  kud  wide, 

&  f  urth  him,  sof  li,  i  se  *  f  e  king  schal  be  deliuered, 

&  put  out  of  prisouft  •  &  god  pes  be  maked. 

his  sone  &  alle  of  er  •  schul  be  3our  hole  frendes,    2952 

&  schul  restore  riuedli  •  f  e  reddpur  fat  was  maked. 

f  urth  f  ilke  werwolf  •  36  schul  wite  of  3oure  sone 

fat  36  long  haue  for-lore  •  leue  me  for  sof  e, 

&  him  winne  a-^en  at  wille  •  wif -inne  a  schort  time. 

&  redli,  of  3our  rijt  arm  •  fat  ouer  rome  streyt,        2957 

I  se  wel  f  e  signifiauwce  •  fis  schal  f  er-of  falle  ; 

f  i  sone  schal  wedde  swiche  a  wif  •  to  weld  wif  al 


I  will  tell  you1  all. 

A  knight  shall 
come  to  help  you, 
and  take  prisoner 

[Fol.  47  b.] 
the  king  of 
Spain  and  his  son. 


And  whether  he 
is  to  wed  you  or 
not,  he  will  be 
king  of  this  realm. 


The  werwolf  is  a 
knight  too,  and 
shall  deliver  the 
king  of  Spain. 


as  kind  keper  &  king  •  i  knowe  wel  fe  sof  e.  2960 

&  lelli,  of  f  i  lift  arm  •  fat  ouer  spaine  lay, 

fat  bi-tokenef  treuli  *  as  tellef  my  bokes, 

fat  fi  dou3ti  sone  *  schal  fi  dere  dorter  3iuen        2963 

f  e  kinges  sone  of  spayne  •  when  f  e  a-cord  is  maked ; 

fat  sche  be  ladi  of  fat  lond  •  f  i  left  arm  bi-tokenef. 

1  Read  "  brou3t  to  3our  wille."— M. 

2  Read  "  fourth."  —  M.    See  next  line. 

7 


Through  him  you 
shall  hear  of  your 
son. 


Your  son  shall 
govern  also  all 
Rome, 


and  your  daughter 
shall  be  queen  of 
Spain." 


98 


THE    KNIGHTS    OF    PALERMO    COMPLAIN    TO    THE   QUEEN. 


The  queen,  on 
hearing  this, 
weeps  for  joy, 


[Pol.  48.] 
and  prays  the 
priest  to  say  a 
mass  to  make 
her  dream  come 
true. 

She  looks  from 
her  chamber 
towards  the 
park, 


and  as  she 
watched,  she  sees 
the  hart  and  hind 
embracing  each 
other  joyfully. 


She  could  not 
hear  what  they 
said,  but  she 
watched  them  a 
long  while, 


till  night  came  on. 


After  supper, 
her  knights 
bewailed  their 
evil  case, 


now  haue  i  said  of  30111"  sweuen  •  sof  li  as  wol  falle, 

&  treuly  al  f  is  schal  he-falle  •  wif  -inne  a  scliort  terme." 

."TTThan  fat  loueli  ladi  •  hade  listened  his  wordes,  2968 
&  herd  seie  fat   sche   schold    •   hire  sone  a-^en 

winne, 

wonderli  for  ioye  •  sche  wept  for  f  o  wordes, 
&  sorwfuliche  sche  sijt  •  last  out  schold  it  lett  ; 
Lest  any  fals  fortune  •  for-dede  him  furth  sinne.    2972 
but  buxumli  fat  bri^t  lady  •  fan  busked  to  hire  chapel, 
&  praied  hire  prest  par  charite  *  a  masse  to  singe, 
of  f  e  trinite  in  trone,  to  twrne  •  hiio  sweuen  to  ioye. 
deliuerli  he  it  dede  •  deuouteliche  &  faire,  2976 

&  sef  f  en  fat  comli  ladi  •  cayres  to  hire  chauwber, 
&  weued  vp  a  window  •  fat  was  toward  f  e  place 
fere  as  f  e  hert  &  f  e  hinde  •  hadde  take  here  reste. 
fere  fat  semli  ladi  hire  set  •  out  forto  loke,  2980 

&  strek  in-to  a  styf  studie  *  of  hire  sterne  sweuen, 
waytend  out  at  window  •  while  sche  so  f  o^t 
&  vnder  a  louely  lorel  tre  •  in  a  grene  place, 
sche  saw  fe  hert  &  f  e  hinde  •  lye  collinge  in-fere,  2984 
Makende  f  e  most  ioye  •  fat  man  mijt  deuise, 
wif  alle  comli  cotttenaurcce  •  fat  f  ei  kif  e  mi^t  ;   /J* 
haden  here  priue  pleyes  •  of  paramoures  wordes, 
but  sof  li,  of  nou^t  fat  f  ei  seide  *  mi^t  f  e  quen  here. 
but  of  here  selcof  e  solas  •  samera  fat  f  ei  made,        2989 
so  gret  wonder  wait  f  e  quen  *  of  f  e  worf  bestes 
but  lenede  f  er  f  e  long  day  •  to  lok  out  at  f  e  windowe, 
to  se  f  e  selcouf  signes  *  of  f  e  semli  bestes,  2992 

til  f  e  day  him  wif-drow  •  in-to  f  e  derk  nijt, 
fat  f  e  lady  no  lenger  •  mijt  loke  on  f  e  bestes. 
fan  tiffed  sche  hire  treuli  •  &  turned  in-to  halle, 
Made  a-mowg  hire  meyne  •  as  mine  as  sche  couf  e.  2996 
whan  f  ei  samen  hade  souped  •  &  sef  f  e  whasche  after, 
here  l  kni^tes  &  hire  cuwseile  •  kome  hire  vntille, 

1  "Here"  would  be  more  uniform  if  it  were  written  "hire," 
but  this  change  may  be  observed  in  a  few  other  passages  —  M. 


THE  QUEEN  ENCOURAGES  HER  KNIGHTS. 


99 


Munged  newe  her  meschef  •  how  nei}  f  ei  inisferde  j 
how  here  walles  were  broke  •  wif  engynes  strong, 
here  bretages  al  a-boute  •  for-brent  &  destroyed, 
fat  f  ei  mijt  no  more  •  meintene  ]je  sege. 


3000  how  the  walls  and 
battlements  were 
broken. 


"Nan  pat  comli  quene  •  ful  curtesly  saide, 

J      "  lordinges,  $e  ar  my  lege  mew  •  f  e  lasse  &  f  e  more, 

&  sworn  eche  bi  his  side  •  to  sane  mi  rijt,  3005 

&  manliche  men  ben  •  beter  mow  non  Hue. 

f  er-fore,  lordinges,  for  his  loue  •  fat  let  vs  be  founned, 

&  for  3our  owne  worchipe  •  witef  me  fro  schaf  e     3008 

}ut  fro??z  f  ise  wicked  men  •  fat  wold  me  spille. 

&  but  god  of  his  grace  *  sum  god  help  vs  sende, 

I  wol  worche  al  jour  wille  •  wif-out  ani  faile, 

whef  er  i  merci  schul  craue  •  or  meyntene  f  is  werre. 

treuli,  $if  me  bitide  •  fis  tene  to  a-schape,  3013 

wif  richesse  i  wol  ^ou  reward  •  forto  riche  for  euer, 

so  fat  treuli  ^our  trauail  •  nou^t  schul  }e  tine." 

&  alle  here  gomes  were  glad  •  of  hire  gode  speche,  3016 

•&  seden  at  o  sent  •  "  wat  so  tide  wold  after, 

f  ei  wold  manli  bi  here  mijt  •  meyntene  hire  wille, 

so  long  as  here  lif  lasted  •  to  ^elden  hem  neuer." 

fan  fat  comly  quen  •  ful  curtesli  hem  f onked,         3020 

&  busked  hem  fat  time  •  blif e  to  bedde, 

•&  redly  token  here  rest  •  til  ri.$t  on  f  e  niorwe. 

fan  fat  comli  quen  •  ketli  vp  rises, 

biddande  bisili  hire  bedes  •  buskes  to  hire  chapel,  3024 

&  made  hire  prest  moyses  •  sone  a  masse  to  sing, 

&  prestli  fat  while  preyed  •  to  f  e  king  of  heuen, 

&  to  his  milde  moder  •  fat  alle  men  helpef , 

fat  f  ei  hire  socour  sende  •  sone  bi  time.  3028 

whan  f  e  masse  was  don  •  sche  went  to  hire  chau??iber, 

weited  at  f  e  windowe  •  wer  sche  f  e  bestes  seie, 

&  seie  hem  in  f  e  same  place  •  f  er  as  [f  ei]1  were  ere, 

<fe  hendli  eif  er  of  er  •  fan  colled  in  armes.  3032 

1  Eead  "  J?er  as  \>ei  were  ere."— M. 
7  * 


She  addresses 
them,  and  exhorts 
them  to  be  firm. 


[Fol.  48  6.] 


Unless  God  sends 
help  soon,  she 
will  surrender. 


She  promises 
them  rich 
rewards. 


Her  knights 
swear  never  to 
yield. 

She  thanks  them, 
and  retires. 


Next  day,  she  aska 
Moses  to  sing 
another  mass, 


and  afterwards 
watches  from  her 
chamber-window. 


. 


100 


The  hot  sun  had 

cracked  the  hides 

of  the  hart  and 

hind, 

and  the  queen 

sees  their  clothes. 


She  points  out 
the  beasts  to 
the  priest. 


[Fol.  49.] 
He  says  her 
dream  is  coming 
true. 

"  You  know  about 
the  emperor  of 
Rome's  daughter, 


who  fell  in  love 
with  a  bold 
knight, 


and  how  they 
fled  from  Borne  in 
two  bears'  skins. 


These  are  they 
yonder ! 


You  must  contrive 
to  get  them 
here." 


THE   QUEEN    PUTS    ON   A    HIND  S    SKIN. 

f  e  hote  sunne  hade  so  hard  •  f  e  hides  stiued, 

fat  here  comli  closing  •  fat  keuered  hem  f  er-vnder 

f  e  quen  saw  as  sche  sat  •  out  bi  J)e  sides  sene, 

&  wex  a-wondred  f  er-of  •  wittow  for  sof  e.  3036 

to  ciwseil  sche  clepud  hir  prest  •  f  e  comli  quen  sone, 

&  schewed  him  f  e  si^t  *  of  f  e  semli  bestes ; 

&  sone  so  he  hem  sey  *  he  seide  to  f  e  quene, 

"  for  mary  loue,  madame  •  desmaye  ^ou  no  lenger,  3040 

for  f  e  mater  of  f  e  [metyng]  1  •  mi^tow  here  finde, 

as  i  descriued  f  is  ender  day  •  whan  f  ow  f  i  drem  toldest. 

&  ^e  han  herd  here-bi-fore  •  how  it  bi-tidde  in  rome, 

fempmmrs  dorter  was  ^eue   •  femperours2  sone  of 


grece, 


3044 


but  no  man  mi^t  here  make  •  fat  mariage  to  holde  • 

for  sche  hade  arst  leide  hure  loue  •  on  a  better  place, 

on  on  f  e  kuddest  kni^t  •  knowen  in  f  is  worlde, 

best  of  his  bodi,  boldest  •  &  braggest  in  armes  ;   "  3048 

&  bof  e  f  ei  busked  of  rome  •  in'tvo  beres  skinnes, 

sif  f  e  f  ei  hent  hertes  skinnes  •  but  hou,  wot  i  neuer. 

but  saufly  f  is  may  [i]  3  seye  •  &  Jje  sof  e  prone, 

fe  ^ond  is  ]?at  semly  •  and  his  selue  make.  3052 

he  schal  wi^tli  fis  werre  *  winne  to  an  hende, 

&  bring  ]>e  from  alle  bales  •  to  fi  bote  in  hast, 

&  deliuer  fi  londes  a-^en  •  in  lengfe  &  in  brede. 

Jjer-for  no  more  of  J?is  mater  *  is  to  muwge  noufe,    3056 

but  bi-fenke  how  ]?e  best  •  J>o  bestes  to  winne, 

jjat  fe  kni3t  &  fat  komli  •  were  kome  to  $our  chauraber." 


The  queen 
thought  she  too 
would  be  sewed 
in  a  hind's.skin. 

i  priest  gets  a 
hide  for  her. 


"Uan  fa  komeli  quen  •  kast  in  hire  hert,  3059- 

•*     sche  wold  wirche  in  f  is  wise  •  wel  to  be  sewed 

In  an  huge  hindes  hide  •  as  f  e  of  er  were, 

&  busk  out  to  f  e  bestes  •  &  vnder  a  busk  ligge, 

til  sche  wist  what  f  ei  were  •  }if  f  ei  wold  speke.      306$ 

prestli  f  e  prest  fan  •  proueyed  hire  swiche  an  hide, 

1  Read  "  mater  of  the  metyny." — M.          2  MS.  fempmmwrs, 
3  Read  "  may  »  seye."— M. 


THE   HART   AND    HIND    TALK   OF   DOFFING   THEIR   HIDES. 


101 


&  driuew  for]?  fat  day  to  ni^t  •  fan  drou$  f  ei  to  reste. 

but  f  e  quen  er  f  e  day  •  was  di^t  wel  to  ri^tes 

hondli  in  fat  hinde-skyn  *  as  swiche  bestes  were, 

&  bi  a  priue  posterne  •  passad  ou^t  er  dale,  3068 

&  a-bod  vnder  a  busk  •  ])ere  f  e  bestes  leye, 

so  priueli,  but  f  e  prest  •  non  parceyue  nn^t, 

but  on  of  hire  burw^-maydenes  •  fat  sche  loued  most. 

f  ei  stoden  stille  hire  to  a-bide  •  wif-inne  a  posterne 

jate,  3072 

&  whan  f  e  surcne  gan  here  schewe l  *  &  to  schine  bri}t, 
f  e  hende  hert  &  hinde  *  bi-gunne  to  a-wake, 
&  maden  in-fere  f  e  niest  murf  e  *  fat  man  mi^t  diuise, 
wijj  clipping  &  kessing  •  and  contenauwce  fele,        3076 
&  talkeden  bi-twene  •  mani  tidy  wordes.     4*** 
&  wilh'am  fan  witeiii  •  f ise  wordes  seide, 
"  a  !  loueli  lemmarc  •  a  long  time  me  f  inkif , 
sef  f  en  fat  i  saw  •  f  i  semli  face  bare  ;  3080 

sore  me  longes  it  to  se  •  }if  it  mi^t  so  worf  e." 
"bi  marie,"  seid  meliors  •  "  so  dos  me  as  sore, 
$our  bri^t  ble  to  by-hold  *  but  beter  is  $ut  a-bide. 
we  wol  nou$t  krepe  of  f ese  skinnes  •  lest  vs  schafe 

tidde,  3084 

til  our  buxura  best  *  }if  vs  bof  e  leue. 
for  he  be  tokene  whan  time  is  •  wol  titli  vs  wisse, 
what  wise  fat  we  schal  •  our  owne  wedes  take." 
"  treuli,  sweting,  fat  is  sof  "  •  seid  willmm  f anne,  3088 
"  a  gret  f rowe  me  f inkes  •  er  fat  time  come ; 
but  wold  god  f  e  quen  •  wist  what  we  were, 
&  wold  hastli  me  help  •  of  horse  &  gode  armes, 
I  wold  socour  hire  sone  *  fram  al  f  is  sory  werre,     3092 
&  pult  hire  out  of  f  is  peril  •  in  pure  litel  while ; 
but  of  vs  wot  sche  nou^t  •  wo  is  me  f  er-fore. 
nere  it,  swetyng,  for  f  i  sake  •  of  my-self  i  ne  rou^t ; 
for  moche  meschef  hastow  had  •  onli  for  mi  sake."  3096 
"Meschef,  sire,"  saide  meliors  •  "nay,  murcge  fat  no  more; 
1  MS.  "  schewed."     Read  "  schewe."— M. 


Arrayed  in  this, 
she  goes  to  the 
park,  and  the 
priest  and  a 
bower-maiden 
wait  for  her. 


At  sunrise,  the 
hart  and  hind 
[Fol.  49  6.1 
awake  and 
embrace. 


William  says  he 
longs  to  see 
Melior's  face. 


Melior  says  they 
must  not  creep 
out  of  the  skins 
till  the  werwolf 
gives  the  hint. 


William  wishes 
the  queen  knew 
who  he  was, 

and  would  provide 
him  with  a  horse 
and  armour. 


Melior  says  she  is 
well  contented. 


102 


THE   QUEEN    HEARS   ABOUT    MELIOIl's    DREAM. 


The  queen  hears 
alk> 


Meiior  tells  a 

dream—  how  an 

eagle  had  taken 


palace. 


[Foi.6oj 


William  and 


for  leuer  me  is  f  is  lif  to  liaue  •  to  line  wif  f  e  here, 
fan  to  winne  al  f  e  world  •  &  want  J)e  of  si^t." 
fan  clipt  fei  &  keste  *  &  of  fat  karping  left,  3100 

&  bi  a  busch  lay  f  e  quen  •  bi  here-self  one, 
&  herde  holli  f  e  wordes  •  fat  fei  hade  seide. 
&  meliors  in  f  e  mene  time  •  to  will-a'am  mekli  saide, 
"  swetyng,  sore  i  was  a-drad  •  of  a  sweuen  ?er-while  j 
Me  fo^t  fanne  an1  ern  •  er  euer  i  was  ware,  3105 

hade  vs  vp  take  •  in-to  fat  hei^e  toure  ; 
whef  er  it  geyne  to  gode  •  or  grame,  wot  i  neiur." 
.  "nay,  i-wisse,"  sede  wilKam  •  "  i  wot  wel  fe  sofe,  31  OS 
fat  it  gaynef  but  god  •  for  god  may  vs  help." 
&  as  f  ei  laykeden  in  here  laike  •  f  ei  lokede  a-boute, 
&  bleynte  bi-hinde  fe  busch  •  &  sei3en  as  bliue, 

now  an  huge  ^nde  '  held  hire  >ere  at  rest.  3112 

"  bi  marie,"  seide  meliors  *  "  me  f  inkif  fat  best  slepef  ^ 

&  semef  nou3t  a-drad  of  vs  •  to  deme  f  e  sofe." 

4<  no,  i-wisse,"  seide  wilKam  •  "  i  ne  wot  whi  it  schuld  ; 

It  wenef  fat  we  ben  •  ri^t  swiche  as  it-silue  ;  3116- 

^or  we  ^e  so  sotiliche  •  be-sewed  in  f  ise  hides. 

-^  wist  it  wigli  .  ^^Q^Q  ^estes  we  were, 

It  wold  fle  our  felaschip  *  for  fere  ful  sone." 
"nay,   bi  crist,"  sede   fe  quen   *  "fat   al 

Schaped, 

I  nel  fle  ful  fer  •  for  fere  of  30113  tweyne. 
I  wot  wel  what  36  ar  •  &  whennes  36  come, 
al  f  e  kas  wel  i  knowe  •  fat  36  am  komen  inne." 
William  wonders,  willmm  wex  a-wondred  •  whan  he  f  ise  wordes  herd, 
frightened.          &  meliors  fe  nieke  *  wex  nei3h  mad  for  fere.  3125 

but  wilKam  ful  hastly  •  fus  to  fe  hinde  sede, 
wmiam  conjures   "  I  cowiure  f  e,  f  urth  crist  *  fat  on  croice  was  peyned, 
whether  it  is  a      fatou  titli  me  telle  *  &  tarie  nou3  no  lenger,  3128 

four  fiend!*  OI        whef  er  f  ow  be  a  god  gost  •  in  goddis  name  fat  spekistr 
oif  er  any  foule  fend  *  fourmed  in  f  ise  wise, 
&  $if  we  schul  of  f  e  hent  *  harme  of  er  gode." 
1  MS.  "  Me  Jjou3t  er}>en  ar  era,  &c.'r 


wmiam  says  it 


seem,  or  it  would 


"Nay,"  said  the 

queen,  "I  know 
who  ye  are." 


mankinde 

01™ 


' 


THE    QUEEN    ADDRESSES    WILLIAM. 

T-%an  fat  comli  quen  •  ful  curtesli  saide,  3132 

-*     "I  am  swiche  a  best  as  30  ben  •  bi  him  fat  vs  wrou^t. 

harm  for  me,  i  hope  •  schul  36  haue  neuer  ; 

for  as  gost  on  goddis  name  •  ich  gaynli  to  3011  speke, 

of  swiche  kinde  ar  we  kome  •  bi  crist,  as  36  arn.     3136 

but  of  er  breme  bestes  *  by  maistrye  &  strengf  e, 

han  me  dulfiilli  driuen  •  fro  my  kinde  lese. 

ber-for  i  soust  hider  •  socour  of  be  to  haue, 

&  praie  fe  par  charite  *  &  properliche  for  reube,    3140 

deliuer  me  of  duresse  •  &  do  me  haue  my  lese,  ^  few 

&  lelli  f  ow  schalt  be  lord  f  er-of  •  al  f  i  lif  time. 

&  fat  menskful  maide  *  fat  fere  myd  f  e  lies, 

schal  be  mi  lef  lady  •  fis  lordchip  to  weld.  3144 

for  f  e  real  emperour  of  rome  •  is  redeli  hir  l  fader, 

forf  i  wel  i  wot  sche  is  worf  i  •  to  weld  wel  more, 

I  knowe  al  f  e  couyne  •  of  cuntre  how  36  went, 

&  36  ben  welcom  to  me  *  bi  crist  fat  me  made.       3148 

&  of  sorwe  i  haue  suffred  •  sone  wol  i  telle. 

f  e  proude  king  of  spayne  •  wif  pride  me  bi-segef  , 

&  haf  luf  erli  al  mi  lond  •  wif  his  ludes  wasted, 

&  al  fis  duresse  he  me  dof  .•  for  my  dorter  sake  ;  3152 

asent  wold  sche  nou^t  his  sone  •  to  wif  hire  weld, 

f  er-for  he  worchef  me  wo  •  &  wastef  al  my  londes, 

saue  onliche  in  fis  cite  •  where  soiourne  wot  i  neuer. 

but  help  hope  i  in  hast  •  to  haue  of  f  e  one  ;  3156 

to  amende  my  meschef  •  i  meke  me  in  f  i  grace, 

&  pleyn  power  i  fe  grauwt  •  prestli  alse  swife, 

to  lede  al  my  lordchip  •  as  f  e  lef  likes  ; 

boute  eny  maner  mene  *  mayster  i  f  e  make  ;  3160 

wif-f  atow  winne  al  my  worchip  •  as  i  ere  wait." 

ban  was  will-iam  gretli  glad  •  &  oft  god  bonked, 

.       .  . 

whan  he  wist  it  was  f  e  quen  *  &  w^tli  he  sayde, 
"  Madame,  by  fat  menskful  lord  •  fat  vs  alle  made, 
$if  i  fis  time  mijt  trust  •  treuli  to  3our  sawe,  3165 

so  fat  36  wold  lelli  my  lemman  •  saue  &  loke, 


103 


harm  them> 


that»  ™  fact>  8^e 

implores  him  to 

aid  her,  and  he 
fFo1-  50  &-3 


her  lands, 


but  she  hopes  to 

have  William's 

help  against  him, 


wmiam  rejoiced 

when  he  knew 

the  queen, 


1  MS.  "  his,"  altered  to  "  hir  "  by  a  later  hand. 


104 


WILLIAM   PROMISES    TO    SERVE    THE   QUEEN. 


and  promises  to 
serve  her 
faithfully. 


All  three  go 
together  to  the 
postern-gate. 


The  bower- 
woman,  who  was 

[Fol.  51.] 
waiting,  was 
nearly  mad  with 
fear, 


but  the  queen 
reassures  her, 


and  asks  if  she 
does  not  know 
her  again. 


She  says  she  is 
frightened  of  the 
others. 


The  queen  tells 
her  to  keep 
it  all  a  seeret. 


whil  i  busily  buske  a-boute  •  30111  bales  to  bete, 

al  my  help  holliche  •  36  schul  haue  at  nede ;  3168 

feif  li  boute  feyntise  *  3011  faile  schal  ich  neuer, 

as  long  as  any  lif  •  me  lastes,  for  sof  e." 

Gretli  was  f  e  quen  glad  •  &  godli  him  f  onked, 

&  loueli  him  &  his  lemmas  •  laujt  bi  fe  handes,     3172 

&  ferden  for])  on  here  fet  •  feif  li  to-gadere 

priueli  to  f  e  posterne  •  &  in  passed  sone. 

&  jit  stod  f  e  maide  stille  •  f  e  quen  to  a-bide,  l^ 

&  whan  sche  saw  fo  fre  bestes  •  so  froli  come,  *''    3176 

so  hidous  in  f  o  hides  •  as  f  ei  hertes  were, 

sche  wex  wod  of  hire  wit  •  wittou,  for  fere  ; 

&  rapli  gan  a-way  renne  •  to  reken  f  e  sof  e. 

but  fat  comli  quen  •  called  hire  a-jene,  3180 

&  earful  [sche] *  com  •  whan  sche  hire  clepe  herde. 

"  whi  carestow,"  sede  fe  quene  *  "  knew  f  ow  noujt  f  e 

sofe, 

fat  i  was  tiffed  in  a-tir  •  when  i  wend  fro  fe  1 " 
"  jis,  madame," k  sede  f  e  maide  •  "  but,  bi  marie  of  heuen, 
but  i  a-wede  neie3  of  wit  •  for  fo  werder  bestes,     3185 
fat  folwe  3our  felachip  •  so  ferli  f ei  are." 
"  f  ei  wol  do  no  duresse  *  bi  dere  god  of  heuen  ; 
for  hem  i  went  in  fis  wise  •  to  win  in-to  fis  place.  3188 
but  loke  now,  bi  f  i  lif  •.  fat  no  lud  here-of  wite, 
how  f  ei  hider  come  •  her-after  neuer  more." 
"  nay,  bi  marie,  madame  "  •  f  e  maide  fan  seide, 
"  fis  dede  schal  i  neuer  deschuuer  •  f  e  deth  forto  suffer." 


The  queen  takes 
them  to  a  chamber 
in  the  tower. 

I — 


Two  baths  are 
soon  made  ready 


comli  quen  fan  takef  •  meliors  by  fe  hande,   3193 
&  bi-fore  went  william  *  &  after-ward  f  e  quene  ; 
brou3t  hem  to  a  choys  chaumber  *  vnder  f  e  chef  toure, 
f[er]e3  were  beddes  busked  •  for  eny  burn  riche.    3196 
&  tvo  baf  es  were  boun  •  by  a  litel  while, 

1  Perhaps  better  thus,  "  earful  sche  com." — M. 

2  MS.  "  made  ;"  see  11.  2701,  3191. 
»MS."J»e."     Read  "  there."— M. 


WILLIAM   AND    MELIOR   TAKE    OFF   THE   HIDES. 

&  a-tired  tryli  •  to  trusty  trewe  lordes. 

sone  f  e  quen  kau^t  a  knif  •  &  komli  hire-selue 

william  &  his  worf  i  fere  *  swiftli  vn-laced  3200 

out  of  f  e  hidous  hidus  •  &  in  a  hirne  hem  cast. 

&  whan  f  ei  were  closed  •  worf  li  in  here  wedes, 

alle  men  vp07^  mold  •  nujt  sen  a  fair  coupel 

fan  was  bi-twene  wilh'am  •  &  f  is  worf  i  mayde.       3204 

f  e  quen  hire  clipt  &  kest  •  &  gret  comfort  made, 

&  sef f en  bliue  dede  hem  baf  e  *  bof  e  tvo  wel  faire, 

&  greif  ed  hem  gaili  *  in  garnemens  riche,  3207 

&  manli  made  hem  atte  hese  *  wif  alle  metes  nobul, 

&  wif  vf  e  de[r]worf  est l  deintes  •  of  drinkes  fat  were ; 

to  mu?2ge  more  nis  no  ned  •  nou^t  missed  f  ei  f  anne. 

whan  f  ei  merili  at  mete  *  hade  made  hem  at  ese, 

fat  comli  quen  to  wilh'am  •  curtesli  saide,  3212 

"  swete  sire,  36  me  saye  •  what  signe  is  f  e  leuest 

to  haue  schape  in  f  i  scheld  •  to  schene  armes  ?  " 

"bi  crist,  madame,"  sede  fe  kni3t  •  "i  coueyte  nou^t 

elles 

but  fat  i  haue  a  god  schelfd]  *  of  gold  graif ed  clene, 
&  wel  &  faire  wif-inne  *  a  werwolf  depeynted,       3217 
fat  be  hidous  &  huge  *  to  haue  alle  his  ri3tes, 
of  f  e  couenablest  colour  •  to  knowe  in  f  e  feld ;      . 
ofer  armes  al  my  lif  •  atteli  neuer  haue."       ^*** '  '  3220 
f  e  quen  fan  dede  comauwde  •  to  carfti 2  men  i-nowe, 
fat  deuis  him  were  di3t  •  er  fat  day  eue, 
to  wende  in-to  werre  *  in  world  where  him  liked ; 
fat  was  pe?les  a-parrayl  •  to  proue  of  alle  gode.       3224 


105 


The  queen  with  a 
knife  unlaces  the 
hides. 


William  and 
Melior  seem  a 
fair  couple. 


[Fol.  51  b.] 
They  bathe,  and 
are  richly  dressed 
and  go  to  meat. 


The  queen  asks 
William  what 
cognisance  he 
will  have  on  his 
shield. 


He  replies — " . 
werwolf  on  a 
shield  of  gold.' 


The  queen  has  it 
made  for  him. 


A  Iso  fat  comli  quen  •  as  fat  crist  wold, 
**f  hade  on  f  e  sturnest  stede  •  in  hire  stabul  tehed.        She  had  in  her 

stable  a  very 

fat  euer  man  vpow  molde  •  n^t  of  heren,  spirited  horse, 

&  doutiest  to  alle  dedes  *  fat  any  horse  do  schuld.  3228  husband's, 
f  e  king  ebrourcs  it  ou3t  •  fat  was  hire  lord  bi-fore, 
&  fro  f  e  day  fat  he  deiede  •  durst  no  man  him  nei3he, 
1  Read  "  derworthest."— M.  3  Read  "  crafti."— M. 


10G 


THE   STORY   OF  EBROUNS*    HORSE. 


since  Ebrouns'      ne  be  so  bold  of  his  bodi  •  on  his  bak  to  come,       3231 

death,  no  one  had 

dared  to  mount     but  euer  stod  teied  in  fe  stabul  •  wif  stef  irn  cheynes  ; 
&  queyntliche  to  his  cracche  •  was  come  swiche  a  weie, 
fat  mew  im^t  legge  him  mete  •  &  wateren  atte  wille. 
f  e  horse  sone  hade  sauor  •  of  fat  hende  knijt, 
[Foi.  52.]        &  wist,  as  god  wold  •  it  was  is  kinde  lord.  3236 

knowing  w'iiiiam,  as  bliue,  al  his  bondes  •  he  to-brak  for  ioye, 


brake  all  his 
bands  for  joy, 
and  neighed 
wondrously. 

And  this  is  told  to  how  sternli  in  be  stabul  •  be  stede  ban  ferde, 

the  queen. 

&  had  broke  alle  his  bondes   •  no   burn   durst 


&  so  gan  fare  wif  his  fet  •  &  ferliche  nei3ede, 

fat  men  wend  he  hade  be  wod  *  &  warned  f  e  quene, 

3240 
him 
nei^he. 
wmiam  hears      whan  willmm  herde  bise  wordes  g  he  saide  to  be  quene.. 

about  it,  and  asks 

what  sort  of  a       "  Madame,1  what  stede  is  fat  •  fat  so  sterne  is  hold1? 
Is  he  ou^t  dou^ti  to  dedes  •  fat  men  don  of  armes  1 " 
"  3a,  certes,"  saide  f  e  quen  *  "  sof  for  to  telle,         3245 
a  worf  ier  to  fat  werk  •  wot  i  non  in  erf  e, 
3if  any  man  vpow  mold  •  rni^t  wif  him  dele. 

"it  was  Ebrouns'  he  was  mi  lordes,  wil  he  liuede  *  fat  i  so  moche  louede, 
&  for  his  loue  sertenli  •  i  do  f  is  stede  ^eme."  3249 

"  Mademe,"  sede  will/am  *  "  $if  it  were  3 our  wille, 
I  wold  preie  par  charite  •  &  profit  fat  may  falle, 
i  for    fat  i  most  haue  fat  horse  •  whan  i  schal  haue  to  done. 

3253 


it. 


I  wol  to  medis  my-self  •  manliche  him 
sette  vpo/i  his  sadel  •  &  .semli  him  greif  e." 


She  says  he  may    «  certes ,"  sede  be  quen  •  "i  seie  be  at  onis, 

have  whatever 


he  pleases;  he 
thanks  her. 


holli  of  al  fat  i  haue  *  here  i  make  f e  maister, 
to  do  f  er-wif  bi  day  &  nijt  •  as  f  e  god  f  inkes." 
f  er-of  was  wilh'am  glad  •  &  wi3tli  here  f  onkes, 
fan  asked  f  ei  f  e  win  *  &  went  to  bedde  after, 
for  it  was  forf  [to]  ni^t 2  •  faren  bi  fat  time. 


"Pveliuerli  on  f  e  morwe  •  er  f  e  day  gan  dawe, 
Next  day,  the       *-'  be  stiward  of  spavne  *  bat  stern  was  &  bold, 

•teward  of  Spain  f 

hadde  bi-seged  fat  cite  •  selcouf eli  hard 


3256 


3260 


1  MS.  «  Madama." 


2  See  note. 


WILLIAM    MOUNTS    KING   EBROUNS'    HORSE.  107 


wif  f  re  M.  of  men  •  fat  fro  were  to  fyt.  S  fi^     3264 

&  f  o  f  e  segges  of  f  e  cite  •  sone  were  ^are, 

as  dou^ti  men  of  dedes  *  defence  for  to  make,  EFoL  52  6.] 

3erne  schetten  here  3ates  •  &  3emed  f  e  walles. 

for  of  f  o  wif-inne  •  non  wold  hem  out  aunter,        3268  ^t^nSi 

so  fele  were  of  here  fon  *  &  so  fewe  wif-inne.  a  sally- 

f  e  cry  rudli  a-ros  •  fat  reuf  e  it  was  to  hure, 

for  f  ei  wif-inne  f  e  toun  •  swiche  meschef  were  iraie. 

fat  fei  witterli  wende  •  haue  be  wonne  fat  daye.    3272 

titli  was  f  e  tiding  *  told  in  f  e  paleys, 

how  felli  here  fomen  •  gun  fi3t  atte  walles. 

whan  wilKam  bat  wiste  •  whtli  vp  he  stirte*  wiiiiam  is  glad 

at  the  news,  and 

as  glad  as  any  gome  •  fat  euer  god  wrou3t,  3276  dons  his  armour, 

fat  he  mijt  his  fille  fi^i,  '  for  fat  fre  quene. 

anow  he  was  armed  •  at  alle  maner  poyntes, 

&  strei3t  him  in-to  the  stabul  •  fere  f  e  stede  stod,  stable!63 

&  moche  folk  him  folwed  •  fat  ferli  to  bi-hold,       3280 

how  sternli  he  &  f  e  [stede]1  •  schold  sti3tli_to-gadere.    $w«>*          ~* 

&  as  sone  as  f  e  kni3t  kud  •  konie  to  f  e  stabul, 

fat  f  e  stede  him  of-saw  •  sone  he  vp-leped, 

&  faire  wif  his  fore  fet  •  kneled  doun  to  grounde,  3284  The  horse 

to  him  on  its 

&  made  him  f  e  most  ioye  •  fat  [manj  mi$t  deuise,2          forelegs,  and  i 

&  alle  frekes  fat  him  folwed  *  gret  ferli  hade. 

f  e  stede  stod  ful  stille  •  fou^li  he  sterne  were, 

while  be  kniat  him  sadeled  •  &  clanli  him  greibed  :          The  knight 

*  saddles  him  and 

&  wan  vp  wrjtn  him-self  •  whan  he  was  3are,          3289  mounts. 
&  schuft  his  scheld  on  is  schulder  •  a  scharp  spere  on 

honde, 

&  gerd  him  wif  a  god  swerd  •  for  any  man  in  erf  e. 
f  e  stede  liked  wel  f  e  lode  •  his  lord  whan  he  felte,  3292 
he  wist  him  ^ht  of  dede  •  &  wel  coude  ride, 
&  braundised  so  bremli  *  fat  alle  burnes  wondred 
of  f  e  comli  cuwtenaimce  •  of  f  e  kni3t  fat  he  bare. 

Read  "  the  stede  schold  stiztli."—  M. 

Read  "  that  man  mizt  deuise."   A  common  phrase.—  M.     See 
11.  2985,  3075. 


108 


WILLIAM    HARANGUES     THE   CITIZENS. 


[Fol.  53.] 
All  are  blithe  to 
behold  the 
knight. 


The  queen  and 
her  daughter 
praise  him,  and 
say  it  will  be  a 
lucky  woman  who 
marries  him. 


Melior  is  alarmed 
at  this, 


thinking  she 
would  rather 
have  William 
than  all  the 
world's  wealth 
without  him. 


William  rides 
through  the  city, 


and  comes  to 
where  the 
defenders  held 
their  council. 


They  rejoice  at 
his  bold  bearing. 


FFol.  53  &.] 


so  schene  he  was  to  se  •  in  his  semli  armes,  3296 

fat  alle  burnes  were  Wife  •  to  bi-hold  him  one  ; 
for  so  semli  a  seg  *  had  f  ei  nou^t  3016  seie. 
fat  quen  &  hire  doubter  *  &  meliors  f  e  schene 
wayteden  out  at  a  windowe  •  wilfulli  in-fere,  3300 

how  that  komeli  kni^t  •  kunteyned  on  his  stede. 
f  e  quen  &  here  doubter  •  deuised  him  so  moche, 
&  preisede  him  perles  •  for  eny  prince  in  erf  e, 
<fc  seiden,  "  wel  is  fat  womman  *  fat  he  wold  haue  ! 
vnder  crist,  is  no  kni^t  •  fat  so  kud  semef ! "          3305 
Meliors  al  f  is  mater  •  what  it  ment  herde, 
&  was  a-drad  to  f  e  deth  *  f  ei  deseuy  here  wold, 
to  winne  willzam  here  fro  *  fat  f ei  so  wel  praysede, 
&  seide  softili  to  hire-self  •  f  ese  selue  wordes,         3309 
"  Lord,  }if  f  e  hade  liked  •  leuer  me  hade  bene 
haue  woned  in  wildernesse l  •  wif  mi  lemman  swete, 
fan  wonye  here  in  al  f  e  welf  *  of  f  e  world  riche,  3312 
to  lese  mi  lemman  •  fat  al  mi  loue  weldes." 
swiche  mistrowe  had  meliors  •  for  f  ei  so  moche  lura 
preised. 

VTow  wilh'am  on  his  sterne  stede  •  now  stifli  forf  rides, 

•^   so  serreli  furth  f  e  cite  •  al  him-self  one,  3316 

fat  eche  wei}!!  was  a-wondred  •  fat  sei}  wif  ei^en, 

so  coraious  a  cowtenauwce  •  fat  kud  kni^t  hadde. 

William  prestili  priked  •  f  er  f  e  puple  was  sembled, 

&  alle  f  e  solempne  segges  •  fat  f  e  cite  ^emed,         3320 

bold  barounes  &  kni^tes  *  &  of  er  segges  2  nobul. 

&  whan  f  ei  were  war  of  wilKam  *  wilfulli  alle, 

f  e  komynge  of  f  e  kuntenauwce  •  of  f  e  kni^t  nobul 

f  ei  bi-helden  hertly  *  &  hadden  gret  ioye,  3324      .  '  jj 

fa  so  manli  a  man  •  wold  rnele  in  here  side.    /^^^ 

f  e  nobul  blonk  fat  him  bar  •  a[s]  3  bliue  f  ei  knewe, 


1  MS. 

2  MS. 

3  Read  "  as  bliue."— M. 


wirderneffe."     Read  "  wildernesse."— M. 
segeges."     Read  "segges."— M. 


FOUR   HUNDRED    CITIZENS    MAKE   A    SALLY. 


109 


"but  witterli  what  lie  was  •  wist  non  of  alle. 
wilKam  strei^t  went  hem  to  •  &  wi3tli  saide,  3328 

«'  leue  lordes,  for  goddes  loue  •  lestenes  my  sawe  ! 
it  semeth  fat  36  ar  segges  •  selkouf  ely  nobul, 
&  bold  burnes  to  abide  •  in  batayles  harde, 
&  wel  armed  36  arn  •  at  alle  maner  poyntes.  3332 

whi  lete  36  foulli  3our  fon  •  for-barre  5011  her-inne, 
&  do  3011  alle  J>e  duresse  •  fat  f  ei  deuise  konne, 
&  36  do  no  defence  •  fat  despyt  to  wreke, 
but  couwardli  as  caitifs  •  couren  here  in  meuwe?     3336 
Men,  for  3oure  manchipe  *  na  more  fat  suffref , 
but  wendef  ou3t  wi3tli  •  &  wif  jour  fon  metef , 
hauef  reward  to  jour  ri3t  *  &  redli  chul  36  spede ; 
&  30  wite  f ei  do  wrong  •  f e  worse  schul  f  ei  happe.  3340 
jif  36  manli  wif  hem  mete  *  f  e  maistry  worf  oure, 
f  ei3h  f  ei  be  fiue  so  fele  •  as  we  in-fere  alle. 
&  36  fat  wilne  to  wynne  •  worchipe  in  armes, 
folwef  me,  for  in  feif  •  f  e  ferst  wil  i  bene, 
fat  smertli  schal  smite  •  f  e  alderfirst  dint "  : — 
&  jerne  opened  f  e  3ates  *  &  3epli  out  rides, 
whan  f  e  bold  knijtes  hade  herde  •  fat  burnes  wordes, 
&  sey  him  so  fersli  forf  fare  •  so  bi-fore  hem  alle,    3348 
f  ei  wist  he  was  a  wijt  man  •  &  wold  nou3t  faile l 
but  fat  he  schuld  hem  help  •  f  ei  hoped  for  sof  e. 
&  foure  hundred  fers  men  •  folwed  him  after, 
of  koraious  knijtes  •  &  of  er  kud  kempes, 
fat  for  to  liuen  or  deyen  *  litel  hem  roujt. 
&  whan  wilKam  was  war  •  wiche  a  route  sewede, 
he  was  gainli  glad  •  no  gom  f  urt  him  blame, 
&  a-bod  til  f  e  burnes  •  a-boute  him  were  come.  v< 
f  e  spaynolnes  hem  hade  a-spiede  •  &  spakli  gun  ride, 
wif  gret  bobaunce  &  bost  •  blowand  here  trompes ; 
for  f  ei  seij  so  fewe  •  out  of  f  e  cite  come 
ajens  hem  fre  .M.  •  f  ei  ne  tok  non  hede 
to  reule  hem  of  non  array  •  but  rijt>  for  gret  pride, 
i  MS.  "falle."  Read  "faile."— M. 


They  know  the 
horse,  but  not  the 


William 
harangues  them, 


asking  them  why 
they  let  their 
foes  bar  them  in. 


He  exhorts  them 
to  make  a  sally, 


and  their  courage 
will  supply  their 
lack  of  numbers. 


3344    He  will  go  first, 
and  strike  the 
first  blow. 

He  opens  the 
gates,  and  rides 
out. 


Four  hundred 
bold  men  follow 

3352  him. 


y 

3356 


[Fol.  54.] 

The  Spaniards 
attack  them. 


3360    being  3,000  in 
number. 


110 


WILLIAM    KILLS   THE    STEWARD    OF    SPAIN. 


William  exhorts 


to  yield  no  inch 
of  ground. 


eche  burn  bi-fore  of  er  •  on  his  blonk  prikede, 

to  asayle  f  e  segges  •  fat  fro  f  e  cite  come. 

willi'am  seide  to  his  whie3s  •  wittili  for  sof  e,  3364 

"  Lordinges  &  leue  frendes  •  listenes  to  my  sawes  ! 

f  63!!  30  be  ferd  of  3our  fon  *  fief  neuer  f  e  sunner ; 

f  e  bolder  ou3t  we  be  *  f  ei  ben  out  of  araie. 

stonde  we  stifli  to-gader  •  stifly  in  defens,  3368 

&  ne  leses  no  lond  •  lordinges,  god  for-bede  ! 


They  array 
themselves  in 
good  order. 


The  Spanish 
king's  steward 
leads  the  attack. 


Let  each  man      \eche  lud  f  enk  on  his  lemma?*  •  &  for  hire  loue  so  fijt, 

love*!  °f      a  7"   to  winne  worchip  f  er-wif  *  in  worlde  for  euer-more. 

&  in  feif,  f ei3h  eft  as  fele  *  of  our  fomen  were,       3372 

deliuerli  f  urth  3our  dedes  •  schul  f  ei  deie  sone." 

kni3tes  wif  sire  wilh'am  •  kau3t  [fanne]  l  god  hert, 

&  realiche  were  a-rai^ed,'  in  a  litel  while, 

In  a  ful  styf  strengf  e  •  to  stonde  to  fi^t.  3376 

f  er  kom  a  kni3t  to-fore  •  f  e  companye  of  spayne, 

a  stif  man  &  a  stern  •  fat  was  f  e  kinges  stiward, 

&  cheueteyn  was  chose  *  fat  eschel  to  lede.       ^ 

&  for  boldnesse  of  his  bodi  •  be-fore  alle  he  went,  3380 

armed  at  alle  poyntes  •  on  a  nobul  stede. 

wuiiam  perceives  william  was  wi3tly  •  whar  of  his  come, 
&  gamli  to  his  gomes  •  gan  for  to  seie, 
"bi  crist,  3ond  kni3t  •  fat  komef  here  armed, 
dredef  litel  oure  dedes  *  what-euer  he  do  fink, 
but  bi  god  fat  me  gaf  •  f  e  gost  &  f  e  soule, 
I  wol  fonde  be  fe  first  •  in  feld  him  to  mete ; 
but  our  on  titly  tumbel  •  trowe  me  neuer  after." 
spacli  boute  speche  •  his  spere  fanne  he  hente, 
&  euen  to  fat  stiward  •  dede  his  stede  renne, 
&  manli  as  mi^ti  men  •  eif  er  mette  of  er, 
&  spacli  f  e  of  eres  spere  •  in  speldes  fan  wente. 
ac  willmms  was  strong  inow  *  wittow  forsof  e, 
&  he  so  sternli  f  e  stiward  •  fat  ilk  time  hitte, 
f  urth  f  e  bold  bodi  •  he  bar  him  to  f  e  erf  e, 

earth,  as  dead  aa   as  ded  as  dornayl  •  te  deme  be  sobe. 

a  Hnnrnotl  •  * 

1  See  note. 


him  coming, 


[Fol.  54  6.] 
and  says  he  will 
be  the  first  to 
meet  him. 


William 
encounters  the 
steward, 


and  bears  him 
down  to  the 


a  doornail. 


3384 


3388 


3392 


3396 


THE  STEWARD'S  NEPHEW  ATTACKS  WILLIAM. 


Ill 


*'  I-wis,"  feiine  seide  william  •  "  i  wot  wel  to  wisse, 

f  ow  dost  vs  none?'  after  •  no  duresse  in  armes  ! " 

ac  spacly  f  e  spaynoles  •  spewed  he  was  slayne, 

fei  were  [wode]  l  of  here  witt  •  wittow  for  sof  e 

hastili  hent  vp  his  bodi  •  &  to  here  tentes  here, 

])at  it  were  nou^t  in  fat  fi3t  •  wit  here  horse  troden, 

&  as  bliue  boldli  •  f  e  burnes  of  spayne, 

fou^t  manli  make  wreche  •  here  lorlde2  to  queme,  3404 

for  swiche  a  lorld2  of  lederes  •  ne  lined  nou^t,  fei  held, 

non  so  dou^ti  of  dedns  •  f  er-for  his  deth  a-wreke  3 

fei  f  ou^t  f  roli  pat  time  •  what  bi-falle  after. 


The  Spaniards, 
seeing  him  slain, 
3400   bear  Ms  body  to 
their  tents. 


They  resolve  to 
avenge  him. 


A    ful  breme  bataile  •  bi-gan  fat  ilk  time,  3408 

^**-  whan  eif  er  sides  a-sembled  •  of  f o  segges  sturne. 
Mani  a  spere  spacli  •  on  peces  were  to-broke, 
&  many  a  schene  scheld  •  scheuered  al  to  peces, 
Many  helmes  to-hewe  •  fnrth  here  huge  strokes.      3412 
&  redili  for  to  rekene  •  al  f  e  ri^t  sof  e, 
wilKam  &  his  wijes  •  so  wonderli  fou^ten, 
fat  fei  felden  here  fon  •  ful  fast  to  grounde. 
non  mi^t  here  strok  wij?-stond  •  in  fat  stounde  fan,   341 6 
so  wel  for  wilh'ams  werkes  •  were  fei  fan  herted. 
f  e  stiward  had  a  newe  •  but  of  3ong  age, 
on  f  e  manlokest  man  *  fat  men  schold  of  heren, 
&  dottiest  of  dedes  •  fat  men  schuld  do  in  armes.   3420 
as  swiftli  as  he  wist  •  fat  his  em  was  slawe, 
he  f  ou}t  duelfulli  fa  deth  •  fat  day  to  a-wreke. 
armed  at  alle  poyntes  •  anon  he  f  ider  went, 
&  presed  in  a-mang  fe  pepul  •  f  er  it  was  fikkest,  3424 
&  sone  to  hem  of  f  e  cite  •  a-sembled  he  f  anne, 
&  fau^t  fan  so  ferscheli  •  for  his  ernes  sake, 
he  dude  to  dethe  deliuerli  •  fiue  gode  kni3tes, 

1  Read  "  were  wode  of  here  witt."— M. 

2  Sic  in  MS.    See  1.  3955. 

3  MS.  "  a  wrekes."     Read  "  a-wreke,"  or  "  a-wreken,"  in  the 
infinitive.— M.    Cf.  1.  3422. 


Then  began  a 
fierce  battle. 


Spears  are 
broken,  shields 
shivered,  and 
helms  hewn 
through. 


William's  men 
fight  well. 


[Fol.  55.] 


The  steward's 
nephew 


resolves  to  avenge 
his  uncle's  death, 


and  slays  five 
good  knights. 


112 


THE  SPANIARDS  ARE  DEFEATED  AND  FLY. 


Wttliam  forces 
bis  way  to  him. 


The  steward's 
nephew  knows 
William  by  the 
werwolf  on  his 
shield. 


Their  spears 
break,  and  they 
fight  with  swords. 


William's  sword 
grinds  through 
helm  and  head 
down  to  the 
breast, 


and  he  sends  his 
foe's  horse  and 
the  steward's 
horse  to  Melior 
as  a  present. 


fat  bold  were  in  bataile  •  to  a-bide  at  nede.  3428 

whan  wilKam  wist  of  fat  werk  *  wittow  forsof  e, 

f  er  nas  man  vporc  molde  •  fat  him  nn^t  lette, 

fat  he  ne  perced  f  e  pres  •  prestili  fat  time, 

til  he  met  wif  fat  man  •  fat  mijti  was  hold.  3432 

whan  f  e  stiwardes  newe  *  saAv  wilKam  come, 

bi  f  e  werwolf  in  his  scheld  •  wel  he  him  knewe, 

fat  f  e  same  seg  hade  slawe  *  his  em  f  er-to-fore. 

&  wi^tli  as  a  wod  man  •  to  wilKam  he  priked,        3436 

wif  spere  festened  in  fenter  •  him  for  to  spille. 

at  f  e  a-coupyng  f  e  kni^tes  [speres]  '  •  eif  er  brak  on 

ofer, 

swiftli  wif  here  swerdes  *  swinge  f  ei  to-geder, 
&  delten  duelful  deiites  *  deliuerli  fat  stounde.        3440 
&  wilKam  was  f  e  wi^tere  *  &  wel  sarre  smot, 
&  set  so  hard  a  strok  *  sone  after  on  fat  ofer, 
f  urth  helm  &  hed  hastili  •  to  f  e  brest  it  grint. 
f  e  swerd  swiftili  swenged  •  f  urth  f  e  bode  euen,      3444 
fat  tit  oner  his  hors-tail  *  he  tumbled  ded  to  grounde. 
fat  ilk  stoute  kni^tes  stede  •  &  f  e  stiwardes  alse 
wilKam  sent  sone  •  to  his  semli  lemrnan, 
wher-of  sche  was  geinli  glad  •  &  oft  god  f  onked,    3448 
fa  he  so  wel  hade  wrou^t  *  in  werre  fat  day. 


[Fol.  55  &.] 


The  Spaniards 
turn  to  flight. 


William  and  his 
men  pursue  them 
6  miles,  taking 
many  prisoners. 


"TTTilKam2  &  his  burnes  •  fan  in  bataile  were, 
so  felly  wif  here  fon  •  fou^t  fat  ilke  time, 
bi  a  stouftde  was  non  so  stef  •  fat  hem  wif-stonde 
but  were  fayn  for  to  fle  •  eche  bi-fore  ofer, 
wel  was  him  in  f  e  world  •  fat  swifliest  nn^t  hi3e, 
ofer  on  hors  ofer  on  fote  •  for  fere  3  of  f  e  def  e. 
&  wilKam  &  his  whiles  •  went  after  sone, 
&  maden  manli  f  e  chas  •  mo  fan  fine  mile, 


453 


3456 


1  Read  "  the  kniztes  speres."  —  M. 

2  The  capital  W  is  absent,  but  its  place  is  marked  by  a  very 
small  w. 

3  MS.  «  fore."     Read  "  fere."—  M. 


THE   QUEEN   AND    WILLIAM    SEE   THE   WERWOLF. 


113 


&  grete  prisons  &  gode  *  goten  f  ei  fat  time  ; 

fat  meked  hem  nou$t  to  mercy  •  manli  ]jei  slowe, 

&  whan  f  ei  time  seie  •  turned  hem  horn  a-^ene,       3460 

heri^eden l  heili  god  •  fat  f  ei  wel  had  spedde. 

but  holli  wilU'ams  werkes  •  f  ei  wittened  it  alle, 

nade  his  dou^thi  dedes  be  •  f  ei  hade  be  dede  alle ; 

&  louted  to  [him]  as  to  lord  •  j)e  lasse  &  J>e  more,  3464 

&  eche  a  gom  was  gladdest  *  hoo  gaynest  him  mi^t 

ride. 

al  f  e  sorwe  ])ei  hadde  suffred  •  [so]  lang  to-fore, 
fei  sett  it  sofli  at  nou^t  •  so  glad  were  fei  fan,        3467 
for  f  e  dou^thi  kni3tes  dedus  •  fat  fat  day  hem  helped, 
wif  al  f  e  murthe  vporz.  molde  *  f  o  n^thi  men  in-fere 
passeden  to  f  e  paleys  •  proude  of  here  dedes. 
f  e  comly  quen  &  here  doubter  *  com  him  a^ens, 
&  jje  me[n]skful  meliors  •  wi]>  maydenes  fele,          3472 
&  welcomed  wilKam  •  as  fei  wel  ou^te, 
wif  clipping  &  kessing  •  &  alle  kinde  dedus. 
f  e  quen  him  loueli  ladde  *  rijt  to  h[er]e  chaumber, 
vn-armed  him  anon  *  &  afterward  clofed  3476 

clenliche  for  eny  [kni^t]  •  ]?at  vnder  crist  liuede. 
]?an  sete  J>ei  fre  •  to  solas  hem  at  J?e  windowe, 
euen  oner  ]>e  ioly  place  •  fat  to  fat  paleis  longed, 
fere  as  f e  quen  fond  wilKam  •  &  his  faire  make.     3480 
&  as  f  ei  waited  a-boute  •  wil  f  ei  of  murthe  speke, 
willmms  werwolf  •  was  comen  f  ider  f  anne, 
loked  vpow  f  e  ladies  •  &  his  loueli  maister, 
&  held  vp  his  foure-fet  *  in  fourme  to  craue  mercy,  3484 
&  louted  to  hem  loueli  *  and  lelly  f  er-after, 
he  went  wi^tly  a-wei  •  whider  him  god  liked. 
f  e  quen  f  er-of  was  a-wondred  •  &  to  willmm  seide, 
"  sire,  saw  36  f  is  selcouf  e  •  of  f  is  semli  best  ?          3488 
wonder  signes  he  wro^t  •  what  mai  hit  tokened" 
' '  313,  certes,  madame  "  •  seide  willtam  f  anne, 
<f  i  sei  f  e  signes  mi-self  •  &  sof  li  ich  hope, 
1  Perhaps  miswritten  for  "  heri^ende." 


All  -are  aware 
that  it  was  all 
William's  doing. 


They  forgot  all 
their  former 
sufferings. 


The  queen,  her 
daughter,  and 
Melior  meet  and 
welcome  them. 


The  queen 
unarms  and 
clothes  him. 


She  sits  with  him 
and  Melior  at  the 
window  looking 
out  on  the  park. 

The  werwolf 
appears,  and 
[Fol.  66.] 
holds  up  his 
fore  feet  as  in 
supplication,  and 
goes  his  way. 


The  queen  asks 
what  he  means. 


114 


THE   QUEEN    TELLS    HOW    SHE    LOST    HER    SON. 


-; 


William  says  it  is 
a  good  sign. 


The  queen  tells 
her  story— how 
she  had  a  son 
named  William, 


who,  when  4  years 
old,  was  playing 
in  the  park, 


when  a  werwolf 
caught  him  up 
and  ran  off  with 
him. 


The  king  and 
his  men  pursued 
him  over  mires 
and  mountains, 
but  in  vain. 

The  werwolf  leapt 
into  the  sea,  and 
was  seen  no 
more. 


It  bi-toknef  gret  god  •  fat  greif  li  schal  vs  falle."    3492 
"  30,  3if  cn'st  wol,"  quod  f  e  quen  •  "  [fat]  l  on  croyce 

deied ; 

but,  sire,  whan  i  se  fat  "best  •  fat  f o  signes  made, 
a  sorwe  sinkef  to  mi  hert  •  i  schal  ^ou  telle  whi. 
sum  time,  sire,  here-to-fore  •  a  semli  sone  i  hadde,  349ft 
fat  was  hote  wilKam  •  i-wisse,  as  }e  arn. 
feif li  whan  fat  faire  child  •  was  of  foure  $er  eld, 
as  my  lord  and  i  •  and  of  er  ludes  many, 
plei3ed  vs  her  in  f  e  park  •  in  place  f  er  i  3ou  fond,  3500 
for  al  f  e  world  swiche  a  wolf  •  as  we  here  sei3en, 
It  semeth  ri}t  fat  selue  •  bi  semblant  &  bi  hewe, 
com  gapind  a  gret  pace  •  &  cau3t  vp  mi  sone, 
ri$t  bi-fore  his  fader  •  and  of  er  frakes  manye,         3504 
&  went  awey  with  him  •  so  wonderli  fast. 
My  lord  &  many  a-nof  er  *  manliche  him  sewed 
ouer  mires  &  muwtaynes  •  &  of  er  wicked  wei3es ; 
at  f  e  last  f  ei  him  left  •  for  mi^th  fat  f  ei  couf  e.      350& 
forf  with  my  sone  in-to  f  e  see  •  fat  scri  best  leped, 
so  fat  i  herde  hider-to  •  neuer  of  him  more. 
&  certes,  sire,  for  fat  sone  •  i  hade  gret  sorwe, 
whan  i  fenk  on  fat  sorwe  •  it  firles  my  hert."        3512" 


William 
remembers  how 
he  was  found  by 
the  cowherd, 


but  reflects  that 
the  queen  said 
her  son  was 
drowned. 

[Fol.SGfc.] 
He  tells  her  he 
will  stand  in  her 
son's  stead. 


She  thanks  him, 
and  gives  him 
fall  powers. 


TTTilKam  was  in  a  wer  •  fat  it  were  him-selue. 

how  f  e  couherd   fe  king  told  •   it  cam  him  in 

minde, 

fat  he  him  fond  in  f  e  forest  •  in  faire  riche  clofes.  3515 
but  sche  seide  fat  hire  sone  •  was  in  f  e  see  dronked, 
&  f  e  wolf  also  *  fat  him  a-wei  bare, 
f  e  f  roli  f  0113!  fat  liim  meued  •  f  er-of  fat  ilk  time 
sone  he  let  ouer-slide  •  &  seide  to  fe  queue,  351{> 

fat  sche  schuld  make  hire  merie  •  hire  meyne  to  glade, 
&  he  wold  in  hire  sones  stede  •  stand  euer  at  nede. 
sche  ful  godli  gan  him  f  onke  •  &  gaf  him  hoi  mijth, 
to  meyntene  al  hire  god  *  as  maister  in  his  owne. 
1  Read  "  the  quen,  that  on  croyce  deied."— M. 


THE    PRINCE    OF   SPAIN    VOWS   REVENGE. 


115 


fan  talked  f  ei  of  of  er  tales  •  til  time  were  to  soupe, 

&  were  serued  bi  ese  •  as  hem-self  wold,  3525 

&  so  driuerc  forth  f  e  day  .  til  f  e  derke  ni3t, 

with  al  f  e  mirthe  vp07^  mold  •  fat  man  n^th  deuise. 

f  is  lessouw  let  we  of  hem  '  &  lest  en  we  a-nof  er  ;     3528 

of  f  e  spaynolus  wol  i  speke  •  how  spacli  f  ei  fled ;   <JM 

f  ilke  fat  went  with  f  e  lif  •  a-wei  fro  fat  sthoure,  A 

spakli  to  f e  king  of  spayne  •  f ei  sped  hem  fat  time, 

&  seide  to  him  &  his  sone  •  f  e  cas  fat  was  falle,     3532 

which  a  kni^t  com  hem  a-^enis  •  conquered  alle  of  er, 

so  sterne  he  was  &  stoute  •  &  swiche  st[r]okes  lent ; 

was  now  so  stif  stelen  wede  •  fat  with-stod  his  wepen  ; 

&  how  he  in  f  e  stour  •  f  e  stoute  stiward  slow,        3536 

and  his  nobul  neuew  •  a-non  ri^t  f  er-after ; 

&  bede  wi^tli  hem  awreke  •  of  f  e  wicked  harme, 

or  alle  mew  vpow  mold  •  mi^th  hem  schame  speke ; 

so  fele  of  here  frendes  *  in  f  e  feld  were  slayne,        3540 

fat  it  was  a  sorful  sijt  *  to  se  how  it  ferde. 

whan  f  e  king  &  his  cowseil  •  herde  of  f  is  cas, 

a  selcouf  sorwe  he  made  •  &  his  sone  als, 

fat  was  a  ful  kud  f n^t  •  &  kene  ma?z  in  armes.      3544 

he  was  wod  of  his  wit  •  for  wraf  f  e  of  fat  dede, 

&  praised  prestili  f  is  poynt  •  anon  of  his  fader, 

fat  he  most  on  f  e  morwe  •  with  a  mi^thi  ost 

wende  to  a-wrek  hem  •  of  fat  wicked  dede.  3548 

&  }if  he  mette  with  fat  kni^t  •  fat  is  so  mi^thi  hold, 

he  swor  sadli  is  of  •  as  tit  to  his  fader, 

fat  he  fro  f  e  bodi  •  [wold]  l  haue  his  hed  sone, 

of  er  tit  take  him  a-liue  •  no  ^ain-torn  schuld  lette.  3552 

f  er-of  f  e  king  was  geynli  glad  •  &  grauwted  his  wille, 

bad  him  worche  whan  he  wold  •  &  wend  whan  him 

liked. 

f  e  kinges  sone  aswif  e  •  let  sembul  miche  puple, 
&  triced  him  to  a  tidi  ost  •  of  f  e  tide3ist  burnes,     3556 
fat  he  mi^th  in  f  e  mene  time  •  in  any  maner  gadere. 

i  Read  "fro  the  bodi  wold  haue,"— M. 
8  * 


They  sup  and 
make  merry  till 
nightfall. 


The  Spaniards 
who  fled  told  the 
king  of  Spain  and 
his  son  of 
William's 
prowess; 


and  how  he  had 
slain  the  steward 
and  his  nephew, 
whom  the  king 
ought  to  avenge. 


The  king's  son 
begs  his  father 
that  he  may  lead 
a  host  to 
avenge 
themselves. 


He  swears  to 
have  William's 
head,  or  to  take 
him  alive. 


[Fol.  57.] 


He  gets  a  host 
together, 


116  HE  GETS  TOGETHER  A  HOST  AGAINST  WILLIAM. 

Manli  on  f  e  morwe  •  he  dede  his  mew  greif  e 
Gaili  as  gomes  mi^t  be  •  in  alle  gode  armes  ; 

and  takes  the        faire  fan  with  his  folk  •  to  f  e  feld  he  went  3560 

morrow.  *  bi-fore  boldli  him-self  •  his  batailes  to  araie. 
alle  his  burnes  bliue  •  in  x  batailes  he  sett, 
as  redili  arai^ed  •  as  any  rink  fort  wilne. 

He  has  s,ooo  men.  &  iij.  M.  fro  men  •  in  his  eschel  were,  3564 

&  alle  bold  burnes  •  in  batailes  strong  &  bigge. 
f  e  kinges  sone  fan  seide  •  to  his  segges  bold, 

He  asks  MS  lords    "  Leue  lordinges,  for  mi  loue  •  lelli  me  telles,          3567 
}if  i  encouwtre  with  f  is  kni^t  •  fat  f  is  kare  worchef , 
how  schal  i  him  knowe  •  what  konichauws  here  he 
bere  1 " 

A  knight  says  he    "  sertes,  sere,"  seide  a  kni^t  •  "  so  me  wel  time, 

fat  kud  kni}t  is  eth  to  knowe  •  by  his  kene  dedes, 

&  bereth  in  his  blasoim  •  of  a  brit  hewe  3572 

a  wel  huge  werwolf  •  wonderli  depeinted  ; 

fat  man  driues  a-douw  •  to  dethe,  fat  [he]  hittes." 

The  king's  eon      "  sone  it  schal  be  sene  "  •  seide  f  e  kinges  sone, 

be^een  whoTs011     "  whefer  of  vs  be  wi}ttere  •  to  winne  or  to  lese."    3576 

strongest. 

"YTow  wol  i  a  while  •  of  willmm  here  telle, 
William's  men,      -^   in  what  maner  on  f  e  morwe  •  is  men  were  araid, 

on  the  morrow,         ,   , .        , .      ,  ,    .        ... 

are  well  arrayed,    deliuerli  at  f  e  dai  •  di^t  f  ei  were  alle, 

treuli  in  al  atir  •  fat  to  werre  longed.  3580 

He  divides  them    &  william  ful  wi3tthli  •  as  he  wel  couf  e, 
set  alle  his  segges  *  as  f  ei  schuld  bene, 
In  sexe  semli  batailes  *  as  fei  schuld  bene  ;l 
al  be-fore  in  f  e  frond  *  he  ferde  fan  him-selue.        3584 

His  horse's  name    ebrouws  saurcdbruel  •  so  Imt  his  blonk  nobul. 

wasEbrouns' 

saundbruei.          &  as  sone  as  f  e  kinges  sone  •  saw  him  so  come, 
The  prince's  men   fast  he  freyned  at  his  folk  *  what  freke  fat  it  were, 

polrtMt  William   &  ^  geide  ful  gone  .  u  for  SQ^  .t  ig  ^  kni^^          358g 

fat  haf  wrou3t  al  f  is  wo  •  wel  ou^t  we  him  hate ; 

1  The  last  half  of  this  line  is  clearly  copied  from  the  line 
before. 


WILLIAM    DEFEATS    THE   PRINCE   OF    SPAIN, 


117 


alle  lie  dimes  to  fe  deth  •  fat  his  dint  feles." 

]>e  kinges  sone  forsoj>e  •  ne  seide  f  o  na  more, 

but  gart  his  [stede]  !  goo  *  and  strei^et  to  him  rides 

with  his  spere  on  feuter  •  festened  fat  time.  3593 

whan  wiLU'am  was  war  •  &  wist  of  his  come, 

his  men  seiden  sone  •  it  was  f  e  kinges  sone, 

&  dou^thi  man  &  deliuer  •  in  dedes  of  armes.          3596 

"  lat  me  worf ,"  quaf  wilKam  *  "  fat  schal  i  wite  sone 

In  feif  f  ou^h  he  hade  fors  •  of  foure  swiche  of  er, 

I  wol  fond  with  him  fi$t  •  f  ou^h  me  tide  f  e  worse." 

he  dede  fen  his  stef  stede  •  stert  a  god  spede,         3600 

to  f  e  kene  kinges  [sone]  2  *  fat  was  a  kni^t  nobul. 

so  kenli  f  ei  a-cimtred  •  at  f  e  coupyng  to-gadere, 

fat  f  e  kni^t  spere  in  speldes  *  alto-schiuered. 

ac  wilKams  spere  was  stef  •  wittow  for  sof  e,  3604 

&  mette  fat  of  er  man  •  in  f  e  midde  scheld, 

fat  bof e  him  &  his  hors  •  he  hurles  to  grouwde ; 

&  nei}  hade  broke  his  bak  *  so  his  blonk  him  hirt. 

william  fan  wijtli  •  be  f  e  auentayle  him  hent,        3608 

to  haue  with  his  swerd  •  swapped  of  his  hed  ;  3 

but  f  e  segges  of  spayne  •  soujt  to  him 4  ^erne, 

to  haue  holpen  here  lord  •  hastili  }if  f  ei  mijt ; 

&  williams  wi^es  wi^itli  '  went  hem  a^ens.  3612 

f  o  bi-gan  fat  batayle  •  on  bof  e  sides  harde, 

feller  saw  neuer  frek  •  from  adam  to  f  is  time  ; 

sone  was  mani  bold  barn  •  brou^t  f  er  to  ground, 

Mani  scheldes  schiuered  •  &  mani  helmes  hewen,    3616 

&  many  a  stif  stede  •  strai3ed  in  fere  blode. 

bold  burnes  of  bodies  *  fere  were  on  bof  e  sides, 

fat  fayn  were  forto  fijt  •  &  to  fle  hated. 

but  wilKam  so  wonder  wel  •  fau^t  fat  ilke  time,     3620 

1  Read  "gart  his  stede  goo." — M. 

2  Read  "the  kene  kinges  sone  that  was." — M. 

3  The  MS.  apparently  has  "  heued,"  altered  to  "  heade."     See 
1.  3864. 

*  MS.  «  him  to  }erne;"  and  "to"  is  altered  to  "so"  by  a 
later  hand. 


The  prince  rides 
at  William, 


w  ho  is  told  it  is 
the  prince  who 
is  coming. 


William  says  he 
will  fight  him,- 


and  rides  to 
meet  him. 


The  prince's  spear 
breaks, 

bat  William's 
strikes  the  prince 
fairly,  hurling 
horse  and  man  to 
the  ground. 


William  is  going 
to  "  swap  "  off 
his  head, 


but  the  Spaniards 
come  to  the 
rescue. 

A  general  battle 
ensues,  very 
severe  and  deadly- 


[Pol.  58.] 


118 


TAKES    HIM   PRISONER,   AND    RETREATS. 


William  fights 
boldly,  and 
prevents  the 
rescue  of  the 
prince, 


whom  he  drags 
outofthem^e, 


and  assigns  to 
some  citizens  to 
keep. 


The  Spaniards 
again  attempt  a 
rescue,  a  fresh 
host  coming  oat 
of  ambush. 


William  keeps  up 
his  men's 
courage, 


but  perceives  that 
the  enemies  are 
too  numerous ; 

\riik 

'-W    l 

J      wherefore  he 
sjfl^          orders  a  retreat 
to  the  town. 


His  men  are 
successful  in 
bringing  the 
prince  with  them. 

Yeomen  shut  the 
gates  and  man 
the  walls. 


fat  no  man  fat  he  hit  •  mi^th  him  with-stonde, 

&  euer  kept  jje  kinges  l  sone  •  frara  al  his  kene  meyne, 

fat  non  rni^t  him  winne  a-wei  •  for  worse  ne  for  beter. 

&  were  hem  lef  of  er  lof  •  wilham  at  last  3624 

keuered  with  f  e  kinges  sone  •  out  of  f  e  kene  prese, 

&  brou^t  him  out  on  his  blonk  •  of  fat  batayle  sterne, 

&  a-signed  of  citesens  •  segges  i-nowe,  3627 

to  kepe  wel  f  e  kinges  sone  •  til  f  ei  come  to  towne ; 

&  f  ei  were  blif  e  of  fat  bode  •  &  bisiliche  fondede 

fast  to  ferke  him  forf  ward  •  as  f  ei  faire  mi^t. 

whan  f  e  spaynols  fat  a-spied  •  spakli  f  ei  him  folwed, 

and  deden  al  fe  duresse  •  fat  f  ei  do  mijt.  3632 

a  fersche  ost  hem  to  help  *  hastili  f  er  come, 

fat  was  a-buschid  f  er  bi-side  •  in  a  brent  greue. 

but  whan  wilKam  was  war  •  &  wist  of  here  come, 

Manly  he  demeyned  him  •  to  make  his  men  egre,  3636 

bad  hem  alle  be  bold  •  &  busiliche  fi^t, 

for  here  fon  gun  feynte  •  &  felde  were  manye. 

f  e  kinde  cowfort  of  f  e  kni^t  •  to  is  folk  fat  he  made,2 

were  als  fresch  forto  fi$t  •  as  f  ei  were  on  morwe.     3640 

but  willmm  say  f  er  of  er  side  *  so  fers  &  so  breme, 

fat  his  men  mi^t  nou}t  •  meyntene  here  owne, 

prestli  to  hold  partjrj  to  puple  fat  hem  folwed. 

for-f  i  he  dede  hem  deliuerli  *  drawe  toward  towne,  3644 

&  kepten  wel  f  e  kinges  [sone]  3  •  for  cas  fat  nii^t 

falle, 

for  ou^t  fat  here 4  enimys  •  euer  worche  mi^t. 
f  ei  keuered  with  clene  strengf  e  •  with  him  to  towne, 
&  f  e  segges  of  f  e  cite  *  but  f  o  fat  slayn  were.        3648 
&  ^epli  ^omew  fan  dede  •  f  e  $ates  schette, 
&  wi^ttili  fan  went  *  f  e  walles  forto  fende, 
so  fat  feif  li  of  here  fon  •  no  fors  f  ei  ne  leten. 


1  MS.  "  kenges."     But  see  11.  3591,  3601,  3625. 

2  A  line  lost  (?) 

'  Read  "  the  kinges  sone  for  cas."— M.    See  11.  3601,  3625. 
4  The  MS.  repeats  the  words  fat  here. 


THE   QUEEN    THINKS   WILLIAM    IS   HER    SON. 


119 


"\T7ilKain  with  his  wie^es  *  is  wif-in  f  e  cite  nobul, 

ha]?  conquered  wif  clene  strengf  e  •  f  e  kinges  sone 

of  spayne, 

<fe  passe))  with  him  &  his  puple  •  to  f  e  paleys  euen, 
with  al  mirth  vpora  molde  •  fat  man  mi3t  deuise. 
f  e  quen  him  mett  mekli  •  wif  maidenes  fele,  3656 

<fe  meliors  &  here  dere  doubter  •  to  deme  f  e  sof  e, 
wif  alle  worschip  &  wele  •  willmm  )jei  receyued, 
•wif  clipping  &  kesseng  •  &  alle  couf  e  dedes. 
&  wilKam  fan  wi^tly  •  wif-oute  eny  more,  3660 

f  e  kinges  sone  of  spayne  *  spakli  to  hire  3alde, 
to  putte  in  hire  prisorw  •  &  peyne  him  as  hire  liked. 
&  curtesli  to  fat  kni^t  •  gan  sche  knele  f  anne, 
forto  f  onk  him  f  roli  •  of  fat  faire  jeft ;  ,3664 

for  he  was  mara  vpon  molde  *  fat  sche  most  hated, 
&  hade  hir  do  most  duresse  •  for  hire  doubter  sake, 
hastili  in-to  f e  halle  •  wif  hem  fan  sche  went, 
•&  ladde  wilh'am  as  lord  •  loueli  in  londe ;  3668 

&  as  bliue  f  e  btirdes  •  brou^t  him  to  hire  chaumber, 
.&  vn-armed  him  anon  •  &  after-ward  him  clofed       y  / 
a,s  komly  as  any  kni^t  •  vnder  cn'st  fort  bene.  x^"*/ 
eef  en  3ede  to  sitte  same  •  to  solas  &  to  pleie  3672 

at  a  wid  windowe  •  fat  was  in  f  e  chaumber, 
&  gonne  mekli  to  mene  •  of  many  gode  wordes. 
&  as  f ei  saddest  in  here  solas  •  seten  fat  time, 
f  e  quen  hertli  gan  bi-hold  •  f  e  kene  3onge  kni3t,    3676 
&  here  f  ou3t  fat  time  •  fat  in  f  e  world  was  neuer 
a  liuande  lud  •  so  lelli  liche  of  er, 
as  fat  komli  kni3t  •  to  f  e  king  ebrouws, 
fat  was  lord  whil  he  liued  •  &  fat  lor[d]chipe  welte.  3680 
&  swiche  a  sorwe  to  hire  sone  •  sank  to  herte, 
jjat  wi^tli  gan  sche  wepe  •  wonderly  sore, 
whan  wilh'am  saw  hire  wepe  *  wrof  li  he  seide,       3683 
"  for  seynt  mary  loue,  madame  •  whi  make  30  f  is  sorwe  ? 
^e  schuld  now  make  3ow  merie  *  3our  mene  to  glade, 
fat  feynt  ar  for-fouten  •  .in  feld  &  for-wouwded. 


William  takes  the  \ 
king  of  Spain's 
son  to  the  queen's  > 
palace, 

[Fol.  58  &.]      N 


and  delivers  Mm 
over  to  the  queen. 


The  queen  thanks 
William  heartily. 


The  ladies  unarm 
and  clothe  him. 


As  they  sit 
together  in  a 
window, 


the  queen  sees 
how  very  like 

William  is  to 
king  Ebrouns, 


and  she  begins 
to  weep. 


William  says  she 
ought  rather  to 
rejoice, 


120  WILLIAM    SAYS   HER   SON    IS    SURELY    DEAD. 


since  her  enemies    to  SUWme  schuld  36  }!£  nOW  '  ^iftes  ful  gode,1 

[Foi.  59.]        &  to  surame  by-hote  •  J>e  blifer  hem  to  make.         3688 
Mater  now  haue  30  •  moche  mirie  to  bene  ; 
^e  han  now  on  in  hold  *  furth  him  haue  36  schulle 
wel  3our  worchep  a-^ein  •  as  30  wait  euer." 

The  queen  excuses  d  THorsofe,  sire,"  sede  Jje  quen  •  "  ^e  seyn  al  be  treube  ; 

n6r86lij 

•••    36  make  me  mater  i-now  •  mirye  to  bene.        3693 
I  wot  for  i  so  wept  •  i  wroi^t  nou^t  J>e  best, 
but  i  nujt  nou3t  fer-with  •  i-wisse,  sire,  &  treuf  e, 
so  froli  a  sori  fou3t  •  Jnrled  min  hert,"—  3696 

telling  him  the      &  so])li  whi  it  was  •  be  encheson  him  seide, 

reason  of  her  f 

sorrow,  how  hire  jxra^t  he  was  liche  •  hire  lord  fe  king  fanne, 

&  hou  fe  sorwe  of  hire  sone  •  dede  hire  so  to  wepe. 
fan  sede  willmm  wi3tli  •  Jjese  wordes  to  hire-selue,  3700 

wniiam  tells  her    «  Madame,  of  bat  mater  •  no  more  now  binkes  : 

to  think  no  more 

of  it,  since  both     what  be  ae  now  be  beter  •  so  bitterli  to  wepe. 

her  husband  and  .'.«.. 

son  are  dead,        se})])e  bo]?e  J)i  su*e  &  ])i  sone  •  am  bojje  dede  ? 

Jjei3h  30  dri3en  swiche  duel  *  al  3our  lif  dawes,        3704 
and  will  never       39  gete  hem  neuer  a-gayn  •  late  god  haue  be  saules, 

come  to  life  again.   * 

&  make  3our-self  mirie  *  3our  mene  forto  glade." 
J>an  wax  fe  quen  ful  wo  •  wittow  for  sofe, 
fat  willi'am  sede  )>at  hire  sone  •  schuld  be  dede,     3708 
Still  the  queen's     for  hire  hert  bar  hire  euer  •  J?at  he  hire  sone  schuld  bene, 
is  her  son.  ei    '    bi  knowing  of  alle  kontenau/ice  •  Jjat  fe  king  welt. 
but  of  J)at  mater  no  more  •  minged  J>ei  fat  time, 
ac  turned  in-to  ojjer  tales  •  jjat  touched  to  mirth.    3712 
&  waitende  2  out  at  ]>e  window  •  as  J?ei  in  tales  were, 
Looking  out,  they  fan  fei  seie  fe  werwolf  •  was  com  hem  bi-fore, 
Jtofawetoand'     Kortesliche  kneling  •  as  he  in  wise  coufe, 

bow^and  goes        &  louted  ^  ^  ^^  .  &  to  ^  lord  alse> 

buxumli  as  any  best  •  bi  any  resoun  schuld, 
&  seffen  went  his  wei  •  whider  him  god  liked. 
fe  quen  wi3tli  to  wilKam  •  fese  wordes  sede, 

1  Catchword,  "  &  to  summe  by." 

2  MS.  "  waidende."     Bead  "  waitende."—  M. 


THE   KING   OF    SPAIN    VOWS    REVENGE. 


121 


3720   The  queen  hopes 
it  is  a  good 
omen. 


[Pol.  59  6.] 


"  sire,  a  selcouf  si3t  it  is  •  of  f  is  semli  best ; 

Loo,  how  loueli  it  a-louted  •  lowe  to  vs  twi3es, 

It  bi-tokenes  sum-what  treuli  •  god  turne  it  to  gode  ! " 

"  3a,  i-wisse,"  seide  wilh'am  •  "  wene  36  non  of  er, 

for  fat  blessed  best  •  neuer  boded  but  gode.  3724  good. 

he  fat  heried  helle  *  fram  harm  him  saue  ! " 

"  amerc,"  seiden  alle  •  fat  fere  with  him  seten. 

f  us  driue  f  ei  forf  f  e  day  •  with  diuerse  mirthe, 

&  treuli  whan  it  was  time  •  turned  to  mete,  3728  They  go  to  meat. 

&  serued  were  of  serues  *  as  hem-self  liked  ; 

but  speke  we  of  f  e  spaynols  •  what  hem  tidde  after. 


Sone  as  f  e  kinges  sone  •  was  to  J>e  cite  take, 
fat  his  mi3ti  men  •  mijt  no  more  him  help,      3732 
f  er  was  a  selcouf  sorwe  •  a-mang  f  e  segges  maked, 
&  karfulli  to  f  e  king  •  f  ei  kayred  a^ayne, 
&  told  him  holli  here  tene  •  how  his  sone  was  take, 
&  how  here  segges  were  slayn  *  a  selcouf  noumber.  3736 
whan  f  e  king  wist  •  as  man  wod  he  ferde, 
&  wrof  li  to  his  wi3es  *  fat  fere  were  he  seide, 
"  whi  suffred  36  my  sone  *  so  sone  to  be  take  1 
36  schul  hastli  be  honged  •  &  with  hors  to-drawe !"   3740 
&  derai3ed  him  for  fat  dede  *  as  alle  deie  schulde. 
but  kni3tes  of  his  curcseil  *  com  til  him  sone, 
&  saide  him  soburli  *  so  mi3t  he  nou3t  worche, 
for  a  kni3t  him  c<wquerede  •  al  with  clene  strengf  e, 
&  hade  him  out  of  f  e  ost  •  mawgrey  hem  alle.        3745 
"  o  knijt,"  qwfy  ]>e  king  '  "  w^at  kemp  is  fat  ilke, 
fat  wan  so  on  my  sone  •  is  he  so  dou3ti  1 " 
"  30  forsof  e,"  seid  on  •  "  sire,  with  3our  leue,          3748 
f  er  mai  no  man  vpo?i  mold  •  a3ens  fat  man  stond. 
he  driuef  to  dethe  *  who-so  his  dent  cacchef , 
his  dou^ti  dedes  vs  dof  •  more  duresse  fan  alle  of  er ; 
he  it  is  fat  fe  werwolf  •  weldes  in  his  scheld."       3752 
"I  mak  a  vow,"  quod  fe  king  •  "  to  cn'st  fat  al  weldes, 
er  i  ete  more  mete  •  his  nu^t  wol  i  a-saie ; 


Great  is  the 
sorrow  of  the 
Spaniards 
because  their 
king's  son  is 
taken. 


The  king  is  very 
angry,  and  asks 
how  they  dared 
permit  it, 


threatening  to 
hang  them. 

But  his  lords 
said  it  was  owing 
to  a  certain 
knight's  prowess. 


"What  Pone 
knight's  ?  "  said 
the  king. 


"Yes,"  they 
reply,  "  the  one 
with  the  werwolf 
on  his  shield." 


The  king  vows  h» 
will  prove  his 
mettle  ere  he  eats- 


122 


HE   SETS    HIS   MEN    IN    BATTLE-ARRAY. 


[Fol.  60.] 

«  Ha  shall  be 
hanged  before  the 
city-gate, 
and  the  city  shall 
be  burnt." 


His  men  are  to 
fce  ready  on  the 
morrow. 


&  3if  any  egge  tol  wol  entre  •  in-to  his  bodi, 

I  wol  do  him  to  f  e  deth  *  and  more  despit  ouere ;  3756 

he  schal  hei3e  be  honged  •  ri3t  bi-fore  hire  ^ate,   * 

fat  alle  f  e  segges  of  f  e  cite  •  schulle  him  bi-hold, 

&  sef f en  wol  i  fat  cite  •  setten  al  on  fure, 

&  do  bruten  alle  fe  burnes  •  fat  be  now  f  er-inne ;  3760 

schal  no  gom  vnder  god  *  of  er  gate  it  make." 

J>an  komauwded  f  e  king  •  to  do  krie  as  swif  e, 

fat  alle  his  rinkes  schuld  be  redi  •  113 1  erli  on  morwe, 

armed  at  alle  poyntes  •  as  J>ei  no  wold  be  spilt,      3764 

&  hasteli  was  his  hest  •  fan  hendli  fulfilled. 


F 


ul  manlich  on  f  e  morwe  •  were  his  men  greif  ed, 
of  bold  mewnis  bodiesse  •  a  ful  breme  ost. 


The  Spaniards 
are  armed,  and 
come  down  to  the 
plain. 


They  find  there 
500  bodies  of 
their  comrades. 


The  bodies  are 
•borne  away  to 
the  tents,  to  be 
buried  later. 


The  king  sets  his 
men  in  three 
battalions, 


of  2000  men  each. 


3768 


3772 


3776 


Gailier  greif  ed  *  were  neuer  gomes  seie, 

of  alle  maner  armure  •  fat  to  werre  longed. 

fan  passed  f e  spaynols  •  in-to  a  faire  plaine, 

f  er  as  f  e  breme  bataile  •  was  on  f  e  day  bi-fore. 

fere  fan  foiwde  f  ei  fele  •  of  here  frendes  slayne, 

Mo  fan  fiue  hundred  *  of  nobul  frekes  holde. 

f  e  king  fan  for  fat  kas  *  was  karful  in  hert, 

&  moche  sorwe  was  sone  •  for  fat  si3t  maked. 

but  fan  bad  f  e  king  bliue  •  f  e  bodies  take 

of  alle  f  e  gomes  of  gode  *  &  greif  li  hem  bere 

til  f  e  tentis,  til  f  ei  mi3t  haue  *  torn  hem  to  berie  ; 

&  deliuerli  in  dede  •  was  don  al  his  hest. 

f  e  king  fan  treuli  •  in  f  re  batayles  sturne  3780 

faire  dede  sette  his  folk  •  fast  as  he  im*3t, 

In  as  real  aray  •  as  rink  schold  deuise.  /^ 

f  er  were  in  eche  bataile  •  of  burnes  tvo  f  ousand,     J^U  >  ^ 

armed  at  alle  pointes  •  and  auenantli  horsed,          3784 

In  eche  eschel  stifli  set  •  f  er  f  ei  stonde  schold. 

now  of  wilh'am  &  his  wi3es  •  a-non  wol  i  telle. 


William  und  his 
men  issue  out  of 
the  dty, 


TITillmm  &  his  wi3es  •  were  armed  wel  sone, 
'    as  semli  to  si3t  •  as  any  segges  f  urte, 


3788 


WILLIAM   EXHORTS   HIS   MEN  TO    FIGHT. 


123 


&  soffcli  Iced  out  of  pe  cite  •  whan  pei  seie  time. 

wilham  went  al  bi-fore  •  as  wis  man  &  nobul, 

&  ordeyned  anon  his  ost  •  in  pre  grete  parties, 

&  sett  of l  bolde  burnes  •  in  eche  bataile  seuene  hundred, 

of  clene  kni^tes  armed  •  &  o]>er  kete  burnes,  /  -   "    3793 

<fe  spak  spakli  pese  wordes  •  pe  spaynols  whan  he  seie  : — 

"  Lo,  lordinges,"  sede  wilh'am  •  "  wich  a  loueli  aty 

here  bi-fore  vs  of  our  fon  •  of  ferche  men  &  bold !  3796 

Jjer  is  holli  al  here  ost  •  now  beth  of  hertes  gode, 

&  we  schul  wel  pis  day  •  pis  werre  bring  to  ende 

-onliche  3ourh  2  godes  grace  •  &  3our  gode  dede. 

Jjou^h  per  be  mani  mo  pan  36  *  dismaie  }e  nou^t  perfore, 

God  wol  vs  ay  rescue  •  &  with  pe  ri$t  stonde  ;       3801 

Go  we  to  hem  on  godes  name  •  with  a  god  wille. 

<fe  i  mow  come  bi  pe  king  *  bi  cn'st,  as  ich  hope, 

he  schal  sone  per-after  •  to  his  sone  wende,  3804 

to  soiorne  in  pe  cite  •  pat  he  hap  seged  3ore. 

per-for,  frendes  &  felawes  •  for  him  pat  3ou  bou3t, 

dop  3our  dede  to-day  •  as  dou^ti  men  schulle, 

&  gret  worchipe  schul  36  winne  •  whil  pis  world  lastep." 

In  jjis  wise  william  *  his  wi3es  pan  cumforted,        3809 

pat  pei  hent  swiche  herte  *  as  hardi  men  schuld. 

pan  aswipe  pei  sembled  •  [eiper  ost]3  to-gader, 

•&  alle  maner  menstracie  •  maked  was  sone  3812 

of  tabours  &  trumpes  •  no?^  mijt  pe  number  telle. 

&  eiper  ost  as  swipe  •  fast  ascried  oper, 

&  a-sembleden  swipe  sternli  •  eiper  ost  to-gader, 

Gretand  oper  gn'mli  •  with  scharpe  grourade  speres.  3816 

Mani  a  bold  burn  •  was  sone  brou3t  of  dawe, 

&  many  a  stef  stede  •  stiked  pere  to  dethe, 

no  man  vpow  mold  •  mi^t  ayme  pe  number 

of  wi3es  pat  in  a  while  •  were  slayn  on  bope  side.  3820 

but  wilHam  as  a  wod  marc  •  was  euer  here  &  pere, 

&  leide  on  swiche  liuere  •  leue  me  forsope, 


[Fol.  60  6.] 

ordering  his  men 
in  three 
companies,  of 
700  each. 


He  addresses 
them,  saying, 
"  See  what  a 
lovely  sight  of 
oar  foes  is  here ! 

We  shall  end  the 
war  to-day. 


God  will  defend 
the  right. 


I  will  imprison 
the  king  with  his 


Do  doughty  deeds 
to-day." 


Tahours  and 
trumps  aro 
sounded. 


The  hosts 
encounter. 


Numberless  men 
and  horses  are 
slain. 


William  is  here 
and  there. 


IMS.  «ob.' 


2  Sic.     Read  "  Jnirh ;"  see  note. 
3  See  1.  3815. 


124 


THE    PROWESS    OF   MELIADUS   THE    SPANIARD. 


[Fol.  61.] 
At  first, 
William's  men 
give  way. 

He  rallies  them, 
and  they  fight 
better  than  ever. 


fat  his  dales  were  don  •  fat  of  him  hent  a  dent. 
)>e  king  of  spaine  &  his  kni^tes  •  so  kenli  hem  here, 
&  so  fresli  gon  fi^te  •  fat  at  f  e  first  a-saute,  3825 

fat  fele  of  wilh'ams  frekes  •  gon  to  fle  3  erne, 
whan  wilk'am.  was  war  •  wijtli  he  hem  a-schri^ed,   &* 
&  cuwfort  hem  craftli  •  with  his  kinde  speche,       3828 
fat  f ei  tit  a^en  turned  •  to  telle  f e  sof e, 
&  here  hem  wel  beter  •  fen  f  ei  bi-fore  hade. 


The  king  asks, 
"  Where  is  he 
that  bears  the 
wolf  on  his 
shield  ? 


I  will  hunt  him 
as  a  hound  hunts 
a  werwolf. 


Whoever  brings 
him  to  me  shall 
be  my  chief 
steward." 

The  son  of  the 
constable  of 
Spain, 


named  Meliadus, 


bursts  into  the 
thick  of  the  fight, 


slaying  six  lords, 
and  wounding  a 
seventh. 

William 
encounters  him. 


Their  spears  fly 
into  splinters, 
and  they  swing 
their  swords. 


king  of  spayne  gan  crie  *  keneli  &  schille, 
"  war  be  he  fat  f  e  wolf  •  weldes  in  his  scheld,  3832 
fat  haf  murf  ered  mi  men  •  &  swiche  harm  wrou^t  ? 
Mi^t  i  now  haue  hap  •  him  ones  to  sene, 
I  wold  him  hunte  as  hard  •  as  euer  hounde  in  erthe 
honted  eny  werwolf  *  but  wel  he  his  ware  3836 

fat  i  so  many  hondes  •  haue  on  him  vn-coupled, 
fat  he  for  alle  his  dou^ti  dedes  •  dar  him  nou^t  schewe. 
but  what  man  vpow  molde  •  so  may  him  me  bring, 
I  schal  riuedli  him  rewarde  •  to  be  riche  for  euer,  3840 
&  mak  him  my  chef  stiward  •  to  stwtli  alle  my  godes/'/ 
fan  was  f  er  a  kud  kni^t  •  f  e  cuwstables  sone  of  spayne, 
come  wel  f  re  daies  bi-fore  •  f  e  king  for  to  help, 
an  .c.  kene  kni^ttes  •  in  cumpanie  he  brou^t,          3844 
&  him-self  a  bold  burn  •  f  e  best  of  hem  alle, 
&  meliadus  of  mi^ti  men  •  f  e  kni^t  was  called, 
whan  he  f  e  kinges  cry  •  clenli  hadde  herde, 
as  bliue  with  his  burnes  •  he  braide  in-to  prese,      3848 
&  demened  him  dou^tili  •  with  dentes  ful 1  rude, 
he  slow  of  f  e  cite^ens  *  in  a  schort  while, 
six  grete  lordes  •  and  f  e  seuenf  e  nere. 
whan  wilKam  was  war  •  of  his  dou^ti  dedes,  3852 

deliuerly  as  a  dou^ti  man  •  he  drow  to  him  euen, 
Grimli  eif  er  of  er  gret  •  whan  f  ei  gonne  mete, 
so  spakli  here  speres  •  al  on  speldes  went. 
&  swiftli  sef  f  e  with  swerdes  •  swonge  f  ei  to-gider,  3856 

1  Over /«;(?)  erased,  full  is  written  in  a  later  hand. 


WILLIAM    ATTACKS    AND    SLAYS    MELIADUS. 


125 


fat  many  were  a-meruailed  •  of  here  dou}ti  dedes. 

&  f  is  nii3ti  meliadus  •  in  fat  meling  while 

a  sturne  strok  set  wilKam  •  on  his  stelen  helm, 

&  wounded  him  wickedli  *  wittow  forsof  e.  3860 

whan  f  is  bold  william  *  saw  his  blod  so  breme, 

li^t  as  a  lyowi  '  he  leide  on  al  a-boute, 

&  marked  fat  meliadus  •  with  mayn  swiche  a  dint, 

fat  furth  f e  helm  &  f e  hed  •  hastili  to  f e  gurdel   3864 

his  brond  his  bodi  to-cleued  •  for  alle  his  bri^t  armes ; 

•&  he  tit  ouer  his  hors  tayl  •  tombled  ded  to  f  erf  e. 

f  er-of  williams  wi^es  •  were  wonderli  gladde, 

&  as  sori  in  f  e  of  er  side  *  f  e  segges  were  of  spaine, 

for  in  fat  meliadus  mi^t  •  was  here  most  hope,        3869 

to  haue  conquered  william  •  wif  clene  strengf  e  of  armes. 

but  whan  f  ei  seie  him  ded  •  sone  gun  f  ei  turne, 

and  to  flen  as  fast  •  as  f  ei  faire  mi^t.  3872 

but  willi'am  &  his  wi^es  •  so  wrou^ten  fat  time, 

no  rink  f  ei  mijt  of-reche  •  recuuered  neuer  after, 

ne  no  man  vpon  mold  •  mi^t  ayme  f  e  number 

of  f  e  freliche  folk  •  fat  in  f  e  feld  lay  slayn.  3876 


[Fol.  61  &.] 
Meliadus  wounds 
William  in  the 
head. 


William,  seeing 
his  own  blood, 
fights  like  a 


lionj 


and  cleaves 
Meliadus  through 
helm  and  head 
to  the  girdle. 


The  Spaniards  are 
disheartened, 


and  turn  to  flight, 


very  hotly 
pursued. 


I 


TTThan  f  is  tale  was  told  •  to  f  e  king  of  spayne, 

how  f  e  mi^ti  meliadus  *  for  alle  mm  was  slawe, 
&  bi-held  how  his  burnes  •  bi-gonne  to  flene, 
&  how  william  &  his  wi^es  *  wi^tli  hem  folwed,     3880 
&  duelfulli  driuerc  douw  •  to  dethe  fat  f  ei  of-toke, 
also  swif  e  for  sorwe  •  he  swonede  for  fere. 
&  whan  he  wi^tli  a-wok  •  wodli  he  ferde,1 
al  to-tare  his  a-tir  *  fat  he  to-tere  mi^t,  3884 

&  seide  after  anon  '  "  alas  !  what  to  rede  ! 
I  se  al  rni  folk  fle  *  for  [fat]  frekes  dedes  ; 
was  neuer  maw  vpon  mold  •  fat  swiche  mi^t  wait ; 
It  is  swn  deuel  degised  •  fat  dof  al  fis  harm."       3888 
bi  fat  saw  he  wilh'am  '  winne  him  ful  nere, 
&  slou^  doim  in  his  si^t  *  his  segges  al  a-boute, 
i  MS.  "  forde."    Eead  «  ferde."— M. 


The  king,  hearing 
that  Meliadus  is 
slain, 


swoons  for  fear, 


and,  recovering, 
tears  his  attire, 


thinking  William 
must  be  a  devil. 


Seeing  William 
come,  he  flees. 


12G 


THE   SPANIARDS  FLEE    IN    DESPAIR. 


[Pol.  62.] 


William  pursues 
him,  and  bids 
him  yield. 


The  king  rallies 
his  men,  and 
makes  a  stand. 


William  and  his 
men  soon  slay 
100  of  them,  and 
take  10  score  of 
the  "tidiest." 


The  king,  seeing 
all  is  hopeless, 
again  flees. 


William  catches 
him  up,  and 
again  bids  him 
yield. 


He  must  make 
amends. 


&  saw  it  geyned  no  grif  •  to  go  him  no  nere ; 

as  bliue  with  his  baner  •  he  gan  awei  flene.  3892 

whan  william  was  war  •  ho  we  he  a-wei  went, 

prestili  de-parted  he  fat  pres  •  &  pnked  him  after,  ..   /     ;/ 

&  ful  titli  him  of-tok  *  &  stoutli  him  aschried,    CA 

bad  him  ^epli  him  jeld  •  or  ^erne  he  schul  deie.      3896 

whan  f  e  [king] l  saw  him  com  •  he  sede  to  his  kni^tes, 

"  defende  we  vs  dou^tili  •  or  we  dei}en  sone  ; 

f  er  go]?  non  of  er  grif  •  it  geinef  nou3t  to  flene. 

&  more  mensk  it  is  •  manliche  to  deie,  3900 

fan  for  to  fle  couwar[d]li 2  •  for  ou^t  fat  mai  falle." 

"  certes,  sire,  fat  [is]  3  so]) "  •  seide  his  men  alle, 

"  f  fir-fore  now  in-dede  *  do  we  what  we  mowe." 

fan  turned  f  ei  titli  ajen  •  &  trustili  gon  fijt,  3904 

a[s]  4  fersli  as  f  ei  nade  •  fou^t  nou$t  bi-fore. 

but  wilKam  &  his  wi^es  •  were  so  breme, 

&  so  sturnli  in  fat  stour  •  stered  hem  fat  time, 

fat  f ei  hade  in  a  while  •  a  hundred  i-slayne,  3908 

&  taken  of  f e  tidiest  •  mo  fan  ten  schore. 

f  e  king  saw  his  segges  •  were  slawe  him  bi-fore, 

&  noft  mijt  f  e  werwolf  •  cowquere  in  no  wise, 

&  whas  duelfulli  a-drad  •  lest  he  deie  schuld,          3912 

&  gan  to  fle  frarn  f  e  ost  •  as  hard  as  he  mi^t ; 

&  hise  men  fat  mi^t  •  manli  gon  to  flene. 

but  wilKam  perceyued  *  what  pas  f  e  king  went, 

&  hastili  lu'3ed  after  •  &  him  of-toke,  3916 

&  keneli  to  him  kried  •  "  sire  king,  3eld  f  e  swif  e, 

of  er  f  i  deth  is  i-dijt  •  deliuerli  rijt  here. 

Meke  to  make  a-mendis  •  for  al  f  i  mis-gilt 

f  atow  hast  reised  in  f  is  reaume  •  &  rijt   long  meyn- 

tened, 
&  al  wrongli  wro^t  •  as  wot  al  fis  reaume."  3921 


1  Read  "  whan  the  king  saw  him  com." — M. 

2  The  spelling  couwardli  occurs  in  1.  3336. 

3  Read  "  that  is  soth."— M. 

*  MS.  "  a."     Read  «  as  fersli." -M. 


WILLIAM    TAKES    CAPTIVE   THE    KING   OF   SPAIN. 


12T 


1*0  he  seie  no  better  •  bote  nede  he  most  him  3eld, 

-*     or  al  swipe  be  slayn  *  fan  sone  he  a-li3t, 

&  wi3tli  to  wilKam  •  his  wepun  vp  to^elde,  3924 

&  forto  wirche  his  wille  *  &  wilned  his  mercy. 

&  wilKam,  as  kinde  kni3t  •  as  kortesie  it  wold, 

Godli  graunted  him  grif  •  &  grucched  no  more, 

but  seide  he  schuld  him  meke  •  in  merci  to  f  e  quene, 

&  prefer  him  to  prison  *  prestli  at  hire  wille.  3929 

&  gaf  him  to  alle  hire  grace  •  &  with-sede  no  worde. 

as  tit  as  f  e  king  was  take  •  to  telle  f  e  sof  e, 

eche  a  seg  of  his  side  •  sone  gan  with-drawe,  3932 

&  faynest  was  eche  a  freke  *  fat  fastest  mijt  hi3e ; 

&  f  us  was  fat  ferli  fi^t  •  finched  fat  time. 

wilKam  went  to  f  e  cite  *  with  his  wi3es  bolde, 

&  f  e  king  of  spayne  •  in  cowpanye  he  ladde,  3936 

with  alle  f  e  nmrf  e  vpon  mold  •  fat  merc  mi3t  of  here ; 

&  passeden  to  f  e  paleise  •  prestili  alle  same[ra]. 

f  e  quen  with  hire  companie  •  com  him  a-^ens, 

&  resseyued  as  reali  •  as  swiche  rinkes  oujt,  3940 

&  f  e  king  '3epli  dede  •  3elde  him  to  hire  prison, 

to  wirche  with  him  as  sche  wold  •  at  hire  oune  wille  j 

&  treuli  asjit  after  him  •  tvo  hundered  &  seuen, 

f  e  realest  rinkes  of  f  e  reaume  *  dede  ri^t  fat  ilke.  3944 

f  e  quene  to  wilKam  '  wi^tli  wold  haue  kneled, 

blif e  sche  was  fat  bataile  •  was  brou3t  to  a  nende, 

&  f  onked  wilKam  f  er-for  •  mani  a  f  ousan  sif  e, 

but  wilKam  hent  [hire]  l  vp  •  &  harde  hire  blamed, 

&  sede,  "  madame,  36  misdon  •  bi  marie  in  heuen,   3949 

fat  am  an  emperours  [dorter] 2  •  &  a  quen  3our-selue, 

to  swiche  a  simpul  sowdiour  •  as  icham,  forto  knele ; 

36  don  a  gret  deshonour  •  wif  fat  to  3ou-selue."      3952 

"  nai,  sire,"  sede  f  e  quen  •  "  so  me  crist  help  I* 

I  sette  3ou  for  no  soudiour  •  but  for  souerayn  lord, 

to  lede  al  f  is  lorldschip  •  as  3ou  likes  euer  ; 

1  Read  "  hent  hire  vp."— M. 

2  Read  "  emperours  douzter  and  a  quen."— M. 


The  king  yields 
his  weapon, 


[PoL  62  &.] 


and  WilHam.  says 
he  must  submit 
to  the  queen. 


The  king  being 
taken,  the 
Spaniards  retire 
in  haste. 


William  brings 
the  king  to  the 
queen's  palace. 


The  queen 
receives  him. 


The  king  and  20T 
of  his  knights 
submit 
themselves. 

The  queen  would 
have  kneeled  to 
thank  William, 


but  he  catches 
her  up,  saying  an 
emperor's 
daughter  must 
not  kneel  to  a 
simple  soldier. 


She  says  he  is  not 
a  soldier,  but 
sovereign  lord, 


128       THE   KING   AND    PRINCE   OF    SPAIN    REPENT    THEIR   RASHNESS. 

&  blessed  be  fat  burde  •  fat  bar  f  e  in  f  is  erf  e.       3956 
since,  but  for  him,  for  nade  fe  grace  of  god  be  •  &  fi  gode  dedes, 

she  would  have  .  .      . 

been  bare  of  ail      of  blisse  i  hade  be  al  bare  •  bi  fis  ilk  time. 

f  er  i  balfulli  here-bi-fore  •  was  brout  al  bi-nef  e, 
jToi.  63.]        f  ou  hast  me  brou^t  of  bale  *  &  bet  al  myn  harmes  ; 

fer-for  in  al  wise  $our  worschipe*  is  wel  fe  more."  3961 


All  go  to  hall. 


Melior  and  the 
princess  lead  the 
king  of  Spain 
between  them. 


The  queen  sets 
the  king  on  one 
side  of  her,  and 
William  on  the 
other. 


The  lords  and 
burgesses,  and  the 
peers  of  Spain,  all 
Bit  down  together. 


The  king  asks  to 
see  his  son. 


He  tells  his  son 
they  are  in  the 
wrong, 


and  it  is  of  no  use 
to  pursue  a 
wayward  woman. 

The  prince  says 
it  is  true  enough, 
and  they  must 
now  take  the 
consequences. 


\["ow  to  touche  of  fis  tale  •  what  tidde  after. 
-^  alle  f  e  lordes  a-non  *  vn-armed  hem  sone, 
&  with  fe  worfi  quen  •  went  in-to  halle,  3964 

&  f  e  menskful  meliors  •  &  f  e  quenes  doubter, 
curtesli  f  e  king  of  spayne  •  bi-twene  hem  J)ei  ladde, 
&  here  meke  maydenes  *  merili  fat  time 
ladden  f  e  of  er  lordes  •  loueli  hem  bi-twene,  3968 

&  alle  samen  semeli  •  f  ei  seten  in  f  e  halle. 
f  e  quen  set  J>e  king  •  curtesli  bi  here  side, 
&  wilk'am  on  fat  of  er  half  •  &  with  him  his  suster, 
&  fe  menskful  meliors  *  fat  made  moche  ioie          3972 
for  f e  loueli  loos  •  fat  here  lemman  wanne ; 
&  alle  f  e  lordes  of  fat  lond  *  in  f  e  halle  that  were, 
&  f  e  best  burgeys  •  &  of  er  burnes  fele, 
&  f  e  pers  of  spayne  •  fat  were  to  prison  take.         3976 
f  e  king  bi-sou^t  f  e  quene  •  ^if  it  were  hire  wille, 
fat  he  most  se  his  sone  •  to  solace  him  f  e  more, 
&  sche  ful  godli  granted  •  &  gart  him  do  fecche. 
&  sofli,  as  sone  as  he  com  •  fe  king  seide  hirntille,  3980 
"  lo  !  sone  !  wich  sorwe  •  we  haue  vs  selue  wrou^t, 
f  urh  oure  hautene  hertes  •  a  gret  harm  we  gete, 
to  willne  swiche  willenyng  •  fat  wol  nou^t  a-sente. 
It  is  a  botles  bale  •  bi  god  fat  me  fourmed,  3984 

t[o]  willne  after  a  wif  *  fat  is  a  waywarde  euere." 
fan  seide  his  sone  *  "  forsof e,  sire,  36  knowe, 
fat  we  haue  wrongli  wrou3t  •  nowe  is  it  wel  sene ; 
we  mot  holde !  to  oure  harmes  •  it  helpes  nou^t  elles, 
but  giue  vs  geynli  in  f  e  grace  •  of  f  is  gode  lady,     3989 
MS.  "  holdes."    Read  "  holde."— M. 


THE   WERWOLF    SALUTES    THE   KINO   OF    SPAIN. 


129 


&  late  hire  worche  with  vs  •  as  hire  god  likes." 

j>e  king  for  his  sones  sawe  •  sore  gan  sike, 

to  fat  comli  quen  •  ful  curtesli  Jms  seide,  3992 

"  Madame,  for  mari  loue  •  f  e  milde  quen  of  heuene, 

Grauwt  me  of  30111'  grace  •  $if  JOM  god  fink, 

$if  3oure  konyng  curcsayl  •  a-corde  wol  f  er-tille. 

let  me  make  a-mendis  •  for  al  my  mis-gelt,  3996 

fat  i  so  wrongli  haue  werred  •  &  wasted  3our  londes. 

as  moche  as  any  man  •  mow  ordeyne  bi  ri^t, 

I  am  redi  to  restore  •  &  redeli,  more-ouer, 

al  f  e  worchep  fat  i  weld  •  i  wol  of  3011  hold,  4000 

al  j>e  londes  &  ledes  •  fat  long  to  my  reaume  ; 

so  dede  i  neuer  til  f  is  dai  *  but  of  god  one. 

&  but  3our  cuwseil,  madame  *  a-corde  wol  f  er-tille, 

wisses  me  at  ^our  owne  wille  *  how  30  wol  me  binde, 

&  lelli  i  wol  as  $ou  likes  •  3oure  lore  fulfille  ;          4005 

ferfer  forf  mai  [i] 1  nou3t  prefer  •  for  nou3t  fat  bi-tides." 


The  king  is 
grieved,  and 
sighs, 


[Pol.  63  6.] 
and  begs  the 
queen  to  allow 
him  to  make 
amends, 


promising  to 
restore  what  is 
right, 

and  to  hold  his 
lands  of  her, 


or  offering  to  be 
bound  in  any  way 
she  liked. 


T<%e  quen  &  here  conaail  *  f  er-o'f  were  a-pai^ed, 

•*     fat  he  so  him  profered  *  to  parfourme  hire  wille, 

&  gonne  to  mele  of  fat  mater  •  how  it  best  nn'3t  bene. 

&  as  f ei  were  talking  •  to  trete  of  fat  dede, 

so  hi^ed  in-to  f  e  halle  *  ri^t  to  )>e  hei3e  dese, 

fat  ilk  witti  werwolf  •  fat  wilhYim  hade  holpe,       4012 

&  boldli,  for  alle  f  e  burns  •  as  him  nou3t  nere, 

spacli  to  f  e  king  of  spaine  *  he  spedde  him  on  gate, 

&  fel  doun  to  his  fet  *  &  faire  hem  he  keste, 

&  worchiped  him  in  his  wise  •  wonderli  with-alle.  4016 

&  sef  f  e  sone  after  *  he  saluede  f  e  quene, 

&  after  here,  wilKam  •  and  his  worf  i  make, 

f  e  quenes  dorter  afterward  •  &  dede  him  on  gate 

out  hastili  at  f  e  halle  dore  •  as  fast  as  he  nu'3t,       4020 

&  went  forf  on  his  wei  *  whider  him  god  liked. 

but  sone  sauage  man  •  fat  seten  in  f  e  halle 

henten  hastili  in  honde  •  what  f  ei  haue 

1  Read  "  mai  »."—  M. 
9 


The  queen  and 
her  counsel  take 
it  all  into 
consideration. 


The  werwolf 
ent«rs  the  hall, 
goes  up  to  the 
king  of  Spain, 
and  kisses  his 
feet; 


next  he  salutes 
the  queen,  and 
the  rest,  and  goea 
his  way. 


Savage  men  who 
were  there  caught 
up  weapons, 


130 


WILLIAM   SATS    NO    ONE    SHALL   HARM    THE    WERWOLF. 


but  William 
swears  that  if 
any  one  dares 
hurt  the  werwolf, 
[Fol.  64.] 


he  will  kill  him 
with  his  own 
hands. 


Yet  all  wondered 
what  it  meant, 
especially  the 
king. 


summe  axes,  summe  swerdes  •  some  speres  long,     4024 

to  wende  him  after  *  wi^tli  to  quelle. 

but  wan  wilh'am  fat  wist  •  wodli  he  ferde, 

&  swor  swiftli  his  [of  e] l  •  bi  al  fat  god  wrou^t, 

$if  any  burn  were  so  bold  •  fat  best  forto  greue,     4028 

were  he  kni^t  of  er  clerk  •  knaue  of  er  kempe, 

he  wold  deliuerli  him-self  •  do  him  to  f  e  dethe, 

fat  no  man  vpow  mold  *  schuld  of  er  amendes  ^elde. 

f  er  nas  hastili  in  fat  halle  •  non  so  hardi  burn,      4032 

fat  durst  folwe  fat  best  •  o  fote  for  drede, 

so  bei  were  of  willmm  •  wonderli  a-dredde. 

but  whi  f  e  werwolf  so  wroujt  *  wondred  f  ei  alle, 

&  whi  more  with  2  f  e  king  •  fan  with  any  of er.      4036 

&  f e  king  more  wondred  •  fan  any  whi^t  elles, 

&  strek  in-to  a  studie  *  stifliche  f  er-fore, 

what  it  bi-tokenef  fat  f  e  best  •  bowed  so  him  tille, 

&  wrou^t  to  him  more  worchipe  •  fan  to  any  wi}t  elles. 

In  fat  mene  while  fan  •  in  his  minde  it  com,          4041 

&  f ou^t  on  a  semli  sone  *  fat  sam  time  he  hadde, 

&  how  him  treuli  hadde -be  told  •  to-fore  a  long  time, 

fat  his  wif  with  wichecraft  *  to  a  wolf  him  schaped. 

but  sche  of  fat  sclaunder  •  excused  hire  al-gate,      4045 

&  seide  f  e  child  was  in  f  e  see  •  sunkun  ful  ^ore. 

f  e  king  in  fat  earful  f  oujt  *  was  cumbred  ful  long. 

but  william  wi^tli  •  as  f  e  wolf  was  schaped,  4048 

he  dede  kni^tes  to  comaumle  •  to  do  crie  in  f  e  cite, 

fat  no  burn  nere  so  bold  *  as  he  nold  be  honged, 

to  waite  f  e  werwolf  •  no  maner  schaf  e, 

but  late  him  late  &  erli  •  where  him  liked  wende  ;  4052 

fat  hest  was  wel  hold  •  non  so  hardi  was  elles. 


The  king  is  in       T7"arpe  we  [now] 3  how  f  e  king  •  was  kast  in  gret  bou^t ; 

great  thought  and     |\     ,        ,         ,  ,    ,     ,  ,,  , 

,tudy.  *•  he  dared  as  doted  man  •  lor  f  e  bestes  dedes, 

&  was  so  styf  in  a  studie  •  fat  now  him  stint  mi^t.  405 G 

1  Read  «  his  othe  bi  al."— M.  2  MS.  "  wiht." 

3  Perhaps  it  should  be,  "  Karpe  we  now  how  the  king." — M. 


The  king 
remembers  about 
the  son  he  once 
had, 

who  had  been 
drowned, 
according  to  his 
second  wife's 
account. 


William 

proclaims  that  no 
one  is  to  hurt  the 
werwolf. 


WILLIAM  ASKS  THE  KING  TO  TELL  HIS  SECRET. 


131 


whan  wilh'am  was  war  •  he  went  to  him  sone, 

seide,  "  king,  i  f  e  coniurQ  •  in  cr/stes  holi  name, 

&  bi  alle  f  e  kud  customes  •  to  kinghod  fat  longes, 

f  attow  telle  me  tit  •  treuli  fat  sofe,  4060 

$if  f  ou  knowest  bi  what  cas  •  in  any-skines  1  wise, 

whi  f  is  buxum  best  •  bowed  to  f  e  more 

fan  to  alle  f  e  wi^es  •  fat  were  in  f e  halle  ? 

It  mai  be  in  no  maner  •  me  f  inkes,  bi  f  ou^tes,        4064 

f  attow  wost  in  su.m  wise  •  what  it  bi-tokenef . 

f  erfor  tel  me  tit  •  treuli  whatow  f  outes, 

of  er  i  make  a  vow  •  to  f  e  mi^ti  king  of  heuen, 

fou  passest  110113 1  of  prison.  '  puniched  at  f  e  hardest." 

fan  siked  f  e  king  sore  •  &  seide  f  ese  wordes,  4069 

"  sire,  for  drede  of  duresse  •  nor  of  deth  in  erf  e, 

nel  i  wonde  in  no  wise  •  what  i  f  ou^t  to  seie. 

sire,  sum  time  here-bi-for  •  in  my  ^ong  age,  4072 

I  wedded  with  al  wele  *  a  worschipful  lady, 

fat  burde  was  of  beuaute  •  bri^test  in  erf  e, 

&  greter  of  alle  godnesse  •  fan  any  gome  mai  telle. 

f  e  kinges  doubter  of  nauerne  •  was  fat  gode  burde,  4076 

&  in  fat  seson  gete  we  *  samen  to-gedere, 

on  f  e  fairest  freke  •  fat  euer  seg  on  loked, 

but  mi  wif,  as  god  wold  •  &  as  we  schul  alle, 

deied  at  f  e  deliuerauTzce  *  of  mi  dere  sone.  4080 

&  i  fostered  fat  child  *  faire  to  f  re  winter, 

with  alle  clene  keping  •  as  it  ou^t  to  bene. 

bi  fat  time  was  j?at  barn  *  ful  breme  of  his  age, 

&  semliest  on  to  se  •  fat  men  schuld  finde.;  4084 

alphourcs  his  gode  godfaderes  •  dede  him  fan  calle 

at  kyrke  for  his  kinde  name  •  to  kif  e  f  e  sof  e. 

fan  bitid  fat  time  •  i  toke  a-nof er  wif, 

a  ful  loueli  lady  •  lettered  at  f  e  best,  4088 

corteys  &  couenabul  •  &  lettered  at  f  e  best,2 

&  comero  was  of  gret  kin  •  &  koynt  hire-selue. 

Jjurth  grace  gat  i  on  hire  •  as  god  aln^ti.  wold, 

1  See  note.  2  This  half  line  is  repeated  from  above. 

9  « 


William  conjures 
him  to  tell  him 


[Fol.  64  &.] 
why  the  beast 
bowed  to  him  in 
particular  ? 


"  Tell  me,  or  thou 
shalt  never  come 
out  of  prison." 


The  king  sighs, 
and  tells  his 
story. 


"  J.  once  wedded 
a  fair  and  good 
lady, 


daughter  of  the 
king  of  Navarre. 


We  had  a  very 
fair  son ;  but  my 
wife  died. 


I  fostered  it  till 
it  was  three  years 
old. 


His  name  was 

Alphonse. 


I  married  again 
to  a  lady  who  was 
lovely,  and  who 
could  read  well. 


132 


THE    STORY    OF    THE    PRINCE    ALPHONSE. 


Oar  son  was  the 
prince  who  is 
here  now. 


[Fol.  66.] 
My  wife  feared 
that  the  elder  son 
would  succeed  me 
as  heir, 


and  considered 
how  to  get  rid  of 
him. 


She  changed  him 
/    by  enchantments 
into  a  werwolf, 


but  she  swore  to 
me  that  he  had 
been  drowned. 


I  believed  her, 
but  I  now  think 
this  werwolf  is 
my  son. 


This  is  truly  what 
I  mused  about." 


a  sone  as  36  mow  se  •  be-for  3011  selue  here,  4092 

wich  36  han  put  in  pn'son  •  &  puniched  at  30111  wille. 

f  is  child  was  ceput l  clenli  •  as  it  wel  ou3t, 

&  it  wax  fetis  &  fair  •  &  ful  mochel  loued. 

but  fan  my  wif  wickedli  *  on  fise  wise  f  ou3t,         4096 

fat  myn  elder  son  •  min  eritage  schul  haue, 

&  kepe  f  e  kingdom  after  me  *  as  kinde  skil  it  wold  ; 

&  striued  stifli  with  hire-self  -as  stepmoderes  wol  alle, 

bi  what  wise  sche  mi^t  best  •  fat  bold  barn  spille,  4100 

to  do  so  j>at  here  sone  •  after  mi  dessece, 

Mi3te  reioische  fat  reaume  •  as  ri$t  eir  bi  kinde. 

&  as  me  haf  be  told  •  of  trewe  meft  of  my  reaume, 

with  charmes  &  enchantmews  •  sche  chaurcded2  my  sone 

In-to  a  wilde  werwolf;  •  &  wel  now  ich  it  leue,      4105 

]>at  ]>is  buxura  best  •  be  fat  ilk  selue 

fat  my  wif  with  hire  wiles  •  euer  dede  me  leue, 

(whan  i  hire  touched  swiche  tales  *  as  me  told  were), 

fat  it  was  fanteme  &  fals  *  &  for  hate  saide  ;  4109 

&  swor  grimli  gret  of  es  •  bi  al  fat  god  wrou3t, 

j>at  mi  semli  sone  *  was  in  f  e  see  sonken, 

as  he  passed  out  to  pleie  •  priueli  him  one.  4112 

I  leued  hire  fan  lelly  •  &  lett  it  ouer-pase, 

but  now  witerli  i  wot  *  |)is  werwolf  is  my  sone, 

fa  sechef  after  socour  •  it  semef  bi  hise  dedus. 

sire,  sofli  to  seie  •  fis  was  my  grete  fout,  4116 

for  f  e  werwolf  werkes  *  so  me  wel  time, 

&  3if  i  wrong  seie  any  word  •  wo  worf  me  euer." 


William  says  it 
seems  to  be  the 
truth, 


for  the  werwolf 
has  a  man's 
mind. 


TlTilliam3  fan  ful  wittili  •  fese  wordes  saide,        4119 
"  sire,  it  may  ri3t  wel  be  f  us  •  be  marie  in  heuene ! 


fat  f e  best  sechef  socour  •  it  semef  att  best. 
for  wel  i  wot  witerli  •  &  wel  i  haue  it  founde, 
fat  he  has  mannes  muwde  •  more  fan  we  bof e. 

1  Sic  ;  another  spelling  of  "  kepud." 

2  Read  "  chaunged  "  (?)     Of.  1.  4500. 

3  The  MS.  has  a  large  M  instead  of  W. 


4123 


WILLIAM    SAYS    THE   WERWOLF   HAS   A   MAN*8    MIND. 


133 


for  many  [a  day]  l  hade  i  be  ded  •  &  to  dust  roted, 

nadde  it  be  goddes  grace  *  &  help  of  fat  best ; 

he  haf  me  socoured  &  serued  *  in  ful  gret  nede. 

for-f  i  in  feif ,  for  al  f  e  world  *  him  nold  i  faile, 

))at  i  schal  loue  him  lelli  •  as  my  lege  brofer ;         4128 

&,  sire,  blif  e  ou^t  ^e  [be]  2  *  bi  him  fat  vs  wroujt  ! 

J>at  he  f  us  happili  is  here  •  fat  haj)  so  lang  be  missed. 

&  3if  he  mi^t  in  maner  •  be  maked  man  a^eine, 

of  al  fe  welfe  of  fe  world  •  wilned  i  no  more.         4132 

&  sertenli,  as  it  semef  *  to  seie  f  e  truf  e, 

3if  f  i  wif  of  wicchecraft  •  be  witti  as  f  ou  seidest, 

fat  sche  him  wroi^t  a  werwolf  •  ri^t  wel  i  hope, 

sche  can  with  hire  connyng  *  &  hire  queynt  charmes, 

Make  him  to  man  a-^en  •  it  may  be  non  oj)er.         4137 

&  f erf  ore,  sire,  bi  cn'st  •  fat  on  croyce  vs  bou^t, 

f  ou  ne  passest  neuer  of  pn'son  •  ne  non  of  [f  i]  3  puple, 

with-oute  deliueraurace  *  of  fat  derworfe  best ;        4140 

for  made  a-^en  to  man  •  mot  he  nede  bene. 

sende  wittili  to  f  i  wif  •  &  warne  hire  fore, 

fat  sche  tit  come  f e  to  *  for  fat  may  falle  after, 

fat  sche  ne  lette  for  no  lud  •  fat  liuef  in  erfe.        4144 

&  3if  sche  nickes  wif  nay  *  &  nel  nou^t  com  sone, 

sende  hire  saddli  to  sai  *  fat  sone  with  min  ost, 

I  wol  fat  reaume  ouer-ride  •  &  rediliche  destrue, 

&  fecche  hire  with  fin  forse  •  for  0113 1  fat  bi-tides.  4148 

for  til  sche  with  hire  craft  •  f  e  werwolf  haue  holpe, 

alle  f  e  men  vpow  molde  *  ne  [mai]  make  3011  deliuered."  4 

"  T)i  cn'st,"  sede  fe  king  •  "fat  on  croyce  was  peyned,   "She  shall  be 

**  fat  f  e  quen  be  of-sent  •  sauf  wol  i  fouche.      4152 
3if  sche  mi3t  in  any  maner  •  make  a-}en  mi  sone 
to  be  a  man  as  he  was  arst  •  wel  were  me  f  anne. 
but  serteynli  i  not  *  wham  i  sende  im*3t, 
to  make  f  e  massager  •  myn  erande  wel  to  spede, 


"  He  has  often 
helped  me. 


You  ought  to  be 
blithe  to  find  him 
again. 

[Fol.  65  6.] 


If  your  wife  is  so 
witty  in 
witchcraft, 


she  can  make  him 
a  man  again. 


Wherefore,  you 
shall  never  be 
released  till  he  is 
made  a  man. 

Send  and  tell  her 
to  come  here. 


If  she  will  not, 
say  I  will  fetch 
her  forcibly." 


4156 


But  I  have  no  one 
to  send  but  some 
of  my  lords, 


1  Read  "  many  a  day  hade  i  be  ded." — M. 

2  Read  "  ouzt  ze  be  bi  him." — M. 

3  Read  "  of  thi  puple."— M.  *  mai 


134 


A    MESSAGE    IS    SENT    TO    THE    QUEEN    OF    SPAIN. 


if  you  will  give 
them  leave." 


"I  grant  it;  bid 
them  bring  the 
queen." 


[Fol.  66.] 

The  king  chooses 
50  lords, 

giving  them  a 
letter  and  a 
message,  saying, 


"Tell  her  my  son 
is  found, 


in  the  shape  of  a 
werwolf. 


Bid  her  bring 
charms  to 
disenchant  bin 


but  36  wold  suffer  •  summe  of  f  ise  lordes, 

fat  ben  lederes  of  my  lond  *  &  lele  men  holde. 

3if  3ou  likes,  3iue  hem  leue  %  &  hete  hem  f  ider  wende, 

I  hope  fei  schul  hastlier  •  fan  any  ofer  spede."      4160 

"  fat  i  wol,"  seide  wilKam  •  "  ches  wich  f  e  likes, 

&  hote  hem  hi^e  hastili  •  harde  as  fei  mowe, 

&  bring  fe  quen  •  for  cas  fat  mai  falle." 

ful  spacli  fe  king  of  spayne  •  to  spede  f  o  nedes,      4164 

as  fast  ches  him  fifty  •  of  ful  grete  lordes, 

fat  tidi  men  were  told  •  &  trewest  of  his  reaume, 

&  tid  bi-tok  he?ft  f e  letteres  *  fat  told  al  here  erand, 

&  het  hem  munge  bi  moufe  *  more,  &  fei  coufe,    4168 

whan  fei  come  to  f  e  quen  •  of  f  e  cas  bi-falle — 

"  &  seif  hire  f  us  sadli  *  sires,  i  3ou  praye, 

for  what  cas  sche  mot  com  *  or  bi  cn'st  of  heuene, 

sche  get  neuer  gladnesse  •  of  me,  ne  of  mi  sone.     4172 

&  seie  hire  sof  li  *  f  is  selue  encheson, 

for  hire  mi  sone  is  founde  *  fat  sche  for  3ore  saide 

was  sonk  in  f  e  see  •  so  dede  sche  me  to  leue ; 

but  as  a  wilde  werwolf  •  he  walkef  here  a-boute  ;  4176 

&  how  he  sou3t  after  socour  *  36  saw  wel  alle. 

f  er-fore  treuli  as  it  tid  •  telle  here  to  f  e  hende, 

&  bidde  hire  bliue  with  hire  bring  •  fat  mai  be  is  bote, 

to  make  him  man  a3en  •  mijti  as  he  was  ere,          4180 

of er  al  fat  lond  worf  lore  *  &  our  Hues  alse, 

f  er  gof  non  a3en-turn  *  36  mow  hire  treuli  seie." 

fe  menskful  messangeres  •  mekeli  fan  seide,  4183 

"  we  wol  worche  3our  wille  •  as  wel  as  we  kunne." 


Next  day  the 
messengers  set 
out 


and  went  to 
Spain. 


"jlTanli  on  f  e  morwe  •  f  e  messageres  were  3are, 

-*•'•*•  greif  ed  of  alle  gere  •  gaily  atte  f  e  best, 

of  horse  &  harneys  •  &  what  fei  hade  nede, 

&  went  forf  on  here  way  •  wi3tli  &  fast ;  4188 

Euer  f  e  geynest  gatis  •  to  goo  to  f  e  sof  e, 

Euer  spacli  fei  hem  spedde  *  til  spayne  fat  fei  come, 

&  come  to  a  cite  *  fere  soiourned  f  e  querie. 


THE    QUEEN    OP    SPAIN    ASKS    AFTER    HER    LORD. 


135 


tid  was  hire  told  •  tiding  of  here  come,  4192 

<fe  sche  gamsura  &  glad  •  gop  hem  a-^ens, 

with  loueliche  ladies  *  pat  longed  to  hire  chauwbur, 

<fc  oper  menskful  maidenes  *  mo  pan  foure  schore. 

•<fc  mekli  whan  pei  were  met  *  J>e  messageres  pei  greten 

with  cliping  &  kessing  •  kindeli  to-gadere.  4197 

but  sone  pat  comli  quen  •  wel  curtesli  asked, 

41  how  fares  mi  lord  pe  king  •  for  cmtes  loue  in  heuen, 

&  mi  semli  sone  •  seppe  pei  out  went  ?  4200 

han  pei  wonne  at  here  wille  •  fat  pei  went  fore  1 

what  dos  mi  lord  wip  pat  lady  •  &  here  loueli  doi^ter  1 

wol  sche  3it  my  sone  hire  wedde  •  &  to  wif  haue  ?  " 

"  Madame,"  saide  pe  messange?1  *  most  worpi  of  alle, 

"  oper-wise  pan  36  wene  •  is  al  pe  werk  turned,       4205 

It  helpes  nou^t  for  to  hele  •  nou3  herkenes  mi  sawe. 

sippe  pe  king  of  heuen  *  on  croys  for  vs  deide, 

worse  fel  it  neuer  to  wi3es  •  pan  it  hap  a  while.      4208 

for  alle  pe  real  rinkes  •  of  pis  reaume  be  slayne, 

&  doluen  depe  vnder  mold  *  man!  day  seppe. 

pe  stoute  stiward  of  pis  lond  •  &  his  strong  neuew, 

&  pe  cuftstabul  sone  *  pat  kud  kni^t  was  proued,     4212 

&  out  of  number  nobul  men  *  to  nenipne  pe  sope. 

Mi  lord  pe  king  was  per  cau3t  •  in  a  kene  stoure, 

&  3our  sone  also  *  and  are  prisons  bope, 

<fc  we  alle,  madame  *  &  many  mo  of  oper  4216 

of  pe  lordes  of  pis  lond  •  pat  ^ut  a-liue  bene, 

&  neuer-more  for  no  man  •  mo  we  be  deliuered, 

ne  pult  out  [of] l  prison  •  but  purli  pourh  3our  help. 

&  pei3h  we  hade  pe  quen  •  purth  queintyse  &  strengpe 

brou3t  ferst  at  swiche  bale  •  with  so  breme  a-sawtes,  4221 

wasted  hire  londes  *  &  wonne  hire  townes, 

&  pult  al  pertly  to  our  wille  •  but  palerne  alone  ; 

sertes,  pei  were  a-seged  •  so  pat  atte  laste  4224 

Many  times  in  pis  maner  •  mercy  sche  craued, 

pat  sche  most  wende  a-wai  •  with  hire  dorter  one, 

1  Read  "out  of  prison." — M. 


She  comes  out  to 
meet  them, 


[Fol.  66  6.] 
and  asks  after  her 
lord  and  her  son. 


Is  he  to  wed  the 
princess  ? 

"Madame, 
affairs  are  quite 
changed. 


Our  best  men  are 
slain  and  buried 
— the  steward  and 
his  nephew, 

the  constable's 
son,  and 
numberless 
noblemen. 

The  king,  the 
prince,  and  all 
we  lords,  are 
prisoners. 


We  conquered  all 
the  queen's  lands 
except  Palermo. 


The  queen  asked 
to  have  leave  to 
depart  where  she 
pleased. 


136 


THE    STORY    OF    THE    KING    OF    SPAIN'S    DEFEAT. 


The  king  refused. 


[Fol.  67.] 
Then  came  a 
mighty  knight 
to  help  her,  who 
conquered  the 
king  and  the 
prince. 


Next,  a  werwolf 
came  and  saluted 
the  king,  and 
seemed  to  crave 
help. 


The  knight  asked 
the  king  what  it 
meant, 


who  said,  it  must 
be  Alphonse  his 


We  are  sent  to 
gay  that  we  shall 
never  be  released 


till  you  hare 
disenchanted  the 
werwolf. 


If  you  refuse, 


that  mighty 
knight  will  come 


boute  daunger  or  duresse  •  or  any  despit  elles, 

&  late  mi  lord  haue  fat  lond  •  at  liking  for  euer ;  4228 

ac  my  lord  in  no  wise  •  wold  f  er-to  grau^te, 

&  J,at  ha]?  vs  hard  harmed  •  for  hastili  f er-after 

f  er  kom  a  kni3t  hire  to  help  •  f  e  kuddest  of  f  e  worlde, 

&  most  mi^thi  in  armes  *  fat  euer  man  of  herde.    423<2 

he  slow  of  oure  segges  •  sof  li  alle  f  e  best, 

&  conquered  with  clene  mijt  •  f  e  king  &  his  sone, 

&  lelly  many  of  er  lordes  •  fat  ^it  a-liue  are. 

&  whan  f  ei  were  in  prison  '  pult  at  hire  wille,       4236 

f  er  wan  in  a  werwolf  •  a  wonderli  huge ; 

with  a  komli  kuntenauwce  •  to  f  e  king  he  went, 

&  fel  dourc  to  his  fete  •  &  faire  he  hem  kessede, 

&  wrou^t  him  gret  worchip  •  &  wi3es  fat  it  sei3en  4240 

saiden,  it  semed  wel  *  as  it  socour  sou^t ; 

but  f  anne  as  bliue  J>at  best  •  busked  on  his  weie. 

&  fan  fat  kud  kni3t  '  fat  vs  conquered  alle 

cowiured  mi  lord  j>e  king  •  bi  al  fat  crist  wrou3t,    4244 

j)at  he  tyt  schold  him  telle  *  treuli  al  f  e  sof  e, 

3if  he  wist  in  any  wise  •  wat  J>at  best  were ; 

&,  he  sofli  fus  sayde  •  schortly  to  telle, 

fat  it  was  alphioutts  his  sone  •  anow  ri3t  he  wist,    4248 

fat  fou  with  fi  wicchecraft  •  a  werwolf  him  hadest 

maked. 

wherfore,  menskful  madame  •  bi  marie  in  heuen, 
we  be  made  massegeres  •  to  muwge  3ou  fis  nedes, 
fat  neifer  fi  lord  nor  fi  sone  *  nor  non  of  vs  alle  4252 
worf  neuer  deliuerred  of  daunger   •  fat  we  dwellen 

inne, 

til  fou  com  to  fat  kif  •  &  with  3  our  queynt  werkes 
haue  heled  f  e  werwolf  •  wel  at  alle  ri3tes, 
&  maked  to  man  a3e  •  in  maner  as  he  ou3t.  4256 

&  3if  fou  grutche  a-ny  grot  •  f  us  greif  li  to  worche, 
alle  f  e  men  vpon  molde  *  ne  mowe  it  nou3t  lette, 
fat  fat  ilke  kud  kni3t  •  fat  kepuf  vs  alle, 
nel  com  to  fis  kuntre  •  with  a  clene  strengfe,         4260 


QUEEN    BRAUNDEN    IS   GREATLY    FRIGHTENED. 


137 


&  balfulli  do  ]?e  brenne  *  in  bitter  fire, 

&  ouer-ride  )>is  reaume  •  &  redili  it  destrye ; 

&,  whejjer  J?ou  wolt  or  non  •  winne  l  ))e  with  strengjje, 

&  sejjen  duelfulli  to  dethe  •  do  vs  alle  after  ;          4264 

&  J?erfor  do  vs  wite  wi3tli  •  hou^  J>ou  wirche  fenkest." 

as  bliue  as  Jjis  bold  quen  •  pat  brauwden  was  hote, 

hade  herd  al  holli  •  how  J>at  hit  ferde, 

sche  swelt  for  sorwe  *  &  swoned  rit  fere,  4268 

&  afterward  wept  •  wonder  was  it  none. 

&  to  J>e  menskful  messageres  •  mekli  Jjenne  sede, 

"  now,  sires,  se|?J?e  it  is  so  •  what  so  bi-tyde, 

I  wol  wende  3011  with  •  &  wel  3011  deliuere,  4272 

j>urth  help  of  J?e  heuene  king  •  hastili  &  sone." 

Jjanne  gart  sche  to  greijje  •  gaili  alle  jnnges, 

jjat  hem  bi-houed  on  hond  •  to  haue  bi  J>e  weye, 

&  a  real  roi^te  •  to  ride  bi  hire  side,  4276 

of  lordes  &  ladies  •  of  al  hire  lond  j)e  best. 

&  sojjli  for  so]?e  2  •  no  seg  vnder  heuene 

ne  sei^e  neuer  no  route  •  arai^ed  more  beter, 

ne  gaylier  greijjed  *  to  go  to  J>e  sofe,  4280 

of  hors  &  of  harneys  •  &  alle  oj?er  gere. 

J>e  quen  hade  hire  with  •  al  Jjat  bi-houed, 

to  warysche  with  J?e  werwolf  '  wel  atte  best. 


aili  were  J?ei  greijjed  •  wel  at  te  best,  4284 

with  here  menskful  meyne  *  sche  meued  on  gate, 
&  hi3ed  on  here  iurnes  *  fast  as  Jjei  mi^t, 
til  J>ei  come  to  palerne  •  to  proue  J?e  sojje. 
willmm  &  hise  wiaes  •  were  warned  3  of  here  come ;  4288  wuiiam  meets 

them, 

with  a  real  route  *  he  rod  hire  a-3ens, 

&  worjnli  hire  he  wolcomed  *  wen  he  hire  mette, 

&  hire  clene  companye  *  curtesli  &  faire  ; 

&  presteli  to  ]>e  paleys  *  with  gret  pres  hem  ladde.  4292 

J>e  curtes  quen  of  ]>at  lond  •  com  hem  a~3ens, 

1  MS.  "  wenne."    Read  "winne."— M.    See  1.  3623. 

2  MS.  "  se|>e."  3  MS.  "  warnes."     Read  "  warned."  -M. 


and  burn  you, 


and  will  put  us 
all  to  death." 


[Fol.  67  6.] 
At  this  news 
queen  Braunden 


She  consents  to  go 
with  them. 


She  gets  every- 
thing ready. 


No  one  ever  saw 
better  arrayed 
company. 


138 


SHE   FINDS    HER   HUSBAND    AND    SON    IN   PRISON. 


as  also  do  the 
queen,  the  king, 
and  the  prince. 


The  queen  of 
Spain  is  grieved 
to  see  them 
prisoners. 

[FoL  68.] 


William  helps 
Braunden  to 
alight. 


All  are  glad  to  see 
her. 


She  is  led  to  hall, 
and  seated  at  the 
dais. 


She  and  the  king 
and  prince  sit 
together, 


and  the  queen  of 
Palermo,  the 
princess,  and 
Melior. 


The  hall  is  filled 
with  barons  and 
knights,  and  the 
Spanish  lords. 


There  were  spices 
and  wines. 


The  werwolf  had 
been  kept  in 
William's 
chamber. 


f  e  king  of  spayne  with  his  sone  •  &  of  er  kni^tes  gode, 

fat  were  put  in  pn'son  *  presteli  f urth  here  dedes. 

bofe  nwrrf e  &  mournyng  •  at  fat  metyng  was  ;     4296 

whan  f  e  quen  of  spayne  *  saw  hire  lord  in  hold, 

&  hire  semli  sone  •  &  sef  e  alle  f  e  of  er 

of  grete  lordes  of  hire  lond  •  it  liked  hire  ille. 

f  e  comly  quen  of  fat  lond  •  wilh'amg-  owne  moder,  4300 

with  welf  e  &  gret  worchip  •  welkomed  hem  alle, 

&  wilKam  curtesli  cau^t  •  f  e  quen  of  hire  palfray, 

&  his  menskful  moder  •  ful  mekli  hire  kessed, 

&  hire  lord  &  hire  sone  •  swetly  f  er-after.  4304 

hire  lord  f  e  king  of  hire  kome  •  was  comforted  michel, 

&  hire  sone  als  •  &  sef  en  alle  of  er 

of  f  e  lordes  of  fat  lond  •  fat  fere  leie  in  hold, 

for  fei  hopeden  in  hast  •  to  haue  help  f  er-after.      4308 

william  &  his  menskful  moder  •  mekli  &  faire 

ful  loueli  f  e  quen  of  spayne  -  led  hem  bi-twene, 

&  hendeli  in-to  halle  •  f anne  hire  fei  broujt, 

&  derli  on  fe  hei^e  des  •  fei  a-doun  seten.  4312 

f  e  king  of  spayne  &  his  wif  •  seten  to-gader, 

&  here  sone  hem  bi-side  •  samen  to  talke, 

to  make  hem  in  f  e  mene  while  •  as  murye  as  fei  couf  e. 

f  e  quen  of  palerne  &  hire  doubter  •  fat  damysele  hende, 

&  fe  menskful  meliors  •  were  macched  to-gadere,  4317 

to  haue  same  here  solas  •  &  seie  what  hem  liked. 

sef  en  al  fat  huge  halle  •  was  hastili  fulfulled 

al  a-boute  bi  eche  side  •  with  barounes  &  kni^tes,  4320 

f  e  real  rinkes  of  f  e  reaume  •  113 1  on  fat  o  side. 

sof  li  f  e  segges  of  spayne  *  were  set  on  fat  of  er, 

so  fat  perles  paleis  •  with  peple  was  fulfulled. 

f  ann  were  spacli  spices  •  spended  al  a-boute,  4324 

fulsumli  at  f  e  ful  •  to  eche  freke  f  er-inne, 

&  f  e  wines  f  er-with  •  wich  hem  best  liked. 


nd  as  fei  mad  he?n  so  mine  '  to  mirage  f  e  sof  e, 
fe  werwolf  fat  36  witen   of   •  was   in  wilKams 
chauraber,  4328 


THE   WERWOLF    LEARNS    THAT    THE   QUEEN    IS   COME. 


139 


&  hade  be  fere  in  blis  •  bi  ni^tes  and  dales, 

sef  en  f  e  messangeres  meuede  •  after  f  e  quene, 

fat  was  his  sterne  stepmoder  *  til  fat  stounde  f  anne. 

but  wel  wist  f  e  wolf  •  whanne  sche  was  come,        4332 

&  hastili  in-to  halle  •  he  hi^ed  him  fat  time, 

to  do  [hire]  to  f  e  def  e  •  deliuerli  jif  he  mi^t, 

so  wrof  l  he  was  hire  with  •  wite  36  him  neuer. 

as  bliue  as  f  e  best  •  was  broken  in-to  halle,  4336 

a  pase  bi-fore  al  f  e  pnple  •  he  passef  him  euene, 

&  drow  him  toward  f  e  des  *  but  dqutusli  after 

he  stared  on  his  stepmoder  *  stifli  a  while, 

whan  he  saw  [hire]  with  his  sire  •  sitte  in  mwrf  e.  4340 

fill  wrof  fan  fat  werwolf  *  wax  of  fat  si^t, 

&  bremly  his  bristeles  •  he  gan  f  o  a-reise, 

&  grisiliche  gapande  •  with  a  grym  noyse, 

he  queite  toward  f  e  quene  •  to  quelle  hire  as  bliue. 

&  assone  as  f  e  quene  *  saw  him  so  come,  4345 

sche  wax  nei}  of  hire  witt  *  witow  forsof  e, 

&  carfulli  to  f  e  king  •  criande,  sche  saide, 

"  a  !  leue  lordes,  mi  lif  •  lengf  es  $ut  a  while  !         4348 

socoures  me  nouf  e  •  or  ful  sone  i  dei^e, 

for  f  is  ilk  breme  best  *  bale  wol  me  wirche, 

ac  i  wite  him  no  wrong  •  witef  wel  alle. 

I  haue  serued  f  e  def  •  }if  $ou  dere  f  inkes,  4352 

lengf  ef  now  my  lif  •  for  loue  of  heuene  king, 

&  meke  me  in  ^our  mercy  •  i  may  do  nou^t  elles." 

f  e  king  of  spayne  stifli  •  stert  vp  sone, 

&  his  sone  al-so  •  to  saue  f  e  quene.  4356 

william  ful  wi^tli  •  f  e  werwolf  fan  hent 

anon  in  his  armes  •  aboute  f  e  necke, 

&  sayde  to  him  soberli  *  "  mi  swete  dere  best, 

trust  to  me  as  treuli  •  as  to  fin  owne  brof er,  4360 

or  as  feif  li  as  falles  •  f  e  fader  to  f  e  sone, 

&  meke  f  e  of  f  i  malencoli  *  for  marring  of  f  i-selue. 

I  sent  after  hire  for  f  i  sake  •  sof  li,  f  ou  trowe, 

1  MS.  "  worjj."     Read  "  wroth."— M.    See  11.  3221,  4341 


Knowing  the 
queen  was  come, 

[Fol.  68  6.] 
he  hoped  to  kill 
her, 


and  advances  to 
the  dais,  staring 
at  her. 


Raising  hia 
bristles  and 
roaring,  he 
rushes  at  her. 


In  great  fear, 
she  cries  out  for 
help, 


confessing  she 
has  deserved 
death,  but  begging 
for  her  life. 


William  catches 
the  werwolf  by 
the  neck,  and 
says, 

"  Trust  me,  dear 
beast, 


I  sent  for  her  for 
thy  sake. 


140 


WILLIAM    PACIFIES    THE    WERWOLF. 


Unless  she 
disenchants  you, 
she  shall  be  burnt, 

[Fol.  69.] 

and  the  Spaniards 
shall  be  kept  in 
prison  for  ever ; 


wherefore  do  her 
no  harm." 


The  werwolf  is 
glad,  and  kisses 
William's  feet. 


Queen  Braunden 
is  glad, 


and  kneels  before 
the  werwolf, 
saying, 

"  Sweet  Alphonse, 
the  people  shall 
soon  see  thy 
seemly  face. 


I  have  sinned 
aijainst  you, 


but  God  wills  not 
that  you  should 
be  lost. 


to  help  f  e  of  f  i  hele  •  hastili,  ^if  sche  mi^t.  4364 

&  sche  has  brou^t  now  f  i  bote  •  bi  cn'st,  as  i  hope, 

&  but  sche  haue,  be  ri$t  siker  •  be  god  fat  vs  wrou3t, 

to  cold  coles  sche  schal  be  brent  •  ^it  or  come  eue  ; 

&  f  e  aschis  of  hire  body  •  with  f  e  wind  weue,         4368 

&  f  i  sire  &  his  sone  *  &  alle  is  segges  noble 

schul  be  put  in  prison  •  &  peyned  for  euere, 

dulfulli  here  lif  daies  •  til  deth  haue  hem  take. 

for-f  i  lete  me  allone  •  mi  lef  swete  frende,  4372 

anoie  f  e  na  more  •  ne  nede  schalt  f  ou  haue, 

ne  to  hire  do  no  duresse  •  as  f  ou  me  derli  louest." 

s  werwolf  was  ful  glad  *  of  wilk'ams  speche, 
fat  bi-het  him  in  hast  •  to  haue  help  after,       4376 
&  faire  doun  to  his  fete  *  fel  hem  to  kisse, 
&  as  he  coude,  be  contenauwce  •  ful  kindeli  graurated, 
In  alle  wise  to  worche  l  •  as  wilh'am  wold  seie, 
&  made  no  more  debat  •  in  no  maner  wice.  4380 

as  sone  as  f  e  quen  •  saw  how  it  ferde, 
fat  f  e  werwolf  wold  •  worche  hire  no  schaf  e, 
sche  was  gretli  .glad  •  &  oft  god  f  onkes, 
&  pertili  bi-fore  alle  fe  puple  •  passed  him  tille,     4384 
&  bliue  bi-fore  f  e  best  •  on  bof  e  knes  hire  sette, 
&  mekli  in  f  is  maner  •  mercy  sche  craued. 
"  swete  alphouws,"  sche  seide  •  "  mi  semli  lorde, 
I  haue  brou^t  here  f  i  bote  *  to  bring  f  e  of  sorwe  ;  4388 
sone  schal  f  e  puple  se  •  f  i  semli  face, 
In  manhede  &  in  minde  •  as  it  out  to  bene. 
I  haue  f  e  gretli  a-gelt  •  to  god  ich  am  a-knowe, 
for  redili  fe  to  reue  •  fi  ri3t  eritage  ;  4392 

fat  fis  man  min  owne  sone  •  imjt  it  haue  hadde 
feif  li  after  f  i  fader  •  ich  forschop  f  e  f  anne 
In  f  ise  wise  to  a  werwolf  •  and  wend  f  e  to  spille  ; 
but  god  wold  nou^t  •  fat  fou  were  lorne.  4396 

for-f  i  of  mi  mis-gelt  •  mercy  ich  craue, 

1  MS.  "  worthe." 


QUEEN    BRAUNDEN    BEGS    FOR    HER   LIFE. 


141 


lene  me  lif,  }if  f  e  likes  •  alphouws,  i  f  e  praye, 

&  at  f  i  bidding  wol  i  be  *  buxura  euer-more, 

&  lelli  as  my  lord  *  al  my  lif  f  e  seme,  4400 

&  neuer  agult  f  e  wil  i  Hue  •  in  game  ne  on  ernest ; 

&  giue  me  now  in  f  i  grace  •  and  godli  f  e  bi-seche, 

for  his  loue  fat  mad  man  •  for-giue  me  f  is  gelt." 

&  fan  wi^tli  to  willmm  •  weping  sche  seide,  4404 

"  a !  kurtes  kni^t  *  for  m'stes  loue  of  heuene, 

bidde  f  is  buxuw  best  •  be  merciabul  nouf  e, 

for  he  wol  worche  at  f  i  wille  •  i  wot  wel  forsof  e, 

More  fan  for  alle  mew.  *  fat  on  mold  liuen ;  4408 

&  ^ou,  alle  hende  lordes  •  helpef  me  to  praye 

to  j)is  kurtes  kni^t  •  to  graunt  my  bone. 

to  J)is  bestes  mercy  •  i  bo  we  me  at  alle, 

to  worche  with  me  is  wille  •  as  him-self  likes."       4412 


Spare  my  life,  and 
I  will  never  harm 
you  more." 


[Fol.  69  &.] 


She  further  begs 
William  to 
intercede  for  her, 


and  begs  the 
other  lords  to 
do  the  same. 


4416 


Of  f  e  quenes  profer  *  f  e  puple  hadde  reuf  e, 
for  sche  fel  to-fore  f  e  best  •  flat  to  f  e  grouwde  ; 
f  er  was  weping  &  wo  •  wonderli  riue. 
but  so  kenli  f  e  king  •  &  f  e  kni^tes  alle 
bi-sou^t  willmm  for  f  e  quen  •  sof  li  so  ^erne, 
fat  he  godli  al  his  gref  *  for-gaf  at  f  e  last, 
so  fat  sche  hastili  hi^ed  •  to  help  fat  best ; 
&  blef eli  boute  grutching  •  fat  graurated  sche  sone.  4420 
fan  stint  sche  no  lenger  *  but  bout  stryf  went 
Into  a  choys  chaumber  *  f  e  clerli  was  peinted, 
fat  non  went  hire  with  •  but  f  e  werwolf  al-one. 
fan  rau^t  sche  forf  a  ring  •  a  riche  &  a  nobul,         4424 
f  e  ston  fat  f  eron  was  sti^t  •  was  of  so  stif  vertu, 
fat  neuer  man  vpow  mold  *  mi^t  it  him  on  haue, 
ne  schuld  he  with  wicchecraft  •  be  wicched  neuer-more, 
ne  per[i]sche  1  with  no  poysoun  •  ne  purliche  enuene- 
med ;  4428 

ne  wrongli  schuld  he  wiue  •  fat  it  in  wold  hadde. 
fat  riche  ring  ful  redily  •  with  a  red  silk  f  rede 
1  MS.  "persche."     Read  "perische."—  M. 


There  was  much 
weeping  and  woe. 


William  forgives 
her  if  she  will 
heal  the  beast. 


She  at  once  goes 
with  the  werwolf 
into  a  private 
chamber, 

draws  forth  a 
magic  ring,  with  a 
stone  in  it  that 
was  proof 
against  all 
witchcraft. 


She  binds  it  with 
a  red  silk  thread 


142 


QUEEN    BRAUNDEN    DISENCHANTS    THE    WERWOLF. 


round  the  wolfs 
neck. 

She  takes  a  book 
out  of  a  casket, 
and  reads  in  it  a 
long  time,  till  he 
becomes  a  man 
again. 

[Fol.  70.] 

William  only  was 
fairer. 


The  werwolf  is 
very  glad, 


but  is  ashamed 
of  being  naked. 

She  tells  him  he 
need  not  be  so, 
for  they  are  alone. 


He  must  now  go 
to  the  bath. 


Alphonse  goes  to 
the  bath,  finding 
it  "  tidily  warm." 


The  qneen  serves 
him. 


f  e  quen  bond  als  bliue  •  a-boute  f  e  wolwes  necke.    }rfs 

sef  e  feif li  of  a  forcer  •  a  fair  bok  sche  rau^t,  4-432 

&  radde  f  er-on  redli  •  rijt  a  long  while, 

so  fat  sche  made  him  to  man  •  in  Jjat  mene  while, 

as  fair  as  fetys  *  and  als  freli  schapen, 

as  any  man  vpow  mold  •  mi^t  on  deuise.  4436 

was  non  fairre  in  world  •  but  will/am  allone, 

for  he  of  fairnesse  was  flour  •  of  frekes  fat  Hue. 

whan  f  e  werwolf  wist  •  fat  he  was  man  bi-come, 

fair  of  alle  fasou^  •  as  him  fel  to  bene, '  4440 

he  was  gretli  glad  •  no  gum  f  urt  him  blame, 

ful  wel  him  liked  f  e  lessun  •  fat  f  e  lady  radde. 

sof  li  fat  he  was  so  naked  •  sore  he  was  a-schamed, 

whan  f e  quen  fat  of-sey  •  sone  sche  seide  him  tille, 

"  a  !  alphourcs,  leue  lord  •  lat  be  alle  f  o  f  ou^tes,     4445 

i  se  wel  fou  art  a-schamed  *  &  so  were  it  no  nede ; 

ne  buf  here  in  f  is  bour  •  but  our  selue  tweyne. 

&  on  f  e,  sire,  se  i  no  si^t  *  but  as  it  schuld  bene,    4448 

ne  f  e  failef  no  f  ing  •  fat  fallef  a  man  to  haue. 

fare  now  forf  to  f  i  baf  •  fat  faire  is  keuered. 

for  it  is  geinli  greif  ed  •  in  a  god  asise."    /»*' 

&  alphourcs  anon  fanne  •  after  hire  sawe,  4452 

buskes  in  to  f  e  baf  *  boute  more  noyse, 

&  fond  it  treuli  a-tired  •  &  tidili  warme. 

f  e  quen  him  comforted  *  &  curtesli  him  serued 

as  mekkeli  as  sche  mi^t  •  in  alle  maner  wise  ;          4456 

for  no  burn  nas  hem  bi  •  but  hem-self  tweyne. 


n  f  e  curtes  quen  *  ful  cunyngli  saide, 
she  asks  him        J     "  swete  sire,  saie  me  now  •  so  ^ou  cn'st  help, 

who  shall  give 

him  his  clothes  ?    what  gom  wol  36  fat  $ou  giue  •  ^our  garnemews  nouf e  I 
36  ne  tok  neuer  as  i  trowe  •  of  kni^thod  fie  hordere.  4461 
for-f  i  f  ow  telle  me  of  whom  *  36  take  it  f  enk, 
for  wel  36  wite  [what]  whi}  •  worf  iest  is  here." 

He  says  he  will      «  Madame,"  ban  seide  alphourcs  •  "  be  marie  in  heuen, 

take  his  attire  and 

the  order  of          I  wol  take  myn  a-tir  •  &  fat  trie.ordere  4465 


THE    WERWOLF    ASKS    FOR    CLOTHES. 


143 


I 


of  f  e  worf  iest  wei3  *  fat  weldes  now  Hue." 
"  hoo  is  fat,"  seide  f  e  quen  •  "  is  it  3our  fader  ] " 
"  Nay,   bi  god,"   quath   alphu?is    •  "  fat  gart  me  be 
fourmed,  4468 

It  is  fat  ilk  kud  kni3t  •  fat  36  alle  knowe, 
fat  deliuered  f  e  of  f  e  deth  •  fis  day  of  mi-selue. 
a  worf ier  wie^h  in  fis  world  •  wonef  no^  nouf e, 
king  ne  kmjt  as  of  kin  '  ne  of  kud  dedes.  4472 

Mi  tir  of  him  wol  ich  take  •  and  fat  trie  order, 
&  loue  him  as  mi  lege  lord  •  al  mi  lif  time." 
f  e  quen  after  william  •  went  in-to  halle, 
&  tok  him  sli^li  bi  f  e  sleue  •  &  saide  in  his  ere,      4476 
"  sire,  3if  f  i  wille  were  •  f  e  werwolf  f  e  bi-sechef , 
fat  tow  tit  com  him  to  •  to  tire  him  in  his  wedes  ; 
he  ne  wol  fat  non  of  er  •  fat  worchipe  him  36116." 
"  is  fat  sof,"  saide  william  •  "  mi  swete  lady  hende  1 
cleymef  he  after  clofes  'for  cristes  loue  in  heuen?  4481 
deceyue  me  nou3t  with  f  i  dedes  •  but  seie  me  f  e  sof  e." 
"$is,  bi  cn'st,"  quaf  fe  quen  •  "  clofes  he  askes  ; 
he  is  as  hoi,  heri3ed  be  god  •  as  he  was  eue?*  $ite,    4484 
&  manliche  in  alle  maneres  •  as  to  man  falles  ; 
hi^es  him  hastili  him  to  •  &  help  he  were  greif  ed ; 
for  i  wot  fat  fis  folk  •  fayn  wold  him  sene.  4487 

but  he  wol  fat  no  wijt  •  to  chaumber  with  f  e  come, 
but  meliors  f  i  menskful  make  •  &  f  e  quenes  doujter, 
Dame  florence  f  e  faire  •  for  whom  was  fis  werre. 
hem  bof  e  he  biddef  bring  •  &  no  wijt  elles." 
fan  william  ful  wi^tli  •  as  man  ful  of  ioye,  4492 

clipte  f  e  quen  &  kest  •  &  oft  crist  f  onkes, 
fat  his  felawe  was  hoi  •  fat  hade  him  holp  oft. 
as  bliue  was  him  brou3t  •  al  fat  bi-houed 
of  alle  comli  clofing  •  fat  a  kni^t  schuld  haue  ;      4496 
no  man  vporc  mold  •  mijt  richer  deuise. 
fan  william  wi3tli  •  with  meliors  &  his  suster, 
&  f  e  comli  quene  *  spacli  forf  f  ei  went 
in-to  f  e  chois  chaumber  •  f  er  changed  was  f  e  best 


knighthood  from 
the  worthiest  man 
alive, 


viz.  William,  who 
shall  be  his  liege 
.ord. 

[Fol.  70  &.] 


The  queen  tells 
William  the 
werwolf  wishes 
him  to  clothe  him. 


"  Is  it  true,"  he 
says,  "  that  he 
asks  for  clothes  ? ' 


"  Yes,"  says  she, 
"he  is  as  whole 
as  ever. 


He  will  have  no 
one  but  you  and 
Melior  and  the 
princess 
Florence." 


William  kisses 
the  queen  for 
making  his  fellow 
whole. 


William,  Melior, 
&c.,  go  to  the 
chamber, 


144 


WILLIAM    AND    OTHERS    GO    TO    SEE    HIM. 


and  see  a  bath 
and  a  bed,  with 
a  man  in  it 
whom  they  knew 
not. 

[Fol.  71.] 

Yet  they  greet 
him,  and 
Alphonse  answers, 


"  Sir  knight, 
you  give  me  a 
poor  welcome." 


"  True,"  said 
William, "  but  I 
conjure  you  to 
say  who  you  are." 


"  t  am  the 
werwolf,  who 
have  saved  you 
from  many 
perils." 


William  embraces 
him  with  great 
joy. 


Florence  greets 
him,  and  he 
instantly  falls  in 
love  with  her. 


out  of  pe  werwolfs  wise  •  to  a  worpi  kni^t.  4501 

pan  bi-held  pei  pe  ba))  •  &  a  bed  bi-side, 
&  in  pat  bed  als  bliue  •  pat  burn  pei  seien, 
)>at  non  so  semli  to  here  si$t  •  saw  pei  neuer  ere  ;    4504 
but  of  pat  companie,  be  cn'st  '  per  ne  knew  him  none, 
napeles  wilKam  wi^tli  *  worpili  him  grette, 
&  po  menskful  maidenes  *  mekli  per-after, 
&  pan  alphou^s  a-non  •  answered  &  saide,  4508 

"  cn'st  krouned  king  •  sire  kni^t,  mot  ^ou  saue, 
&  pi  faire  felachipe  •  pat  folwep  pe  after, 
sire  kni^t,  i  am  in  pi  kip  •  &  corner  to  pi  owne, 
&  pow  makes  me  now  *  but  pis  mene  semblarct.      4512 
to  put  pe  of  peril  •  i  haue  ney  pensched  oft, 
&  many  a  scharp  schour  •  for  pi  sake  poled, 
to  litel  pow  me  knowest  •  or  kinhed  me  kijjes." 
"  sertes,  sire,  Jat  is  sojj  "  •  seide  wilh'am  fanne,      4516 
"  I  ne  wot  in  ))is  world  •  what  fat  36  are  ; 
but  i  corciure  3ou,  be  cn'st  *  pat  on  croyce  was  peyned, 
]>at  36  seie  me  swij>e  so])  •  ho-so  ^e  bene." 
"  I  am  he,  J?e  werwolf  "  •  sede  alphourcs  jjanne,       4520 
"  fat  haue  suffred  for  jji  sake  •  many  sori  peynes, 
&  pult  fe  out  of  periles  *  \er  ]?ou  perisched l  schuldest, 
nade  goddes  grete  mi^t  be  *  &  mi  gode  help." 
"  certes,  sire,  ]>at  is  so])  "  •  sede  wilh'am  fanne,        4524 
&  lepes  Ii3tli  him  to  •  &  lacchis  him  in  armes ; 
with  clipping  &  kesseng  •  J>ei  kidden  gret  ioye. 
alle  pe  men  vpon  mold  *  ne  mi3t  half  telle 
pe  mir])  pat  waa  maked  •  in  pe  mene  while.  4528 

&  3if  willmm  was  glad  •  wittow  forsope, 
Meliors  was  moche  more  •  3if  it  so  mi3t  bene ; 
&  florence  of  pat  fare  •  panne  gret  ferli  hadde. 
&  sone  as  sche  him  saw  *  loueli  sche  him  grett,       4532 
&  he  godli  a-gayn  •  gret  pat  gode  mayde, 
&  for  pe  beaute  pat  sche  bar  •  as  bliue  his  hert 
turned  to  hire  treuli  •  to  loue  for  euer-more. 
1  Read  "  perische  "  (?) 


PRINCE   ALPHONSSE    FALLS    IN    LOVE   WITH    FLORENCE.  145 

whan  bei  in  bat  gladnesse  •  a  gret  while  hade  sete, 

alphourcs  asked  a-non  •  a-tir  for  to  haue,  4537  2£nf£*J°nBe 

to  fare  out  as  fast  *  with  his  fader  to  speke,  clothes,  to  go  and 

see  his  father. 

&  with  lordesse  of  bat  lond  •  ]>at  him  long  hade  missed.       [Foi.  71  ?>.] 

&  wilKam  wi}tli  •  with-oute  any  more,  4540 

Greyed  him  as  gaili  •  as  any  gom  Jmrt  bene,  Z!Ta££ft. 

of  alle  trie  a-tir  *  bat  to  kni^t  longed, 

so  bat  noD  mijt  a-mend l  •  a  mite  worb,  i  wene. 

&  whan  bei  were  at  wille  •  as  bei  wold  he  greibed,  4544 

eche  on  hent  ober  hi  be  hand  *  hendli  &  faire, 

&  hastili  in-to  be  hei3e  halle  •  hidden  in-fere.  2252?'*" 

whan  be  perles  puple  •  perceyueden  hem 2  come, 

Many  a  lord  ful  loueli  •  lep  hem  a^ens,  4548 

as  bo  bat  were  geinli  glad  *  on  bat  gom  to  loke. 

Gret  nmrrbe  at  bat  metyng  •  was  mad,  he  3011  sure. 

be  king  of  spayne  forsobe  •  knew  his  sone  sone,  The  kins  of 

Spain  soon  knew 

&  gret  him  ferst  as  a  glad  man  •  &  oft  god  bonkes,  4552  MS  son. 

bat  he  so  faire  hade  founde  *  his  formest  sone. 

seben  be  lordes  of  londe  •  loueli  him  gretten, 

&  his  hold  hrober  •  he-fore  alle  ober ; 

saue  be  king  him-self  •  semliest  he  him  gret,  4556 

&  most  ioye  for  bat  metyng  •  made  bat  time.  brother. 

no  tong  mi^t  telle  •  treuli  be  sobe, 

be  ioye  bat  was  wrou3t  •  with  lasse  &  with  more. 

be  comli  quen  of  palerne  •  oft  crist  bonked,  4560  The  queen  of 

Palermo  thanks 

bat  hade  hire  sent  of  his  sond  •  so  moche  ioye  to  haue,    Christ. 

&  hade  setteled  hire  sorwe  •  so  sone,  pat  was  huge. 

sone  be  semli  segges  •  were  sette  in  halle  ;  tSe'tSp  proper 

be  real  rinkes  hi  reson  *  at  be  hei3e  dese,  4564 

&  alle  ober  afterward  *  on  be  side  benches, 

&  sete  so  in  solas  •  sadli  ful  be  halle, 

eche  dingneli  at  his  degre  •  to  deme  be  sobe. 

whan  be  noyse  was  slaked  *  of  be  semli  hurnes,      4568 

be  king  of  spayne  spak  •  to  alphouws  his  sone, 

1  MS.  "a-mand."     Read  "amend." — M. 

2  MS.  "  whan."     Read  "  hem."— M. 

10 


146  ALPHONSB   ASKS    WHAT    CAUSED    THE    WAR. 

&  sede,  "semli  sone  •  sore  has  me  longed 
to  se  f  i  freli  face  *  fat  i  for-lore  hadde. 
[Foi.  72.]        for  fis  comli  quen  •  f  urth  ^one  kni^tes  dedes,         4572 

haf  vs  alle  in  hold  •  to  harm  at  hire  wille. 
saying  it  had        but  swete  sone  •  saide  it  haf  ben  oft, 

been  foretold  that    ,  _   _. 

their  deliverance    fat  our  deliuerauftce  •  was  don  on  fe  one  ;  4575 

would  be  wrought    .i-itiijiii  -IT 

by  him  only.         f  iirth  f  e  schuld  we  help  haue  •  or  neuer-more  elles. 
f  er-fore,  heuen  king  •  heried  mot  36  bene, 
fat  haf  f  e  lend  lif  •  vs  alle  to  deliuere." 

Aiphonse  inquires  "  swete  sire,"  seide  alphouws  *  "  so  2011  crist  help, 

what  caused  the 

war.  wharf  ore  was  al  fis  fare  •  formest  bi-gunne  ?  "         4580 

"bi  crist,  sone,"  quaf  fe  king  •  "to  carpe  fe  sofe, 
The  king  says,       alle  be  werre  &  bis  wo  •  is  our  wronge  dedes. 

"I  desired  to  have    .         J 

this  damsel  for      i  desired  fis  damisele  •  fat  digne  is  &  iiobul, 

to  haue  hire  to  fi  forofer  •  fat  here  bi  fe  sittef  ;     4584 
Her  mother  would  ac  hire  moder  in  no  maner  •  hire  nold  me  grau?ite. 

not  grant  it,  and 

i  wasted  their       for-f  i  w^tk  with  werre  *  i  wasted  alle  hire  londes, 

&  bro^t  hire  at  swiche  bale  •  fat  sche  mercy  craued, 
in  fis  maner  fat  sche  •  most  mekli  &  faire,  4588 

do  hire  a-wei  with  hire  doubter  •  boute  more  harme  ; 
sche  wilned  nou^t  elles  *  but  fat  nold  i  graunt. 
But  this  bold        kut  jjan  com  fis  kene  kni^t  •  &  f  urth  his  clene  strengf  e, 
prisoners."  boldli  in  batayle  •  he  bar  doun  vs  alle,  4592 

&  pult  vs  in  prison  *  to  payne  at  his  grace  ; 
f  us  sped  we  vs  out  of  spayne  •  to  spire  after  winnywg." 


Aiphonse  answers,    A  lphou?is  fan  a-non  *  answered  &  saide, 

•£*•  "  faire  fader,  bi  mi  feif  •  folili  36  wrou3ten,       4596 
"  YOU  did  wrong,   to  wilne  after  wedlok  •  fat  wold  nou3t  a-sente. 

and  can  only 

blame  yourself.      fat  mowe  36  wite  bi  3our  werkes   *  how  wrofli  l  30 

spedde  ; 

to  wicke  was  3our  coTiseil  •  &  3our  wille  after  ; 
But  i  hope  ail        ^if  36  2  haue  wonne  fe  worse  *  wite  it  ^oiir-selue.      4600 

can  be  made  to  . 

end  well."  but  i  hope  to  heuen  king  •  311  36  wol  here  mi  wordes, 

1  Read  "  wrongli."—  M. 

'MS.  "he."    Read"ze."-M. 


ALPHONSE  REVEALS  WILLIAM  S  PARENTAGE. 


147 


al  Jjis  bale  sclial  be  brou^t  •  to  bote  at  j>e  last." 

to  Jje  quen  of  palerne  •  alphoums  ])iis  saide, 

"  a  !  menskful  madame  *  mekes  alle  ^our  peple,       4604 

Jjat  non  spend  no  speche  •  til  i  speke  haue." 

Jjaii  was  silens  mad  •  to  seie  al  Jje  sojje. 

"  ladis  &  ojjer  lordes  •  lestenej)  now  my  sawe  ! 

Jjis  30  witejj  wel  alle  •  with-oute  any  fabul,  4608 

Jjat  J?is  lond  hade  be  lore  •  at  Jje  last  ende, 

3if  Jjise  werres  hade  lasted  •  any  while  here. 

but  god  3011  sent  swiche  grace  •  of  his  grete  n^t, 

Jjat  Jjis  kud  kni3t  •  with  his  clene  strengjje  4612 

hajj  i-bet  al  3oure  bale  •  &  broi^t  to  3our  wille 

alle  }our  fon  Jjat  with  fors  •  defoyled  3011  long.       <^^r 

3it  wot  non  wiseli  •  wennes  he  come, 

ne  what  wei3  he  is  *  but  wite  schal  36  sone.  4616 

3if  Jjat  burn  wel  him  bar  •  i  blame  him  but  litel ; 

for  mater  i-now  haj?  eche  man  •  to  mene  Jje  sojje, 

his  moder  Jjat  is  in  meschef  •  to  meyntene  &  help  ; 

&  schal  come  him  bi  kinde  *  3if  he  crist  loue."         4620 

"  what  bi-tokenej?  Jjis  tale  *  tellejj,  i  be-seche, 

whi  seie  30  so  1 "  *  seide  j>e  quene  Jjanne. 

"  sertes,  madame,"  seid  alphouras  •  "  sojjli  me  leue. 

Jjis  comli  kni3t  is  Jji  sone  •  bi  crist  ]jat  me  wroi^t ;  4624 

}jou  bar  him  of  jji  bodi  •  king  ebrouws  was  his  fader. 

al  Jjis  lordchip  of  Jjis  lond  •  is  lelli  his  owne. 

<fe  i  am  ]je  werwolf  •  wite  36  for  sojje, 

Jjat  bi-fore  his  fader  •  ful  3ore  i  3011  bi-reft,  4628 

<fe  passed  with  him  mi  weie  •  prestli  fro  3ou  alle. 

pe  king  &  hise  kni^tes  •  with  kries  ful  huge, 

Jjei  sewed  rijt  to  jje  see  •  to  sle  me  3if  ]?ei  mi3t. 

but  bliue  boute  bot  •  Jje  brode  water  i  passed,          4632 

boute  hurt  ojjer  harm  •  helped,  be  goddes  grace, 

Jjat  so  sauf  sent  me  oner  '  wijj  Jji  sone  sounde. , 

&  gode  ladi,  3if  Jje  like  •  loue  me  neuer  Jje  worse, 

Jjat  i  Jje  barn  away  bar  •  to  blame  had  i  be  ellefs],  4636 

for  i  wist  ful  wel  •  wat  wo  him  was  toward 
10  * 


Alphonse  craves 
silence  while  he 
speaks  further. 

[Fol.  72  6.] 

"  Ladies  and 
lords,  this  land 
had  been  lost  if 
the  war  had 
lasted. 


But  this  knight 
hath  remedied  all 
your  grief, 

I  /«•* 


and  yet  no  oue 
knows  who  he  is. 


He  did  quite  right 
to  help  HIS 

MOTHER." 


"  What  means 
this  ?  "  said  the 
queen. 


"This  knight, 
madame,  is  THY 
sow,  and  king 
Ebrouns  was  his 
father. 

I  am  the  werwolf 
who  took  him 
away  from  you 
all. 

Then  the  king 
and  his  knights 
pursued  me  as 
far  as  to  the  sea 
[Straits  of 
Messina], 

which  I  crossed 
over  in  safety. 


148 


WHY    THE    WERWOLF    STOLE    WILLIAM    AWAY. 


Had  I  not  taken 
him  away,  he 
would  soon  have 
been  dead. 
[Fol.  73.] 


For  Ebrouns' 
brother  bribed  the 
ladies  who  had 
William  in  their 
care, 


to  poison  the 
king  and  prince 
both. 

When  I  knew  it, 
I  was  grieved, 
and  for  pity  stole 
him  away. 


I  have  ever  helped 
him  at  need,  and 
have  brought  him 
hither, 


and  now  yield 
him  to  thee 
again." 

When  the  queen 
heard  this,  her 
joy  was 
unbounded. 


Melior  perhaps 
was  the  gladdest 
of  all,  that  her 
lover  was  king  of 
all  that  land. 


ne  had  i  so  do,  lie  hade  be  ded  •  many  a  day  passed. 

J?e  king  ebrouws  brober  *  be-bou^t  bis  oft, 

if1  bis  ilk  bold  km$t  *  had  be  broi^t  out  of  line,     4640 

he  schold  have  entred  as  eyr  •  bis  eritage  to  hold, 

after  be  kinges  day  •  bi  dessent  of  blode. 

&  sone  as  a  schrewe  schuld  •  be  schrewedest  he  boi^t ; 

he  coynted  him  queyntli  •  with  bo  tvo  ladies,          4644 

bat  hade  bat  time  bi  sone  •  to  kepe  in  warde, 

&  meded  hem  so  moche  *  wib  alle  maner  Binges, 

&  bi-het  hem  wel  more  •  ban  i  3011  telle  kan, 

Gret  lordchip  of  londes  •  &  liking  at  wille,  4648 

so  bat  bei  him  bi-hi^t  •  bi  a  schort  terme, 

bat  bei  pn'ueli  wold  enpoysoun  •  be  king  &  his  sone, 

to  haue  do  krouned  him  king  •  to  kepe  bat  reaume. 

but  whan  i  knew  al  here  cast  •  of  here  wic  wille,     4652 

I  ne  mi3t  it  suffer  •  for  sorwe  &  for  reube, 

bat  here  wicked  wille  •  in  bise  wise  ended. 

&  ]>erfor  i  him  tok  •  now  haue  i  told  be  soj>e, 

&  haue  him  holp  herto  •  wanne  he  hade  nede,        4656 

as  moche  as  i  nri^t  •  in  eny  maner  wise  : 

&  hider  i  brou^t  him,  be  }ou  siker  *  ^our  bales  for  to 

amende, 
haue  him  now  bi  be  hand  •  i  3  eld  him  here  to  J?e." 


2  be  comli  quen  •  bat  carping  hade  herde, 
&  saw  J?at  was  hire  sone  *  sofli  i-proued, 


4660 


fer  nys  man  vpow  mold  •  mi^t  telle  J>e  ioye 
fat  was  mad  hem  bi-twene  *  in  ]?e  mene  wh[i]le, 
betwene  ))e  dame  &  J?e  doubter  *  &  hire  dere  sone,  4664 
with  clipping  &  kesseng  •  &  o]>er  kinde  dede. 
&  ^if  any  mi^t  be  most  •  meliors  was  gladdest, 
Jjat  hire  loueliche  lemman  •  was  lord  of  J?at  reaume. 
bi  kinde  as  kinges  sone  •  &  god  kni^t  him-selue.     4668 

MS.  "  of."     Perhaps  we  should  substitute  if.— M. 
2  MS.  "Mhan."     The  rubricator  has  here  and  elsewhere  made 
a  mistake,  and  inserted  a  capital  M  for  a  W. — M. 


ALPHONSB   TELLS    THE    WHOLE    STORY. 


149 


swiche  mwrrthe  as  was  mad  •  at  fat  metyng  f  anne, 

&  fat  of  al  fat  puple  •  fat  in  f  e  paleys  were, 

tonge  mi^t  non  telle  •  J)e  tenf  e  l  del,  for  sof  e. 

&  anon,  after  fat  *  alphouns  panne  hem  tolde,        4672 

alle  f  e  happes  fat  lie  hadde  •  al  holly  to  f  e  hende, 

from  fat  time  fat  he  tok  *  f  e  child  fro  his  frendes. 

how  f  e  fader  him  folwed  *  fayn  him  to  quelle ; 

&  how  he  bar  for])  f  e  barn  •  over  f  e  brode  water ;  4676 

&  sef  en  how  he  sou^t  for])  •  bi  selcouf  wei^es, 

bering  euer  fat  barn  •  be  ni^tes  and  daie, 

til  he  com  bi  a  forest  •  seuen  mile  fro  rome ; 

&  how  J)e  cou-herde   com   him  to  •  &  kept  J)e  child 

after,  4680 

&  sef  en  how  f  empef'our  •  sou^t  out  to  hunte, 
&  fond  him  in  f  e  forest  •  &  faire  hade  him  home, 
&  tok  him  to  kepe  •  to  his  doubter  dere  ; 
&  how  f  e  meke  mayde  &  he  *  melled  of  lone,          4684 
<fe  hadde  here  liking  in  lone  •  a  long  time  ofte  ; 
&  how  J)e  kinges  sone  of  grece  *  kom  hire  to  wedde, 
&    on    fe   morwe  fat   fe   mariage    •   schold  haue  be 

maked, 

how  fei  went  a-wai  •  in  wite  beres  skinnes  ;  4688 

"  f  er-after,  sire,  i  f  e  saued  •  forsof  e  as  fow  knowest, 
whanne  alle  J)e  puple  prestili  •  pursewed  after, 
to  haue  do  fe  to  defe  •  &  J)i  dere  make. 
&  at  boneuewt  i  J>e  brou3t  •  fram  ]?e  breme  quarrer, 
whan  al  fe  cunfae  was  uwbe-cast  •  with  clene  mew  of 

armes,  4693 

to  haue  J>e  take  ]>er  tit  •  &  to  dethe  hampred ; 
I  tok  here  souerayne  sone  •  so  saued  i  fe  fere." 
sefen  he  told  hou  he  dede  •  here  hides  fan  chauwge, 
&  dede  hem  haue  hertes  skinnes  •  to  hiden  in  hem 

bofe.  4697 

"  sef en  at  a  wide  water  •  i  wan  3ou  over  bofe, 
a  token  e  $it  of  fat  time  *  telle  i  mai  f i  burde. 
1  MS.  "tonfre."     See  1.  4715. 


[Pol.  73  6.] 
Alphonse  recounts 
all  the  details- 


how  he  bore 
William  over  the 
water ; 

how  he  carried 
him  by  strange 
ways  to  the 
forest  near  Rome; 

how  the  cowherd 
found  him,  and 
then  the  emperor; 


how  he  and  the 
emperor's 
daughter  loved 
each  other ; 

how  the  lovers 
fled,  clad  in  two 
white  bears' 
skins ; 


how  they  escaped 
at  Benevento ; 


how  they 
exchanged  their 
hides  for  harts' 
skins; 


150  WILLIAM    SWEARS    FRIENDSHIP    TO    ALPHONSE. 

and  how  the         a  boye  hire  $af  a  buffet  ••  with  a  breme  ore,  4700 

Meiior  with  an      so  fat  hire  lif  lelH  •  nei$  hade  sche  lore." 

alle  here  happes  holli  •  alphouws  tellef  fere, 
&  what  he  hade  suffred  '.-to  sauen  here  Hues. 


wmiam  was  very   TTThan  William,  hade  herd  •  holli  his  wordes,         4704 

glad  at  finding  he       IV 

was  king  Ebrouns'       '    he  was  gretli  glad  •  no  gom  furt  mm  wite, 
°n'[Foi.  74.]        fat  al  f  e  puple  in  )>e  place  •  a-pertli  knewen 

fat  he  was  kindeli  *  king  ebrouras  sone. 

He  embraces  and    fan  lai^t  he  alphouws  anon  •  loueli  in  armes,          4708 
saying,  P  &  clipped  him  &  kessed  •  &  kindeli  sayde, 

"  a  !  faire  frend  alphoims  *  ioye  f  e  bi-tide, 
"May  God  requite  &  god  for  his  grete  mi^t  '  fi  godnesse  fe  ^elde, 

&  fi  tenful  trauayles  *  fow  hast  for  me  suffred,      4712 

&  for  my  loueli  lemman  •  lord  it  f  e  quite  ! 


For  i  know  not      for  j  ne  wot  in  fas  W0rld  *  what  wise  i  mht 

how  to  requite 

thee  the  tenth       quite  f  e  [f  e]  tenf  edel  •  in  al  mi  lif  time. 

but  fer  nis  god  vnder  god  •  fat  i  may  gete  euer,     471/6 
AH  i  can  do  shau   fat  it  [ne]  schal  redeli  be  fin  •  at  fin  owne  wille  ;  l 

be  done  soon,  to  . 

make  all  thine.      ne  no  dede  fat  i  may  do  •  fat  ne  schal  be  do  sone, 
&  loue  lelli  what  f  ou  louest  •  al  mi  lif  dawes, 

haTesshTbe3       &  liate  Iiei3eli  in  hert  '  J>at  >ou  hate  f  enkest,         4720 
mme-  so  fat  my  hert  holli  •  schal  hold  him  at  f  i  wille. 

&  f  erto  hei^eliche  am  i  hold  •  for  holli  i  knowe 
AH  that  thou  hast  j,at  alle  f  e  sawes  be  sof  •  fat  bou  saidest  ere  : 

said  is  wholly          r 

true."  sadde  sorwes  for  mi  sake  •  suffred  astow  manye."    4724 

"  sertes,  sire,  fat  is  sof  "  •  seide  alphouws  f  anne, 

"  Me  >inke))  3e  m[^  be  hold  '  to  (luite  me  mi  mede  '> 
&  so  i  desire  fat  f  ou  [do]  2  •  3if  ^ou  dere  f  inkes. 

"$a  !  wold  god,"  seide  william  *  "  fat  i  wist  nouf  e  4728 
"  in  what  way  ?  "  In  what  maner  bat  i  mitt  •  mest  with  be  piece, 

answered 

William.  or  fat  i  wait  worldes  god  *  fat  fou  woldest  ^erne." 

"  jis,  sire,"  seide  alphouws  •  "  so  me  crist  help, 

1  Here  follow  two  lines  (out  of  place)  which  occur  again  below. 
See  11.  4722,  4723,"  and  the  note. 

2  Or  insert  "  wole,"  as  Sir  F.  Madden  suggests. 


ALPHONSE   ASKS    FLORENCE    IN    MARRIAGE. 


151 


f  er  nis  god  vnder  god  •  fat  i  gretli  willne,  4732 

as  o  f  ing  fat  f  ou  woldest  *  wilfulli  me  graurct." 

"  ^is,  i-wisse,"  seide  wilKam  •  "  wilne  what  f  e  likes, 

f  ei}  f  ou  in  hast  woldest  haue  '  holli  al  mi  reaume  ; 

I  wold  nowt  wilne  a  mite  worf  •  but  meliors  allone." 

alphouna  a-non  •  answered  fanne  &  seide,  4737 

"  I  kepe  nou}t  of  f  i  kingdom  •  be  crist  fat  me  bou^t, 

ne  of  f  i  loueli  lemnian  •  lelly  but  in  gode. 

I  ne  wilne  no-f  ing  but  f  i  suster  •  to  be  samen  wedded, 

to  weld  here  as  my  wif  •  al  my  lif  tyme."  4741 

"  ^a,  worf  i  god,"  seide  willmm  •  "  wel  were  me  fanne, 

}if  i  wist  fat  f  ow  woldest  *  here  to  wiue  haue. 

it  were  a  wonderful  werk  •  $if  f  ou  woldest  euere    4744 

Meke  f  e  in  eny  maner  •  to  be  maried  so  lowe." 

"^is  beter,  sire,"  seide  alphouras  *  "i  preie  f  e  of  nou^t 

elles, 

for  al  f  e  sorwe  fat  i  haue  suffred  •  for  f i  sake  eu^r. 
but   graimte   me   boute  grucching  *  to    haue  fat  gaie 

maide."  4748 

"  bi  god,  sire,"  seide  wilKam  *  "  fat  gart  me  be  fourmed, 
f  ou  schalt  [haue]  l  hire  at  f  in  hest  •  &  with  hire  al  my 

reaume, 

of  er  half  witterli  •  with-out  any  lette." 
<;nay,  crist  forbede,"  seide  alphourcs2  •  "for  his  holi 

blode,  4752 

fat  i  were  so  wicked  *  to  wilne  ou^t  of  f  i  gode  ; 
I  ne  bidde  nou$t  a  bene  worf  •  but  fat  burde  one." 
fan  wilKam  as  a  glad  man  •  godli  him  f onked, 
&  seide,    "  sertes,  nowe  [we]  3  schul  be  *  sarnera  hole 

frendes,  4756 

lelli  bref  eren  in  lawe  •  our  lord  be  it  f  onked  ; 
for  al  f  e  welf  e  of  f  e  world  •  at  wille  nou^  vs  fallef ." 
fan  al  f  e  puple  in  f  e  paleys  •  prestli,  fo[r]  ioye, 
Maden  al  f  e  m?/rfe  •  fat  men  mi^t  deuise.  4760 


"  There  is  no 
benefit  I  so  long 
for  as  one  thing." 


"  I  will  grant  you 
half  my  kingdom 
— anything  but 
Melior." 

[Fol.  74  6.] 


"  All  I  ask  for  is 
thy  sister  to 
wife." 

"  That  were  well 
indeed,  if  thou 
canst  marry  so 
low." 


"  Yes  indeed  j  I 
ask  for  no  reward 
but  that." 


"  Thou  shalt  have 
her,  with  half  of, 
or  all  my 
kingdom." 


"Nay,  I  ask  but 
that  lady  only." 


"Now,"  said 
William,  "we 
shall  be  brothers- 
in-law." 


Then  all  the 
people  rejoiced 
greatly, 


1  Read 


'schalt  haue  hire." — M.  '  MS.  "alphuows." 

3  Read  "  nowe  we  schul." 


152 


GLORIANDE    AND    ACELONE    ARE    PENITENT. 


&  be  comli  quen  •  ful  oft  crist  bonked, 
bat  hade  so  wi^tli  of  hire  wo  •  so  wel  hire  comforted, 
tid  were  be  tidinges  told  •  wide  where  a-boute 
and  the  tidings  of  Of  bat  ferli  bat  was  fallen  bere  •  fast  ban  ber-after,  4764 

it  were  soon 

spread  every-        Qret  puple  drow  to  palern  •  to  proue  be  sobe, 
to  loke  on  be  lordes  •  in  liking  at  wille. 


As  soon  as  it  was 
known  that  the 
two  ladies  would 
have  betrayed 
William, 


[Fol.  75.] 
they  were  afraid 
they  would  be 
burnt,  drawn,  or 
hanged. 

So  Gloriande  and 
Acelone  put  on 

sackcloth, 


and  put  them- 
selves in 
William's  grace. 


"  We  beg  for  our 
lives, 


and  hope  to  be 
allowed  to  do 
penance, 


"YTow  forto  muttge  forber  •  as  be  mater  falles. 
•^   whan  bise  [tidinges]  l   were  told  •  to  lasse  &  to 
more,  4768 

bat  bo  tvo  trattes  bat  willmm  *  wold  haue  transited, 
bo  ladyes  bat  had  him  to  loke  •  &  leren  in  ^oube, 
bei  wisten  witterly  barcne  *  with-oute  any  lette, 
bat  bei  schuld  be  do  to  debe  •  deulfulli  in  hast,      4772 
brent  in  bri^t  fur  •  to-drawe,  or  an-honged, 
as  bilk  bat  [were]  2  worbi  •  for  bere  wicked  dedes — 
Gloriaiws  &  achillones  *  bo  tvo  ladies  hi^ten — 
bliue  bei  hem  bi-bout  •  what  bote  mi^t  hem  help,  4776 
sebe  here  treson  was  kud  •  &  knowe  al  a-boute. 
hastili  bei  hent  hem  on  *  hei^resse  ful  rowe 
next  here  bare  bodi  •  &  bare  fot  bei  went, 
&  faire  bi-fore  wilKam  •  bei  felle  on  knes  bobe,      4780 
&  goue  hem  in  his  grace  •  for  bat  grete  gilt, 
&  knoulecheden  al  be  cas  *  how  bei  cast  hadde, 
to  haue  sotiliche  sleyn  •  him-self  &  his  fader, 
bi  hest  of  be  kinges  brober  *  bat  bale  to  haue  wrou^t. 
"  lete  vs,  sire,  haue  be  lif  *  wil  our  lord  wold.         4785 
we  meke  vs  in  ^oure  merci  *  at  alle  maner  poyntes, 
to  sle  vs  or  to  saue  •  wheber  $ou  god  likes, 
bat  we  ar  worbi  to  be  deth  •  wel  we  be  a-knowe,     4788 
but  wold  30  graurct  vs  3our  grace  *  for  goddes  loue  of 

heuerc, 

to  put  vs  to  sum  place  •  penau?ice  to  wirche, 
&  late  vs  haue  be  lif  •  whil  our  lord  wold, 

1  This  word  is  surely  wanted ;  cf.  1.  4763. 

«  Read  "  that  was  worthi,"  or  "  were  worthi."— M. 


WILLIAM  S    MESSAGE    TO    THE    EMPEROR    OP    ROME. 


153 


fat  we  mi^t  a-mende  •  sum  of  our  mis-gilt,  4792 

&  for  3our  fad[er]e  l  &  for  3011  •  fei^Jjli  to  preie. 

3if  30  worche  so  •  worchipe  mijt  36  gete, 

&,  dere  lord,  of  f  e  deth  •  may  no  god  dede  falle, 

"hot  a  litel  wicked  wille  •  f  er-with  wold  be  slaked." 

al  fe  barnage  as  bliue  •  baden  for  hem  3 erne,  4797 

fat  f  ei  most  in  alle  maner  *  fat  trespas  amende. 

&  william.  fan  wi^tli  •  here  wille  haf  graurcted, 

so  fat  f  ei  wrou3t  in  fat  wise  •  &  wold  be  gode  after. 

sone  were  fe  ladies  •  to  an  hermitage  brou3t,  4801 

&  liueden  fere  in  god  lif  •  wil  our  lord  wold, 

In  penauwce  &  in  prayeres  •  priueli  &  loude, 

til  f  ei  went  of  ])is  world  *  whan  god  wold  hew  fecche. 

now  lete  i  here  of  f  e  ladies  •  &  lestenef  a-nof  er,     4805 

what  bi-tidde  of  f  is  tale  •  as  f  is  store  tellef . 


and  to  pray  for 
you  and  your 
father." 


William  grants 
them  their  lives, 


and  they  live  in 
a  hermitage 

till  the  time  of 
their  death. 


[Fol.  75  &.] 


Wilk'arn  fan  with-oute  more  •  wi3tli  f  er-after, 
made   him  menskful    messageres    •  to   mene   fe 
sofe,  4808 

f e  grettest  lordes  of  fat  land  •  fat  lellest  were  hold, 
&  konyngest  of  kurtesie  •  &  kowden  fairest  speke. 
to  femperour  of  rome  •  redeli  he  hem  sent, 
&  with  loueli  letteres  •  lelli  him  bi-sou3t.  4812 

3if  fat  is  wille  were  •  with-oute  any  lette, 
to  be  fere  with  his  best  burnes  •  bi  a  certayne  time, 
to  mensk  f  e  mariage  *  of  meliors  his  dorter, 
and  3if  alisauwdrine  •  were  fanne  aliue,  4816 

fat  sche  most  with  him  come  *  curtesli  he  prayde. 
fan  were  f  e  messangeres  *  in  alle  maner  wise 
so  trieliche  a-tired  •  to  telle  f  e  sof  e, 
of  hors  &  of  harneys  *  &  [what] 2  hem  most  neded, 
fat  no  wie^h  of  fis  world  •  f urt  wilne  beter ;          4821 
&  went  forf  on  here  way  •  wi3tly  and  fast, 
til  f  ei  redli  hade  rau3t  •  to  grete  rome  euene. 
whan  f  e  bold  barounes  •  be-fore  f  emperour  come,  4824 
»  Read  "fadere."—  M.  2  See  line  4187. 


William  sends 
messengers  to  the 
emperor  of 
Rome, 


beseeching  him  to 
come  to  Palermo 
to  his  daughter's 
marriage, 


and  asking  that 
Alexandrine 
might  come  too. 


The  messengers 
go  to  Rome ; 


154  THE  EMPEROR'S  JOY  AT  THE  MESSAGE. 

and  greet  the        ful  godlt  pei  him  gret  *  glaclli,  as  pei  ou^t, 

emperor  from  . 

Aiphonse  king  of    ferst  in  alphoims  halt  •  pat  king  was  of  spayne, 
for  pemperour  &  he  •  hadde  be  felawes  3016, 

and  wimam  king  sepen  in  worpi  willmms  •  pat  king  was  of  poyle,     4828 
&  souerayn  of  cisile  •  as  schold  a  king  bene. 

and  in  Meiior's      £  Sepen  in  meliors  name  *  pat  was  hise  mery  donate?-. 


name, 


&  in  pe  kinges  half  of  poyle  *  praiede  him  fayre, 


to  come  to  to  be  at  palerne  with  his  puple  •  presteli  &  sone,    4832 

Palermo  to  his  . 

daughter's  Di  a  certeyn  day  •  pat  set  was  sone  after, 

to  menske  pe  mariage  *  of  meliors  his  doubter, 
for  to  wiue  he  wold  here  take  •  pat  welt  pat  reaume. 
whawne   pe   messagers   hade   miroged  •  of  meliors   pe 
schene,  4836 

The  emperor  asks  Gretteliche  was  he  gladed  •  &  gan  for  to  seie, 
daughter  is.         "  lordinges,  for  3our  leute  *  lelli  me  telles, 

3if  30  wite  in  any  wise  *  were  be  fat  burde  1 " 
[Foi.  76.]        ti  Marie,  sire."  sede  be  messageres  •  "  ae  mowe  vs  wel 

"In  Palermo, 

sire.    Here  is  her  trOWC,  4840 

pe  niilde  mayde  meliors  •  in  palerne  now  dwelles  ; 

Loo  here  hire  owne  letteres  •  to  leue  it  }>e  beter." 
The  king  bids  a     J> e  king  komauwded  a  clerk  *  keneli  &  swipe 
letter,  to  loke  on  po  letteres  •  and  lelli  hem  rede,  4844 

pat  he  mi^t  wi^tli  wite  •  what  pat  pei  mened. 
and  the  clerk        pe  clerk  panne  deliuerli  *  vndede  po  letteres, 

undid  it  and  read     0/>-i  -,      -,  •>  -i      « 

as  the  messengers  &  lond  as  pe  messageres  •  hade  mtwged  be-lore, 

how  pe  king  of  poyle  •  prestli  hade  ordeyned,          4848 
at  swich  a  certayn  day  •  his  semliche  doi^ter  wedde. 

Then  the  emperor  ~l*awne  wist  bemperour  wel  •  bat  bei  were  treuwe, 

knew  it  was  all          \) 

true,  *     &  made  pe  messagers  •  pe  m^?*rpe  pat  he  coupe, 

realiere  nere  neuer  rinkes  •  resseiued  in  place.          4852 

forfs'to1™  w*i"h"8  -^-an^  ma(^e  pemperour  •  his  messageres  ont-wende, 
him  to  the  alle  be  lordes  of  bat  lond  •  lelli  to  somouwne 

wedding. 

to  be  redili  a-raied  •  in  here  richest  wise, 

to  wend  with  him  wijtli  *  to  pe  wedding  nobul.      4856 

&  wan  pei  harden  his  hest  •  pei  hie^eden  fast, 


THE  EMPEROR    OF    ROME    GOES    TO    PALERMO.  155 

&  certes  on  be  selue  day  •  bat  hem  was  a-signed,  so  they  ail 

.  assembled  on  the 

so  nche  a  route  in  rome  •  was  rialicne  a-sembled,  appointed  day ; 

bat  neuer  seg  vnder  su?me  •  ne  saw  swiche  a-nober, 

so  tri3liche  a-tired  •  of  al  bat  to  hem  longed  ;          4861 

&  went  whtli  here  [way!  l  •  wen  bei  were  sare,  and  went  their 

way,  and 

&  alisaundrine  with  hem  •  as  i  arst  miwged.  Alexandrine  with 

them. 

&  wending  as  bei  were  *  in  here  way  bat  time,        4864 

of  be  menskful  messageres  •  bempe?*our  bawne  asked,         On  the  way. the 

emperor  hears 

bi  what  cas  his  doubter  •  was  fare  to  bat  londe,  the  whole  story ; 

&  how  kendeli  sche  was  knowe  *  bat  king  wold  hire 

wedde. 

&  bei  titli  him  told  *  al  be  trewe  sobe,  4868 

of  alle  fortune  bat  was  falle  •  fram  comsing  to  bende, 
In  alle  maner  as  i  mugged  •  in  mater  here  bi-fore. 
&  wharcne  bemperour  hade  herd  •  how  [bat]  hit  ferde,      ^J^JHT 
he  was  gretteli  gladed  •  and  oft  crist  bonked  4872  again  to  the 

of  be  fortune  bi-falle  •  of  so  faire  an  hende, 
&  mugged  bawne  al  be  mater  •  to  his  meyne  sone, 
as  bo  menskful  messagers  •  hade  mu??ged  be-fore.    4875 
be  nmrbe  bat  banne  was  maked  •  mijt  no  tonge  telle,       ^treyd  So 
bat  tit  was  mad  for  bo  tiding  •  whan  bei  told  were.  Palermo. 

&  so  ban  held  J)ei  here  way  •  harde  &  faste, 
til  bei  to  palerne  prestili  *  with  al  bat  pres  come. 

William*  barme  ful  wijtli  •  with  a  faire  puple     4880  ^na^Jm 
of  crouned  kinges  •  &  kniates  many  hundred,  company  goes  to 

meet  the  emperor, 

went  a^en  bemperour  •  with  wel  glade  chere. 

a  gay  greting  was  be?*  gret  •  wan  bei  to-gedir  met. 

william  &  bemperour  •  went  alder-form est,  4884 

&  alphouws  next  after  •  &  auenauwtli  him  grette,         &**/ 

with  alle  be  nmrbe  vpow  mold  •  bat  men  mi^t  deuise. 

be  king  of  spayne  spacli  *  spedde  him  next  after,  The  king  of  Spain 

for  bemperour  &  he  bi-fore  •  felawes  hadde  bene,     4888  emperor  giadiy. 

1  Bead  "here  way  wen  they  were  zare."— M.     See  11.  4864, 
4878. 

2  The  capital  W  is  mis-written  M.     See  1.  4923. 


156 


THE    MEETING   OP    THE   EMPEROR   AND    HIS    DAUGHTER. 


On  nearing  the 
palace, 


the  queen  and 
Melior  and 
Florence 


and  the  queen  of 
Spain  come  to 
welcome  him. 


Great  was  the 
emperor's  joy  at 
seeing  his 
daughter. 


No  need  to  tell  of 

their  merry  fare. 

[Fol.  77.] 

The  joyous 
meeting  of 
Alexandrine  atid 
Melior. 

Melior  tells  her 
friend  all  her 
story. 


William  and 
Melior  tell  the 
emperor  all  their 
adventures. 


&  kindli  kessed  eiper  oper  •  whan  pei  kome  to-gadere. 

pe  mwrpe  pat  was  mad  •  at  pat  metyng  panne, 

ne  may  no  tong  telle  •  treuli  pe  sope. 

sepen  went  pei  alle  samen  •  swetli  to-gadere  4892 

to  pe  perles  paleys  •  and  prestili  pat  time, 

with  a  clene  cumpanye  pe  quen  •  com  hem  a-^ens, 

pat  lady  was  of  pat  lond  *  &  ledde  in  here  hondes 

pe  menskful  mayde  meliors  •  &  here  oune  doubter ; 

&  hem  sewep  a  selcoupe  route  •  of  semli  ladies  ;      4897 

pe  quen  of  spayne  spacli  •  pan  spedde  fast  after. 

a  mery  meting  was  per  mett  •  whan  pei  nei^ed  same, 

with  clipping  &  kessing  •  and  ccwtenaurcce  hende.  4900 

but  sopli  whan  pemperour  sey  *  his  semli  donate?*, 

a  glader  gome  vnder  god  *  mi^t  non  gon  on  erpe. 

pe  melodie  pat  pei  made  *  no  man  mi^t  telle, 

ne  neuer  nere  gestes  vnder  god  •  gladliere  receyued. 

iioping  wanted  pei  at  wille  •  pat  pei  wold  haue,      4905 

pat  pei  nere  semli  serued  •  &  sette  at  here  ri^ttes. 

Muwge  now  nel  i  namore  •  of  here  merie  fare, 

for  beter  to  be  pan  it  was  •  mijt  no  burn  penke.      4908 

as  sone  as  alisauwdrine  •  hade  si$t  of  hire  ladi, 

no  tunge  rni^t  telle  •  treuli  half  pe  ioye 

pat  pei  made  at  pat  metyng  •  whan  pei  mette  same. 

&  meliors  ful  mekli  •  brou^t  hire  to  hire  chauwber, 

&  told  here  whan  sche  sei  time  *  treuli  al  pe  sope,  4913 

al  pe  sorwe  pat  sche  hade  suffred  •  sepe  sche  hire  seie  ; 

now  of  pis  mater  •  no  more  nel  ich  munge  ; 

&  alle  mwrpe  was  hem  mad  •  among  atte  fulle.        4916 

wilKam  &  his  worpi  make  •  whan  pei  sei  time, 

told  pemperour  treuli  •  pat  hem  tidde  hadde,1 

of  meschef  &  of  murthe  *  &  ho  hem  most  helped, 

&  how  pei  broujt  were  of  bale  •  to  here  bote  pere.  4920 

&  alle  perme  of  pat  auentwrre  •  hadde  gret  ioye, 

&  ponked  god  of  his  grace  *  pat  so  godli  hem  spedde. 

1  After  "  hadde  "  occurs  a  line  made  up  from  this  line  and  the 
next,  and  not  finished,  viz.  "  of  mechef  &  of  murfre  J?at  hem 
tidde  h." 


THE    ARRIVAL    OF    PARTENEDON. 


157 


TTThanne  l  time  was,  to  f  e  mete  •  fei  turned  sone, 

'    &  serued  [were]2  selcouf  li  •  ri^t  as  hem  wolde,  4924 
of  alle  dere  deintes  •  of  metes  and  of  drynkes  ; 
and  as  fei  muriest  at  f  e  mete  *  fat  time  seten, 
f  er  come  menskful  messageres  •  fat  men  were  nobul, 
fro  f  emperour  of  grece  •  gret  wel  f  e  quene,  4928 

fat  ladi  was  of  fat  lond  •  &  he  hire  dere  fader, 
&  from  hire  brof  er  partendo  •  fat  was  hire  pert  brof  er. 
&  whan  f  ise  messageres  *  hade  here  greting  made, 
fan  fe  soueraynest  seg  *  saide  of  hem  alle,  4932 

"  Madame,  makes  3011  merie  •  for  marie  loue  in  heuen, 
for  $our  fei^ful  fader  •  naf  3011  nou^t  for-^ete. 
ac  he  haf  sent  3011  to  socoure  *  so  grissiliche  an  host, 
fat  f  er  nis  man  vporc  mold  •  fat  may  3011  with-stond, 
fat  fei  nelle  bring  in  bale  •  at  ^our  bidding  sone.    4937 
fei   kome   sailing  in  fe  see   •  here   souerayn  is 

brof  er  ; 

partenedon  f  e  perles  *  al  fat  puple  ledes, 
&  se  him  schal  ^our-self  •  hastli,  boute  faile, 
er  f  is  fridde  day  be  don  *  doute  3011  non  ofer. 
&  whan  fat  comli  quen  •  f  o  tidinges  herde, 
a  gladdere  womman  in  world  3  *  was  f  er  non  a-liue, 
to  f  e  menskful  messagere  •  made  4  gret  ioye,  4944 

&  worf  ili  hem  welcomed  •  36  mow  wite  fe  sof  e. 
f  e  comli  quen  &  f  e  king  •  curcseiled  fan  to-gedere, 
fat  f  e  bridhale  schuld  a-bide  •  til  hire  brof  er  come, 
to  mensk  more  fat  mariage  •  ^if  fei  mijt  f  anne.      4948 
fan  on  f  e  fridde  day  ariued  •  hire  brof  er  fere, 
with  a  clene  cumpanye  •  to  carp  f  e  sof  e. 
f  e  grettest  lordes  of  fat  lond  •  fat  lined  fat  time  ; 
but  his  ost  fat  tide  he  left  •  in  f  e  see  stille.  4952 

whan  f  e  quen  wist  of  his  come  *  curtesli  &  sone, 

1  The  large  capital  letter  is  mis-written  M,  as  at  1.  4880. 

2  See  1.  5064.  3  MS.  "  wolrd." 

4  The  sense  would  be  clearer  if  the  pronoun  "  sche  "  were 
supplied,  but  it  is  often  omitted  in  similar  cases  throughout  thia 
poem  —  M. 


4940 


All  go  to  meat, 
and  are  served 
with  all  dear 
dainties. 


Some  messengers 
enter,  from  the 
emperor  of 
Greece  and  the 
queen's  brother 
Partenedon. 


The  chlof  of  them 
says,  "Madame, 

your  father  hath 
sent  an  army  to 
help  you. 


Partenedon  your 
brother  is.  their 
leader." 

[Fol.  77  &.] 

Then  the  queen 
was  very  glad, 
and  welcomed  the 
messengers. 


It  was  agreed  to 
put  off  the  bridal 
till  her  brother 


On  the  third  day 
he  arrived,  with  t 
groat  company. 


158 


THE    QUEEN    TELLS    PARTENEDON    THE    STORY. 


The  queen  goes 

forth  with  the 

rest  to  greet  him. 


she  receives  him 


it  was  a  solemn 
"clip"  and  kiss, 


None  can  tell  the 

mirth  that  was 

made. 


The  queen  teiis 

her  brother  how 

William  was  her 


[Foi.  78.] 

and  how  the 

werwolf  was 

restored  to  man's 

shape  ; 
and  of  the 


He  was  very 

vexed  at  this,  for 

he  had  wooed 

ime> 
He  would  have 

liked  to  win 

Meiior  by  force, 


But  as  he  saw  it 

could  not  be,  he 


Gladli  with  grete  lordes  •  sche  gob  him  a^ens, 

*  .  ' 

pe  kud  emperour  of  rome  •  &  pe  king  of  spayne, 

&  his  comli  quen  *  &  alle  pe  kni^tes  gode.  4956 

pe  worpi  wilb'am  was  pe  first  *  pat  welcomed  him  faire, 

&  alphoiws  after  him  •  &  after  pe  kinges. 

pe  quen  of  palern  presteli  •  }?ari  presecl  to  hire  broper, 

&  receyued  him  as  reali  •  as  any  rink  purt  bene  ;    4960 

pe  king  of  spayne  &  pe  quen  *  curtesli  him  gret, 

&  pemperour  of  rome  •  with  ri}t  gret  ioye. 

per  was  a  solempne  sijt  •  whan  pei  sameft  mette, 

with  clipping  &  kissing  •  to  keppe  hem  to-gadere.  4964 

pe  lady  fill  loueli  *  pan  lad  forp  hire  broper 

presteli  to  palerne  •  to  pe  paleys  riche. 

More  nmrpe  vpCM  mold  '  mht  no  man  deuise, 

pan  was  mad  to  po  men  •  to  murage  pe  sope  ; 

]S"e  wanted  hem  no-ping  •  pat  pei  wold  haue, 

plenteuosli  in  eche  place  •  pe  puple  was  serued. 

&  as  pei  sete  jn  solas  •  sone  pe  quen  told 

buxumli  to  hire  broper  •  what  bi-tidde  pere  ;  4972 

how  wilKam  was  hire  son  *  &  with  his  dou^ti  dedes 

hade  conquered  pe  king  of  spayne  •  &  ended  pat  werre  ; 

&  in  what  wise  be  werwolf  *  was  broujt  to  his  state  : 

&  holli  alle  pe  happes  •  as  ^e  han  herd  be-fore;      4976 

-,  .     .  ,  .  .      ,  n  . 

how  pei  went  away  bope  •  in  white  beres  skinnes. 
pan  told  sche  how  alphoufts  •  schuld  his  nece  wedde, 
&  willmm  worpi  ineliors  •  with  welpe  on  pe  morwe.1 
pan  femperoures  sone  of  grece  •  was  a-greued  sore,  4980 

,  .   ,  ,      ,  ,  , 

whawne  he  wist  on  pe  morwe  •  pe  manage  schuld  bene, 
for  he  wend  hire  haue  wedded  •  whilom  in  rome. 
&  pehh  he  wist  william  •  his  nobul  newe  panne, 
hade  he  had  his  ost  •  he  wold  [haue]  a-saide  pere  4984 
to  haue  with  stoteye  &  strengpe  •  stoutli  hire  wonne. 
but  sei  he  sobli  •  so  mwt  it  nou^t  bene, 
ac  .suner  he  most  •  pouh  it  mm  sore  rewed, 

1  These  two  lines,  4978  and  4979,  follow  line  4987  in  the  MS.  ; 
but  are  evidently  out  of  place  there,  and  must  be  inserted  here. 


ALEXANDRINE    IS    TO    BE   MARRIED    TO    BRAUNDNIS. 


159 


&  semblawt  made  lie  sobur  •  so  as  it  him  paide,      4988 

but  i  hote  fe  in  hert  •  it  liked  him  wel  ille. 

f  ann  will/am  and  his  moder  •  &  meliors  als, 

&  alphou?2S  anon  ri^t  •  of  alisaundrine  toched, 

to  marie  here  menskfulli  *  a-morag  hem  ri3t  Jjanne.  4992 

<fe  so  f  ei  touched  hem  be-twene  *  to  tele  f  e  sof  e, 

fat  brauftdnis  alphourcs  broker  •  schuld  be  hire  make, 

f  e  kinges  sone  of  spayne  •  fat  comsed  alle  f  e  werre. 

&  he  at  his  fader  hest  *  hit  jjanne  graunted,  4996 

&  at  f  e  bidding  of  his  broker  •  &  wilh'ams  hest. 

fan  driue  f  ei  forf  fe  day  •  in  dedut  &  in  nmrf  e, 

&  haden  holli  at  wille  •  what  hem  haue  nedede, 

&  sef  f  e  to  bedde  uche  burn  *  busked  him  fat  time. 

but  on  j>e  morvve  manli  •  to  mene  fe  sofe,  5001 

Men  mi^t  haue  seie  of  segges  •  many  on  greyed,1 

In  f  e  worf iest  wise  *  fat  seien  were  euere, 

sef f e  he  fat  vs  bou^t  •  in  bemleem  was  bore.          5004 

alle  f  e  clerkes  vnder  god  •  couf  e  nou^t  descriue 

a-redili  to  f  e  ri^tes  •  f  e  realte  of  fat  day, 

fat  was  in  fat  cite  •  for  fat  solempne  fest, 

&  of  alle  men  fat  manerli  •  mi^t  ou^t  gete  5008 

of  any  god  gaili  •  to  greif  e  hem  midde. 

to  muwge  of  menstracie  •  it  mi^t  nou^t  be  aymed, 

so  many  maner  miwstracie  •  at  fat  mariage  were, 

fat  whan  J>ei  made  here  menstracie  *  eche  man  wende, 

fat  heuen  hastili  &  erfe  •  schuld  hurtel  to-gader,    5013 

so  desgeli  it  denede  *  fat  al  f  erf  e  quakede. 

f  e  stretis  were  alle  strewed  •  &  stoutli  be-hoiiged, 

with  gode  clofes  of  gold  •  of  alle  gay  hewes  ;          5016 

&  burgeys  with  here  burdes  •  in  here  best  wise, 

weyteden  out  at  windowes  •  eche  weie  a-boute, 

to  prie  on  f  e  puple  *  fat  priked  in  f  e  stretes, 

&  to  loke  on  here  lord  •  fat  lelli  fan  schold  5020 


be  krowned  king  on  fat  day  •  to  kepe  al  fat  reaurne. 


"greyed"  (?) 


appeared  to  be 
pleased,  though 
grieved  at  heart. 

William  and  the 
rest  wished  to 
find  a  husband  for 
Alexandrine, 

and  thought  that 
Braundnis,  prince 
of  Spain,  would 
suit  her. 


Braundnis  agrees 
to  this. 


They  pass  the  day 
merrily  till 
bedtime. 


Next  day,  all 
were  seen  in  their 
finest  attire. 


Not  all  the  clerks 
could  describe  the 
royalty  of  that 
day, 


[Pol.  78  6.J 

nor  tell  of  the 
minstrelsy  at  the 
marriage. 


The  minstrelsy 
dinned  so  that 
the  earth  quaked. 

The  streets 
were  strewn  with 
cloth  of  gold. 


1GO  THE    TRIPLE    WEDDING    IN    PALERMO. 

But  when  the        T)ut  trewbe  now  for  to  telle  •  whan  time  come  of  dave. 

time  came  for  the     f|  .  .  J 

brides  to  go  to       -*-*  bat  be  blisful  brides  *  schold  buske  to  cherche, 

church,  their 

attire  was  past      of  here  a-tir  for  to  telle  •  to  badde  is  my  witte,       5024 

description.  .  ..  ...... 

for  alle  f  e  men  vpon  mold  •  ne  mi^t  it  descrme 
a-redili  to  ])e  ri^tes  *  so  riche  it  were  alle. 
There  were  kings  bof  e  kinges  &  quenes  •  &  of  er  kud  lordes, 

and  queens  and 

lords,  with  perteli  in  alle  a-paraile  *  pursewend  furth-oute,       5028 

"harness."  of  hors  &  harneys  •  &  fat  hem  haue  neded, 

so  fat  noil  mi^t  be  amended  •  a  mite  worf ,  for  sof  e ; 

as  eche  gom  in  his  degre  •  godliche  ou^t. 

for-fi  no  more  of  bat  mater  •  nel  ich  mirage  nof  e,    5032 

but  touche  for]?  of  be  tale  •  as  tellef  f  e  gest. 

wlian  f6  ^urnes  were  boui1  '  to  buske  to  chirche, 


Florence,  bemperour  of  rome  •  willmms  suster  ladde, 

VWilliam's  sister.      r       r 

filke  fat  alphouws  •  schold  to  wiue  weld.  5036 

The  king  of  Spain  &  ke  ku(j  king  of  spayne  •  curtesli  &  faire, 

led  Melior. 

ladde  meliors  menskfulli  *  a-mong  alle  f  e  puple. 

AkxanSineled      f6  quenes  *>rof  er  of  palerne  •  partenedon  f  e  bold 

alisauftdrine  at  fat  time  •  auenauratli  ladde.  5040 

al  with  blisse  on  here  blonkes  •  f  ei  busked  to  chirche, 
with  alle  fe  mwrfe  vpon  mold  *  fat  man  mijt  of  fenk.1 
LPoi.  79.]         f  e  clergie  com  hem 2  a-^ens  •  ri^t  gailiche  a-tyred, 

them  in  ful  pertliche  on  procession  •  prestli  as  f  ei  ou^t,       5044 

gave  William  the    &  komen  to  here  king  •  &  dede  him  fe  croyce  kesse. 
fan  with  worchip  &  wele  •  went  to  f  e  cherche, 

The  patriarchs      be  patriarkes  &  ober  prelates  *  prestli  were  reuested. 

and  prelates  were    ' 

soon  apparelled,     to  make  f  e  mariage  •  ,menskfulli  as  it  ou^t.  5048 

&  after  f  e  lawe  of  f  e  lond  •  lelliche  to  telle, 

and  the  couples     jjej  were  f  er  wedded  •  worchipfulli  and  fayre. 

&  lelli,  for  alisauTidrines  lord  •  ne  hade  non  londes, 


Towns,  countries,  i,er  were  t^  ^jf  hQm  to  •  treuH  fele  townes,  5052 

and  castles  are 

given  to  comli  castelles  and  couf  •  and  cuntres  wide, 

Alexandrine's  .  . 

husband.  to  hue  wif  worchip  &  wele  •  in  world  al  here  liue. 

NO  clerk  could  no  clerk  vnder  crist  •  ne  kowbe  nouat  descriue 

describe  the 

mirth.  fe  murthe  for  fat  mariage  •  fat  was  maked  fanne,  5056 
1  Catchword—"  J?e  clergie."       2  MS.  "  him."    Bead  "  hem."— M. 


, 


PARTENEDON  RETURNS  TO  GREECE.  1G1 

f  e  richesse  ne  f  e  riaulte  •  to  rekene  f  e  so))e, 

ne  f  e  solempne  seruise  *  fat  seyn  was  fat  time. 

but  whan  be  seruise  was  seid  *  as  it  schold  bene,  The  service 

ended, 

fat  fel  to  a  mariage  •  be-maked  at  cherche,  5060 

fat  puple  prestli  a$en  •  to  f e  paleys  wente 

wif  al  f  e  mwrf  e  of  menstracye  •  fat  man  mi^t  on  f  enk. 

&  treuli  whan  time  was  •  f  ei  twrned  to  mete,  they  returned  to 

the  palace,  and 

&  serued  were  as  selcouf  li  •  as  hem-self  wolde        5064  went  to  meat. 

desiren  of  eny  deyntes  •  of  metes  &  drinkes. 

It  were  toor  forto  telle  •  treuli  al  fe  so  be,  it  were  hard  to 

tell  all  about  the 

&  to  reherce  f  e  aray  ari^t  •  of  fat  riche  feste,  rich  feast. 

for-fi  i  leue  fis  li^tli  *  ac  leuef  fis  for  treufe,          5068 

f  er  mi^t  no  mon  it  amende  •  a  mite  worf ,  i  leue. 

whan   bordes    were   born    a-doun    •    &   burnes    hade  When  they  had 

,  washed  after 

wascnen,  meat,  the 

Men  mi3t  haue  seie  to  mewstrales  •  moche  god  $if, 
sterne  stedes  &  stef  •  &  ful  stoute  robes,  5072 

Gret  garisun  of  gold  •  &  greifli  gode  iuweles. 
f  e  fest  of  fat  mariage  •  a  monef  fulle  lasted,  The  feast  lasted  a 

&  eche  day  was  gret  god  •  giue  al  a-boute, 
to  more  &  to  lasse  *  fat  at  f  e  mariage  were.  5076 

fan  lau^t  f  e  lordes  here  leue  *  at  f  e  monf  es  ende ;  [Foi.  79  &.] 

partenedon  parted  first  •  of  palerne  f  e  quenes  brof  er ;     Partenedon  was 
for  he  hade  ferrest  to  fare  •  formes fc  he  went.  home; 

&  wilham  wif  his  wi3es  *  we/it  him  wif  on  gate,  5080 
&  semli  wif  alle  solas  *  to  f  e  see  him  broi^t, 
&  his  menskful  moder  •  meliors,  &  his  suster. 
prestili  f  e  quen  of  palerne  •  fan  preied  hire  brof  er,         and  the  queen 
to  grete  hire  feifful  fader  •  fele  times  &  ofte,          5084  her  father. 
"  &  f  onk  him  kindli  of  f  e  help  •  fat  he  to  me  sent, 
&  telle  him  treuli  •  as  it  bi-tidde  here." 
fan  lau^t  f  ei  eche  leue  at  of  er  •  lelli  to  telle  ; 

partenedon  passed  to  schepe  •  &  his  puple  after,    5088  Then  Partenedon 
&  went  wi^tli  to  saile  •  f  e  wind  was  at  f  e  best,  Greece. 

&  saileden  wif  game  &  gle  •  to  grece  til  f  ei  come, 
fan  told  he  tyt  to  his  fader  •  treuli  f  e  sof  e, 
11 


162 


THE   EMPEROR   OF    ROME    TAKES    HIS    LEAVE. 


He  told  hia  father 
all  the  events, 
how  his  sister  was 
helped  by  her 
son,  and  Melior 
married  to  his 
nephew. 

The  emperor 
wondered,  but 
was  glad  his 
nephew  was  so 
peerless, 


and  that  his 
daughter  had 
been  so  well 
aided. 


••;• 


•• 


of  fortune  fat  was  falle  •  fram  comsing  to  f  ende.    5092 

how  his  semli  suster  •  was  holpen  Jmrth  hire  sone, 

&  how  fat  maide  meliors  •  was  wedded  fat  time, 

to  his  owne  neweu  •  f  ou^h  it  him  noi^t  liked.        5095 

&  whan  f  emperour  hade  herde  •  [holly]  l  f  o  wordes, 

he  was  a-wondred  gretli  •  as  he  wel  mi^t, 

but  glad  he  was  fat  his  neweu  *  so  nobul  was  wox, 

&  preised  so  perles  •  al  of  er  fat  he  passe]?,  5099 

of  alle  kni^tes  vnder  [heuene] 2  •  fat  knowe  were  f  anne. 

&  fat  his  doubter  of  here  duresse  •  was  so  deliuered, 

Gretli  he  f  onked  god  *  of  his  grete  mi^t  5 

&  lined  fan  in  lisse  *  al  his  lif  after.  5103        k 

but  go  we  now  from  f  e  gregoyse  •  &  ginne  of  anof  er,  u^ 

&  of  f  e  puple  in  palerne  •  how  f  ei  passed,  telle. 


Next,  the 
emperor  of  Rome 
went  homewards, 


and  William  and 
the  rest  escorted 
him  for  five 
miles. 

[Fol.  80.] 


The  emperor 
advises  his 
daughter,  saying, 


"Be  courteous  to 
all,  meek  to  thy 
servants,  and 
leal  to  thy  lord. 


l%e  real  emperour  of  rome  •  remewed  next  after 

Y  redili  towardes  rome  •  with  al  his  route  nobul. 

wilKam  &  his  moder  •  meliors  3  &  his  suster,          5108 

f  e  king  of  spayne  &  his  sones  *  &  here  semli  puple, 

werct  wif  him  on  gate  •  wel  an  fine  myle, 

to  conueye  him  curtesli  *  as  kindnesse  it  wold, 

wif  al  f  e  mwrf  vpon  mold  *  fat  men  mi^t  on  f  enk. 


&  as  f  ei  went  bi  f  e  weie  •  wittow  for  sof  e, 

ful  mekli  to  meliors  •  f  emperour  f  us  saide, 

"  now,  dere  dor^ter,  i  f  e  preie  •  do  bi  mi  rede. 

lok  f  ou  bere  f  e  buxumli  •  &  be  god  &  hende, 

konnyng  &  kurtes  •  to  komwne  &  to  grete  ; 

be  meke  &  mercyabul  '  to  men  fat  f  e  serue, 

and  be  lei  to  f  i  lord  •  and  to  fis  ladi  after, 

fat  is  his  menskful  moder  *  &  moche  f  ow  hire  loue. 

&  alle  f  e  lordes  of  fis  lond  •  loue  wel  after, 

&  loke,  doubter,  bi  f  i  lif  •  as  f  ow  me  louest  dere, 

J>at  neuer  f  e  pore  porayle  *  be  piled  for  f  i  sake, 

1  See  1.  24G. 

2  Read  "  vnder  god"  or  "vnder  heuene"—M.. 

3  MS.  repeats  "  meliors." 


5113 


5116 


5119 


HIS   LAST   ADVICE   TO    HIS   DAUGHTER. 


163 


ne  taxed  to  taliage  •  but  tentyfli  fow  help,  5124 

fat  al  f  is  lond  be  lad  •  in  lawe  as  it  ou^t  ; 

fan  wol  al  f  e  pore  puple  •  preie  for  J>e  ^erne, 

to  Hue  long  in  god  liif  •  &  f  i  lord  alse. 

stifli  loke  fowst[r]iue  *fo[r]  state  of  holi  cherche,  5128 

to  meyntene  it  manli  •  on  alle  mane?-  wise. 

Gif  gretli  of  j?i  god  •  for  goddes  loue  of  heuen  ; 

be  merciabul  to  alle  men  *  fat  in  mechef  arn  ; 

so  schaltow  gete  god  los  •  &  gretli  be  menskked,    5132 

as  ban  al  fin  aunceteres  •  or  fow  were  bi-geten. 

do  Jms,  mi  dere  doubter  •  &  drede  fow  f  e  neuer, 

fat  fow  ne  schalt  haue  heuen  blisse  •  after  f  is  Hue." 

ful  mekli  seide  meliors  •  wif  meling  of  teres,          5136 

"  i  hope,  sire,  to  heuen  king  •  ^our  hest  so  wirche, 

fat  no  barn  fat  is  born  *  schal  blame  mi  dedes." 

ful  tyt  after  f  o  tales  •  f  ei  token  here  leue, 

clipping  &  kesseng  *  kurtesli  eche  ofer. 

but  f  e  mournyng  fat  meliors  •  made  fat  time, 

for  hire  fader  schold  fare  •  from  hire  so  sone, 

treuli  it  were  ful  tor  •  to  telle  f  e  sof  e. 

ac  femperour  ful  hendeli  •  held  hire  in  is  armes, 

&  comforted  here  kindeli  •  and  f  e  quen  preiede 

to  be  meke  &  merciabule  *  to  meliors  his  doubter, 

"  &  cheresche  here  &  chaste  •  ^if  fat  chauwce  falles, 

fat  sche  wold  miswerche  •  wrongli  any  time."         5148 

"  3is,  bi  crist,  sire,"  quaf  f  e  quen  •  "  kare  nou^t  f  er- 

fore. 

i  loue  hire  as  miin  owne  lif  *  leue  f  ou  for  sof  e, 
wel  i  wot  sche  wol  worche  *  al-way  fe  gode.  5151 

for-f  i  here  wille  schal  be  wrou^t  *  what  sche  wol  ^erne 
fat  sche  ne  schal  want  in  no  wise  •  what  f  e  hert  Hkes.'' 
f  emperour  hire  f  roli  f  onked  •  many  f  ousand  sif  e, 
&  after  fat,  anon  ri3t  •  to  alisauwdrine  he  seide,      5155 
"  God  has  f  e  nou^t  for-gete  •  my  gode  hende  mayde; 
for  worchipfulli  artou  wedded  •  to  welde  a  kinges  sone. 
ful  busili  i  f  e  bidde  •  fat  burn  euer  honoure, 
11  * 


5140 


5144 


Never  let  the 
poor  be  robbed  on 
thine  account, 

and  the  poor  will 
pray  for  thee. 

Strive  to  maintain 
the  church. 


Be  pitiful  to  all 
in  trouble. 


Do  thus,  and  thou 
shalt  win  the 
bliss  of  heaven." 


Melior,  weeping, 
says  she  hopes 
none  will  ever 
blame  her. 


It  were  hard  to 
tell  how  Melior 
mourned  at  her 
father's 
departure. 


But  he  comforted 

[Fol.  80  &.] 
her,  asking  the 
queen  to  be  kind 
to  her,  and  to 
chasten  her  when 
she  does  wrong. 


The  queen 
promises,  saying 
she  will  doubtless 
always  do  right. 


The  emperor 
tells  Alexandrine 
that  God  has  not 
forgotten  her. 


164 


THE   KING   OF    SPAIN    TAKES    HIS    LEAVE. 


"Your  command 
shall  be  kept," 
she  replied. 


&  wirche  him  al  f  e  worchip  *  in  world  f  atou  maye ; 

Jjanne  schal  eche  lud  f  e  loue  *  &  for  fi  lif  preie."   5160 

"  3  our  hest,    sire,  schal  "be  holde "  *  sede  alisaimdrine 
fanne, 

"  so  fat  30  ne  schul  here  *  of  me  nou}t  but  gode, 

I  hope,  furth  goddes  grace  *  but  gomes  on  me  lye." 
Then  the  emperor  femperour  fan  ti^tli  •  tok  leue  of  hem  alle,  5164 

and  went  to  '       &  wendes  forf  on  his  way  •  wi3tli  to  rome, 

&  liuede  ))ere  in  liking  •  a  long  time  after. 

now  reste  we  of  romaynes  •  &  reken  we  ferre, 
we  now  speak  of  &  spcke  we  of  be  spaynols  •  wil  we  haue  space.      5168 

the  Spaniards. 

hou  f  ei  sped  hem  to  spayne  •  spack  f  er-after. 


William  and  his 
mother  and 
Melior  return  to 
the  palace  at 
Palermo. 


The  king  of  Spain 
and  Braundine 
and  his  sons 
propose  to  take 
leave. 

[Fol.  81.] 


The  king  of  Spain 
thanks  king 
William. 


William  is  very 
sorry  to  lose 
Alphonse,  and 
says, 


TTThan  f  e  king  of  palerne  •  &  his  perles  moder, 

&  f  e  meke  meliors  •  his  menskful  quene, 
were  come  a-je  to  here  court  *  to  carpe  fe  sofe,       5172 
f  ei  passed  in-to  palerne  •  to  f  e  paleis  riche, 
with  al  f  e  nmrf  e  vporc  mold  *  fat  man  mi^t  of  fink, 
but  on  f  e  morwe  manli  *  to  mene  f  e  sofe, 
fe  king  of  spayne  spacli  *  spac  to  take  leue,  5176 

for  him  &  alle  his  felawchipe  •  to  fare  fat  time, 
bof  e  him-self  &  brau/idine  •  jjat  was  his  bold  quene, 
&  his  semli  sones  bo)>e  •  alphouws  &  his  brofer, 
&  here  worfi  wiues  *  fat  were  alle  at  onis.  5180 

king  wilK«m  fe  king  *  of  spayne  Jjonkes 
of  al  )?e  faire  fordede  *  fat  he  hade  for  hem  wrou^t,1 
furh  fe  grete  grace  •  fat  god  hade  him  sent ;          5183 
for  caire  wold  f  ei  to  here  cuntre  •  &  mst  him  bi-teche. 
whan  f  e  king  was  war  •  f  ei  wold  nedes  wen[d],2 
Gret  sorwe  for  alphouws  sake  •  sank  to  his  herte, 
for  he  schuld  his  felawchipe  *  for-go  at  fat  time.    5187 
but  whan  fat  he  nedes  3  most  *  he  nam  him  bi  hond, 
&  seide,  siking  sore  *  "  now  alphourcs,  swete  brof  er, 


1  MS.  "  woru^t." 

2  MS.  "  wen  nedes.' 
8  MS.  "  nedest." 


Read  "nedes  wend."— M. 


THE    SPANIARDS    ALL    RETURN    HOME. 


105 


sef  f  e  f  ou  cairest  in-to  f  i  cuntre  •  to  kepe  f  i  reaume, 

I  bidde  f  e  as  buxurali  •  as  broker  schal  a-nof  er, 

3  if  it  bi-tide  eni  time  •  fat  fow  tene  haue,  5192 

with  werre  or  of  er  wrong  •  with  eny  wi}t  in  erf  e, 

or  with  f  e  sori  sarazins  •  schuldest  haue  to  done, 

sende  to  me  f  i  sond  •  swif  e  vpon  hast, 

&  i  schal  hastili  me  hi3e  •  bi  him  fat  me  bou^t,      5196 

to  venge  f  e  verali  •  for  ou$t  fat  bi-tidef ." 

"  f  e  selue,  sire,  seie  i  be  f  e  "  •  seide  alphourcs  f  anne, 

"  sone  to  come  to  f  i  sond  •  schal  f  er  non  me  lette." 

eij>er  f onked  ofer  •  many  f  ousand  l  sifes,  5200 

&  lau^t  sef  e  here  leue  •  fou^h  hem  lof  were. 


"  If,  Alphonse, 
thou  art  ever  in 
trouble,  or  art 
assailed  by  the 
Saracens, 


send  a  message  to 
me,  and  I  will 
come  and  help 
thee." 

"  I  say  the  same 
by  thee,"  said 
Alphonse ; 

"  nothing  shall 
prevent  me  from 
coming  to  thee-" 


"Kanne  mekli  will?'arns  moder  •  &  meliors  he  kissed, 

y  bi-kenned  hem  to  cn'st  •  on  croyce  fat  was  peyned, 

&  mekli  f e  quen  fan  *  to  hire  doubter  meled,          5204 

&  kenned  hire  curtesli  *  to  kepe  wel  hire  mensk, 

bad  hire  be  buxuw  *  &  wel  hire  burn  loue, 

&  haue  pite  on  f  e  pore  *  &  prestli  hem  help, 

&  gretliche  herie  god  •  &  do  alle  gode  dedes.  5208 

&  sclie,  sore  siking  •  seide  fat  sche  wold, 

sche  hoped,  f  urth  goddes  grace  •  &  hastli  f  er-after, 

clipping  &  kessing  •  to  crist  f  ei  hem  bi-tau3t. 

&  spacli  fe  spaynols  •  sped  hem  to  schipe  ;  5212 

whan  f  ei  were  arayde  *  eche  ring,2  as  f  ei  wold, 

swif  e  f  ei  setten  vp  sayles  •  &  sou^ten  on  gate 

with  al  maner  mwrf e  •  fat  man  mi^t  of  fink, 

for  wind  &  gode  wederes  •  hade  f  ei  at  wille ;          5216 

&  spedden  hem  spacli  *  til  spayne  fat  f  ei  come. 

fan  alle  f  e  lordes  of  fat  lond  •  &  of  er  lasse  &  more, 

fat  were  ou3t  worf i  •  of  alle  fat  wide  reaume, 

hi3eden  hem  to  f  e  hauene  •  hendeli  hem  a^ens,       5220 

&  welcomed  him  worf  ili  •  as  f  ei  wel  oujt ; 

&  of  alphouws  come  •  alle  were  glade. 

1  MS.  "  Jjousans." 
2"rink"(?)     See  1.  5353. 


Then  Alphonse 

kissed  William's 

mother  and 

Melior, 

and  the  queen 

gave  Florence 

good  advice. 


She,  sighing 
sorely,  promised 
to  follow  it. 


The  Spaniards 
embark,  and 

[Pol.  81  6.] 
sailed  away  with 
a  fair  wind. 


The  Spanish  lords 
come  out  to  meet 
them  at  the 
haven. 


166 


WILLIAM'S  GOOD  GOVERNMENT  OF  PALERMO. 


All  went  on  to 
the  palace. 


&  so  al  fat  puple  to  f  e  palays  •  passede  sone, 
with  al  maner  mwrf  e  •  fat  men  make  couf  e. 


The  king  of  Spain  f  e  king  of  spayne  spacli  *  to  speke  J>e  sofe, 
Aiphonse  as  king,  krouned  alphouws  to  king  •  to  kepe  fat  reaume, 


as  he  himself  • 
very  old. 


I  now  return  to 
William. 


5224 


for  him-self  was  febul  •  &  fallen  in  elde, 

to  liue  f  e?*-after  in  lisse  •  wil  our  lord  wold.  5228 

f  us  was  alphoufts  fere  king  •  after  fat  time, 

&  held  a-redili  to  ri^t  •  f  e  riche  &  f  e  pore, 

so  fat  eche  burn  him  blessed  •  bi  ni3tes  &  daie[s]. 

of  him  a-while  wol  i  stint  •  &  of  wilh'am  speke,      5232 

f  e  kud  king  of  poyle  *  fat  i  of  karped  ere. 


William  and  his 
people  return  to 
the  palace  at 
Palermo. 


He  abolished  old 
bad  laws,  and 
kept  the  good 
ones,  making  new 
ones  also. 


If  he  was  beloved, 
Melior  was  more 
so. 

[Pol.  82.] 


The  emperor  of 
Rome  died  and 
was  buried. 


The  Roman  lords 
send  to  William 
and  Melior  to 
come  and  live  in 
Rome 


Opacli  as  f  e  spaynols  *  sped  hem  to  sayle, 

^  wilh'am  with  his  folk  *  went  wi^tli 

to  paleys  of  palerne  ;  *  his  puple  him  sewed,  5236 

with  alle  nmrf e  of  menstracie  •  fat  mew  mi^t  on  f enk. 

fan  wilKam  wi^tli  •  as  a  wis  king  schold, 

pes  amowg  f  e  puple  •  he  put  to  f  e  reaume, 

a-leide  alle  Infer  lawes  •  fat  long  hadde  ben  vsed,  5240 

&  gart  holde  f  e  gode  •  and  gaf  mo  newe, 

fat  profitabul  to  f  e  puple  •  were  proued  &  hold  ; 

so  fat  neuer  cristen  king  *  kau^t  more  loue 

fan  wilkam  dede  in  a  wile  *  wite  36  for  sofe.         5244 

&  }if  he  geynli  was  god  •  to  alle  gode  werkes, 

&  wel  bi-loued  in  his  lond  •  with  lasse  &  wif  more, 

$it  was  meliors  as  moche  •  his  menskful  quene, 

or  more  ^if  sche  imjt  •  in  any  maner  wise  ;  5248 

so  prestli  sche  wold  plese  •  f  e  pore  &  f  e  riche. 

fan  bi-tid  it  in  fat  time  •  to  telle  f  e  sofe, 

f  e  riche  emperour  of  rome  •  ended  his  daies, 

deide,  &  was  be-dolue  •  as  dere  god  wold.  5252 

&  alle  f  e  lordes  of  fat  lond  •  lelli  at  o  sent, 

sent  wilKam  to  seie  •  so  as  was  bi-falle ; 

&  to  meliors  his  quene  •  bi  messageres  nobul, 

as  to  here  lege  lord  •  lelli  bi  ri^t,  5256 

f  urth  meling  of  f  e  mariage  *  of  meliors  f  e  schene. 


WILLIAM    IS    CHOSEN    EMPEROR   OF   ROME. 

hendli  al  in  hast  •  f  ei  preyed  him  fider  hi^e. 

to  vnder-fonge  in  fee  •  al  fat  faire  reaume, 

&  erden  in  fat  empire  •  as  emperour  &  maister.      5260 

whan  f  e  worf  i  wilKam  •  wist  al  fat  fare, 

&  treuli  hade  vnderston  !  •  f  e  tidinges  to  f  ende, 

to  f  e  menskful  messageres  •  he  made  glad  chere, 

&  welcomed  worfili  •  witow  for  sojje.  5264 

naf  eles  meliors  &  he  •  made  moche  sorwe 

for  f  emperour  was  forf-fare  •  faire  to  cra'st. 

sone  f  ei  cau^t  cumfort  •  for  f  is  f  ei  knewe  bof  e, 

fat  def  wold  come  to  alle  •  fat  cr/st  hade  fourmed, 

to  emperours  &  erles  •  to  eche  fat  lif  hadde.  5269 

&  god  fan  of  his  grace  •  godliche  fei  f onked, 

&  seide  f  ei  wold  his  sondes  *  suffer,  &  his  wille. 

but  wilh'am  ful  wi^tli  •  with-oute  any  more,  5272 

sent  as  swif e  hise  sondes  •  sof li  in-to  spayne, 

bi  messageres  milde  •  fa  moche  god  couf e, 

&  bid  alphourcs  his  brofer  *  schuld  bliue  come,       5275 

&  bring  wif  him  liis  [wif  •  fat] 2  was  his  worf  i  suster. 

alisauwdrine  &  hire  lord  •  alphoorts  he  bad  hem  preie, 

J>at  he  dede  hem  com  wif  him  *  for  cas  fat  mi^t  falle, 

&  his  feif  ful  fader  *  ^if  he  a-liue  were. 

(ac  he  was  ded  &  doluen  •  as  dere  god  wold,  5280 

&  alphouras  held  in  his  hond  •  holli  al  fat  reaume, 

as  kinde  king  krowned  •  forth,  cuwseil  of  his  peres). 

&  whan  f  e  menskful  messangers  *  here  message  wisten, 

&  hade  letteres  of  here  lord  •  to  lelen  here  sawes, 

Jjei  went  wi^tli  in  here  way  •  with-oute  any  more,  5285 

£  sped  hem  in-to  spayne  •  spacli  in  a  while, 

&  to  f  e  kud  king  alphourcs  *  kif  ed  here  arnd. 


167 


as  emperor  and 
empress. 


He  and  Melioi 
make  the 
messengers  good 
cheer, 


but  are  sorry  to 
hear  of  the 
emperor's  death. 


William  sends 
messengers  to 
Spain  to 
Alphonse, 


asking  him  to 
come  with 
Florence  and 
Alexandrine  and 
her  lord  and  the 
old  king. 

(But  the  old  king 
•was  dead  and 
buried.) 

[Fol.  82  6.] 


The  messenger 
soon  arrived  in 


Wh 


an3  alphonns  witerli  •  wist  of  here  wille,        5288  when  Alphonse 

.  ,  .,  ,   , .         ,  ,  .     knew  his  brother- 

fat  f  e  ncne  emperour  of  rome  •  was  redeli  god  bi-  m-iaw  was  to  be 

taU3t,  emperor  of  Rome. 


See  the  note. 


2  Eead  "his  wif  that  was." — M. 


The  capital  "W  is  mis-written  M. 


168 


WILLIAM  AND  ALPHONSE  MEET  ONCE  MORE. 


he  was  very  glad, 


and  summoned 
ready. 


Florence, 

Braundinis  and 

Alexandrine  come 

to  Palermo. 


The  great  joy  of 

William  and 


for  a  week. 


ready,  waiiam 

set  oat  for  Borne, 


providing  rich 

apparel  for  Melior 

and  his  sister  and 


fat  his  buxura  brof  er  •  schuld  be  lord  fere-after, 

he  was  gretli  glad  •  and  oft  god  f  onked, 

&  marie  his  moder  •  fat  him  swiche  grace  sente  ;    5292 

&  swif  e  lett  of-sende  '  alle  his  segges  nobul, 

after  alle  f  e  lordes  of  fat  lond  •  f  e  lasse  &  f  e  more, 

&  of  er  perles  puple  *  him  prestili  to  serue. 

whan  fei  gaili  were  greif  *  as  hem  god  f  0113  1,         5296 

f  ei  passeden  toward  palern  •  as  fast  as  fei  mi^t, 

alphoutts  &  his  worbi  wif  •  wilk'ams  sister, 

&  brauwdinis  his  bold  brober  •  &  alisauwdrine  his  wif, 

wif  hiwdredes  of  kene  kni^tes  •  i  knew  nou^t  f  e  names. 

&  redili  whan  fei  were  come  •  f  er  fei  ariue  schuld, 

wilKam  wif  his  wi^es  •  went  hem  a^ens. 

but  no  man  vpoft  mold  •  mht  telle  be  ioye 

T 

fat  fe  bold  breferen  •  bi-tweyne  [hem]  l  made,       5304 

wilh'am  &  alphouws  *  whan  fei  mette  samen, 

&  wif  his  semli  sister  •  sef  f  en  sone  f  er-after, 

&  wif  his  of  er  brof  er  '  brauwdinis  f  e  bolde, 

&  after  wif  alysauwdrine  •  &  alle  ofer  seff  e  ;          5308 

J^  Prest^  ^^  a^  fa*  Puple  '  to  palerne  fei  went, 
&  made  hem  f  er  as  merie  •  as  man  mi^t  deuise, 
wif  alle  derworf  e  deinteyes  *  of  drynkes  &  metes. 
&  fus  fat  perles  puple  •  in  palerne  hem  rested       5312 
sadli  al  a  seuen  ni^t  •  hem-seluen  to  ese. 
&  bi  fat  eche  burn  *  on  his  best  wise 
was  Purueye(l  prestli  '  of  al  fat  hem  neded, 
^  wilh'am  bat  worbi  king  •  was  ban  wi^tli  aare,       5316 
wif  al  his  real  route  •  remewed  toward  rome, 
fan  made  he  his  moder  •  be  menskfully  greif  ed, 
Mid  him  &  meliors  his  quen  •  in  nmrbe  to  wende, 
&  wif  his  semli  sister  •  to  solas  here  hertes.  5320 

fan  wif  al  his  real  route  •  he  rides  on  gate, 
Redili  to-wardes  rome  f  o  •  ri^tes  gates, 
with  al  maner  mwrf  e  •  fat  men  mi^t  on  f  enk. 
&  as  fei  caired  ouer  cuntre  *  &  come  nei3  rome,     5324 
1  Read  "bi  tweyne  hem  made."  —  M. 


WILLIAM    IS    CROWNED    EMPEROR. 


169 


J>er  com  him  a-^ens  •  of  kinges  &  ofer  grete 

J>e  fairest  ferde  of  folk  •  J?at  euer  bi-fore  was  seie  ; 

no  man  vpon  molde  •  nu'3t  a£nie  j>e  noumber. 

&  worchipfulli  J>ei  welcomed  •  willwim  here  lorde,  5328 

&  al  his  l  freli  felawchip  •  freli  J>ei  gret, 

&  receyued  hem  as  realy  •  as  any  rinkes  mi^t ; 

Riden  ri$t  in-to  rome  •  with  reaulte  and  murfye. 

ac  no  tonge  ne  may  ]>e  atir  •  of  J>e  cite  telle,  5332 

so  richeli  was  al  araied  •  in  rome  for  his  come. 

J>e  prelates  on  procession  *  prestili  out  comen, 

&  alle  J>e  belles  in  burw  •  busili  were  range, 

for  ioye  Jrat  here  lege  lord  •  his  lordchip  schuld  take. 

J>an  passed  al  J>at  puple  •  to  J?e  paleys  euene,  5337 

&  eche  man  was  esed  •  euenli  at  wille, 

wanted  hem  no  J>ing  •  Jjat  ]>ei  haue  wold, 

for  plente  to  al  J>e  puple  •  was  purueide  at  ]>e  fulle. 

&  on  ]>e  morw  at  masse  •  to  murage  )>e  sojje,  5341 

wilh'am  with  al  his  worcliip  •  emperour  was  maked, 

&  meliors  his  comli  quen  •  was  crooned  emperice. 

]>er  nis  no  clerk  vnder  mat  •  ]>at  coufe  half  descriue 

Jje  reaulte  Jjat  was  araied  •  in  rome  for  fat  fest,       5345 

Ne  J>e  tijjedel  of  hire  atir  •  to  telle  J>e  ri^t, 

for  al  j>e  men  vpon  mold.  •  it  amende  ne  nu^t, 

nou^t  ]>at  fel  to  swiche  a  fest  •  forsofe,  half  a  mite.  5348 

for-}>i  wende  i  wol  a  while  *  wite  $e  for  so]?e, 

to  reherce  fe  aray  •  of  ]?e  real  fest, 

&  telle  former  of  J>is  tale  •  what  tidde  after. 


On  nearing  Rome, 
kings  and  nobles 
come  forth  to 
meet  them. 


All  ride  to  Rome, 
and  find  the  city 
richly  decked  out. 


The  prelates  meet 
them  in 
procession,  and 
the  bolla  are  rung. 


Next  day,  at 
mass,  William  is 
crowned  emperor, 
and  Melior 
empress. 


Never  was  a  more 
royal  festival. 

[Fol.  83  6.] 


T^ulle  fiftene  daies  •  J>at  fest  was  holden,  5352 

wij>  al  )>e  realte  of  rome  *  J>at  euer  2  rink  of  herde. 
no  tong  mi^t  telle  •  ]?e  twenti]>e  parte 
of  J>e  mede  to  menstrales  *  fat  mene  time  was  $eue, 
of  robes  wij)  riche  pane  •  &  oj>er  richesse  grete,      5356 
sterne  stedes  &  strong  •  &  ofer  stoute  ^iftes, 


IMS. 

2  MS. 


;hes." 
eneri 


but  see  1.  4232. 


The  feast  lasted 
fifteen  days. 

The  minstrels 
had  presents  of 
rich  robes  and 
steeds. 


170 


WILLIAM   CREATES    THE    COWHERD    AN    EARL. 


The  feast  ended, 
William  sent  for 
the  cowherd. 


He  asks  the 
cowherd  if  he 
knows  him. 


"Yes,  by  your 
leave,  you  were  as 
my  son  for  seven 
years. 


Praised  be  God, 
who  hath 
preserved  you 
from  poverty." 


"  True,  you 
fostered  me,  and 
shall  lose  nothing 
by  it." 


William  sends  for 
his  steward,  and 
gives  the  cowherd 
a  fair  castle 


[Fol.  84.] 

and  a  "  tidy  " 
earldom, 


and  bade  the 
castle-stewards 
see  that  men 
were  obedient  to 
the  cowherd's 
command. 


so  fat  eche  man  f  er-mide  •  mi3t  hold  him  a-paied. 
&  er  f  e  fest  fulli  •  was  fare  to  f  e  ende, 


f  emperour  •  fat  newe  was  crouned,  5360 

as  a  curteys  king  •  on  f  e  kowherd 
fat  him  hade  fostered  •  to-fore,  seuen 
&  sent  sone  after  him  •  &  his  semli  wiue. 
&  whan  f  e  kowherde  kom  •  f  e  king  to  him  saide,  5364 
"  sire  kowherde,  knowestow   me   ou^t    •   so   f  e   crist 

help  ?  " 

J)e  kowherd  kneled  sone  •  &  karped  fese  wordes, 
"  3a  !  lord,  wif  ^our  leue  •  ful  litel  i  301!  knewe. 
I  fostered  ^ou  on  mi  net  •  for  sof  e,  as  me  finkef,   5368 
&  seide  36  were  my  sone  *  seuen  ^er  and  more. 
f  e  riche  emperour  of  rome  •  fat  regned  here  fat  time, 
wan  3ou  fro  me  a-wei  •  wo  was  me  f  er-fore. 
but  herded  be  fe  hi^e  king  •  3011  fus  haj>  holpe,     5372 
&  pult  3ou  to  f  is  pli$t  *  fram  pouert  euer-more  !  " 
wilh'am  f  e  worf  i  emp#rour  •  ful  wi3tli  fus  saide, 
"  bi  crist,  sire,  f  ou  hast  seid  *  al  f  e  sof  e  euene  ; 
]jou  me  fostredes  ful  faire  •  as  fel  for  fin  astate,      5376 
&  bi  our  lord,  as  i  leue  *  fat  schaltou  lese  neuer  !  " 
anon  fan  het  he  in  hast  •  do  him  forto  come 
his  stiward  wif-oute  stint  •  to  sti3tli  alle  his  londes, 
&  bi-fore  kud  kni3tes  •  and  ofer  kene  lordes,          5380 
he  3af  to  f  e  kowherde  •  a  kastel  ful  nobul, 
f  e  fairest  vpora  fold  •  fat  euer  freke  seie, 
&  best  set  to  f  e  si3t  •  him-selue  to  kepe  ; 
and  al  fat  touched  fer  •  to  a  tidi  erldome,  5384 

to  f  e  kowherd  &  his  wif  •  f  e  king  3af  fat  time, 
as  freli  as  eni  freke  •  for  euer  couf  e  deuise. 
&  hastili  het  eche  a  baili  •  fat  hade  it  to  kepe, 
to  do  eche  burn  be  buxum  •  bi  ni3tes  &  daiefs],1     5388 
to   f  e   cowherdes   comauwdemerat  •  as   to   here   kindf* 

lord, 

as  f  ei  louede  here  Hues  •  neuer  to  lette  his  wille  ; 
1  MS.  "  daie  ;"  but  "  daies  "  is  better  ;  see  1.  5490. 


WILLIAM'S  LAST  PARTING  WITH  ALPHONSE. 


171 


&  sent  his  stiward  as  swif  e  •  to  sese  him  f  er-inne. 

&  hastili  was  his  wille  wrou^t  •  witow  for  sofe.      5392 

f  us  was  f  e  kowherd  out  of  kare  •  kindeli  holpen, 

he  &  his  wilsura  wif  •  wel  to  liuen  for  euer. 

of  f  e  kinde  couherde  *  now  nel  i  telle  no  more, 

but  lete  him  in  his  blisse  •  &  his  burde  alse,  5396 

&  touche  we  ferre  •  as  J)is  tale  forf  eres. 

Fan  fis  faire  fest  was  finischid  •  at   fe  .xv  daies 
end, 

eche  a  lord  ful  loueli  •  his  leue  gan  take 
of  emperour  &  emperice  *  &  oft  hem  fonked          5400 
of  f  e  worchip  &  wele  •  fat  f  ei  hem  wrou3t  hadde. 
f  emperour  to  f  e  grete  god  *  ful  godli  hem  bi-tau^t ; 
but  omage  arst  of  hem  alle  •  hendeli  he  tok, 
Mekli  as  f  e  maner  is  •  his  men  to  bi-come,  5404 

to  com  keneli  to  his  kry  •  as  to  here  kinde  lord. 
&  he  ful  godly  hem  fonked  •  &  to  god  bi-tau^t, 
&  fan  went  f  ei  here  way  •  whider  f  aim  god  liked, 
eche  lord  to  his  owne  lond  *  &  lenged  f  er  in  blisse. 
&  king  alphoufls  a-non  •  after  alle  were  went,         5409 
&  his  woichipful  wif  •  be-fore  wilh'am  comen, 
&  brauwdyns  his  broker  *  and  alisaurcdrine  his  burde  ; 
at  emperour  &  emperice  •  euereche  on  at  ones        5412 
loueli  lau^ten  here  leue  •  to  here  lond  to  wend, 
sone  fan,  sof  li  to  seie  *  f  er  was  sorwe  riue, 
whan  fat  wilKam  was  war  *  fat  f ei  wend  wold, 
Moche  mournyng  fei  made  •  &  meliors  alse  ;          5416 
but  sef  £e  it  mi3t  be  no  beter  •  suffer  hem  be-houed. 
william  bi  f  e  hond  •  hent  alphou?^s  his  brof  er, 
&  nei^  wepande  for  wo  •  wi^tli  fus  saide, 
"  brof  er,  }if  it  be  •  bi  god  fat  vs  wroujt,  5420 

I  wold  it  were  f  i  wille  •  wif  vs  forto  lenge, 
hit  forf inkes  me  sore  •  fat  we  schul  de-parte  ; 
but  sefe  it  nel  be  non  ofer  •  110113 1  for  to  striue,     5423 
I  bi-kenne  3ou  to  krist  •  fat  on  croyce  was  peyned, 


Thus  were  the 
cowherd  and  his 
wife  saved  from 
the  hardship  of 
poverty. 


The  festival 
ended,  each  lord 
went  to  his  own 
home; 


but  William  first 
took  homage  of 
them  all. 


Alphonse  and 
Braundinis  and 
their  wives 
took  their  leave 
to  go  home. 


William  and 
Melior  were  much 
grieved  at  their 
departure. 
[Fol.  84  6J 

William  takes 
Alphonse  by  the 
hand,  saying, 


"  I  would  thou 
couldst  stay  here, 


172 


ALPHONSE    SWEARS    FRIENDSHIP    WITH    WILLIAM. 


and  I  pray  thee, 
if  any  one  wars 
against  thee, 


send  to  me  and  I 
will  come  to 
thee." 


"  The  same  say  I 
by  thee,"  replied 
Alphonse. 


The  emperor 
William's  mother 
tells  Florence  to 
love  and  obey  her 
lord, 


and  she  promises 
on  her  knees  to 
do  so. 


They  give 
Alexandrine  the 
same  advice, 
which  she  says 
she  will  follow. 


At  last  they  have 
to  take  leave,  to 

[Fol.  85.] 
the  great  sorrow 
of  all. 


The  king  of  Spain 
mounted  his 
horse,  and  went 
home  with  his 


&,  brof  er,  i  f  e  bidde  bi  al  •  fat  euer  f  ow  louedest, 
}if  destine  falle  of  ani  dede  •  fat  f  ou  to  done  haue, 
fat  eny  wi^t  wif  werre  *  wirche  a^ens  f  i  paie,  tf^ 
swif  e  send  me  to  say  •  &  sone  i  come  to  f  e,  5428 

fat  no  liuend  lud  •  schal  me  lette  neuere, 
wil  me  lastef  f  e  lif  •  for  loue  ne  for  awe ; 
til  f  ow  be  wel  wroke  •  wol  i  neuer  stinte." 
"  $a,  blessed  be  f  ow,  bold  broker "  *  seide  alphouns  l 
fan,  5432 

f  e  same  sey  i  be  f  e  •  so  me  wel  time  ! " 
feiffullere  frenchipe  •  saw  neuer  frek  in  erf  e, 
fat  more  plenerli  hem  profered  •  to  plese  eche  of  er, 
&  to  help  ofer  in  hast  •  ho-so  hade  nede.  5436 

f  empe?*ours  moder  wilh'am  *  and  meliors  alse, 
seide  to  hire  doubter  •  f  e  semli  quen  of  spayne, 
"  loueli  doubter,  leue  lif  •  loue  f  i  lord  euere, 
&  be  euer  busili  aboute  him  •  buxuwli  to  serue,     5440 
&  lede  him  euer  wif  f  i  lore  *  his  lond  to  kepe  ; 
so  schaltow  lelli  be  loued  •  wi]j  lasse  &  wij?  more." 
&  sche  kneling  on  here  knes  •  curtesli  saide, 
sche  hoped  to  heuen  king  •  whil  here  lif  lasted,      5444 
to  wirche  as  J>ei  here  wissed  •  with-oute  any  lette. 
&  to  alisauwdrine  a-non  •  ri^t  J?ei  sayde 
sadli,  in  same  wise  •  sche  schold  hire  lord  loue  ; 
&  sche  sore  sikande  •  seide  fat  sche  wold.  5448 

&  whan  J? ei  sainerc  had  seide  •  what  hem-self  liked, 
&  time  was  atte  laste  •  atwinne  forto  de-parte, 
fer  was  siking  &  sorwe  •  on  bof e  sides  sadde, 
weping  &  wringinge  •  for  wo  at  here  hertes,  5452 

&  clippinge  and  kessing  •  fei  cau^t  eche  ofer, 
bi-kenned  hem  to  crist  *  fat  on  croyce  was  peyned, 
&  soute  sef  e  on-sunder  •  f  ou^h  it  hem  sore  greued. 
f e  king  of  spayne  spacli  •  spedde  him  fan  to  horse, 
&  went  forf  in  is  way  •  wif-oute  any  more  ;  5457 

&  al  his  faire  felawchip  •  folwed  him  after, 

1  The  MS.  has  "  williom,"  an  obvious  blunder  ;  see  1.  5198. 


WILLIAM    RULES    HIS    EMPIRE    WISELY. 


173 


&  sped  hem  banne  spacli  •  to  spayne  bat  bei  come.  They  were  royally 

*   J  received  on  their 

fer  were  J>ei  reali  resceyued  •  as  god  ri^t  it  wold,    5460  return. 

with  alle  maner  mwrf  e  •  fat  man  mi^t  on  f  enke ; 

&  fere  f  ei  lenged  in  lisse  •  al  hire  line  after, 

&  ledden  wel  fat  lond  •  to  gode  lawes  euere, 

so  fat  eche  burn  hem  blessed  *  fat  euer  f  ei  bore  were. 

of  hem  of  spayne  to  speke;  my  speche  now  i  lete,  5465  or  the  king  of 

Spain  I  say  no 

but  lete  hem  line  in  lisse  •  at  oure  lordes  wille,  more, 

of  f  e  riche  emperour  of  rome  •  redeliche  to  telle. 


& 


TIThanne  f  e  king  of  spayne  •  spedli  was  faren,      5468 

wilk'am  with  him  tok  •  al  his  worf  i  meyne, 
•&  his  menskful  moder  •  &  here  maydenes  alle, 
&  rides  f  urth  pempire  of  rome  •  richeli  &  faire, 
to  alle  solempne  cites-  •  &  semliche  holdes,  5472 

to  knowe  f  e  kuntres  •  as  a  king  oii^t ; 
lau^t  omage  of  eche  lud  •  ])at  longed  to  f  e  reaume. 
&  whan  fat  dede  was  don  •  deliuerli  &  sone, 
Gode  lawes  furth  his  lond  •  lelly  he  sette,  5476 

&  held  hem  so  harde  *  i  hete  f  e  for  sof  e,  \J$ 

fat  robboures  ne  reuqwres  •  mijt  route  none,  'f' 
f  at  f  ei  nere  hastili  hange  •  or  with  hors  to-drawe. 
ilatereres  &  fals  men  *  fram  him  sone  he  chased,    5480 
Lieres  ne  losengeres  •  loued  he  neuer  none, 
but  tok  to  him  tidely  •  trewe  cuwsayl  euere, 
fat  al  fe  puple  for  him  preide  •  J>e  pore  &  fe  riche ; 
so  wisli  he  wrou3t  •  to  sauen  his  reaume.  5484 

&  }if  he  meke  were  of  maneres  •  meliors  his  quene, 
was  al  swiche  on  hire  side  •  to  telle  fe  tre[w]f e, 
so  gracious  to  goddes  mew  •  &  alle  gode  werkes, 
so  pitevows  to  fe  pore  •  hem  prestili  to  help,          5488 
fat  eche  man  hade  ioye  *  to  here  of  here  speke, 
&  busily  for  hire  bede  •  bi  ny^tes  and  daies. 
&  also  will/'ams  moder  •  fat  menskful  quene, 
so  god  was  &  gracious  *  to  eche  gomes  paye,  5492 

so  witty  &  willeful  •  to  wirche  alle  gode  dedes, 


After  this  William 
made  a  progress 
through  his 
empire, 


to  know  all  his 
countries  as  a 
king  ought. 


He  established 
good  laws,  so  that 
robbers  might 
soon  be  hanged  or 
drawn  asunder. 


Flatterers  he 
chased  from  him, 
and  loved  no  liars. 


Rich  and  poor 
prayed  for  him. 

[Fol.  86  6~] 

Melior  was  so 
gracious  to  God's 
men  and  to  good 
works, 

that  all  prayed 
for  her. 


William's  mother 
was  so  gracious 
that  all  blessed 
her. 


174 


THE  QUEEN  OF  PALERMO  8  DREAM  COMES  TRUE. 


Then  she 
remembered  her 
dream,  that  her 
right  arm  lay 
over  Rome,  and 
her  left  over 
Spain. 


William  was  her 
right  arm,  and 
Florence  her  left 


She  thanks  God 
for  all  her  bliss. 


. 


fat  eclie  burn  hire  blessed  •  busili  euer-more, 
&  hei^li  preiede  to  heuen  king  •  to  hold  here  lines. 
fan  com  here  in  mynde  *  at  fat  mene  while,  5496 

fat  here  sweuen  was  sof  •  fat  sum  time  hire  mette, 
fat  here  rrjt  arm  redeli  *  oner  rome  a-teyned, 
&  lelli  here  lift  arm  •  laye  ouer  spayne. 
fan  wist  sche  wijtli  •  what  it  be-tokened,  5500 

here  sone  fat  regned  in  rome  *  here  ri^t  arme  ment ; 
fat  here  der-worf  doubter  *  was  drawe  to  spayne, 
here  lif  time  to  be  fere  ladi  •  here  left  arm  schewed. 
God  Jjanked  sche  godli  •  of  al  his  grete  mijt,  5504 

&  his  menskful  moder  •  f  e  milde  qnen  of  heuen, 
fat  out  of  bale  hade  hire  brou^t  *  to  blisse  so  faire. 


William  and 
Melior  had  two 
sons. 


One  was  emperor 
of  Rome  after  his 
father,  the  other 
was  king  of 
Calabria  and 
Apulia. 

So  came  William 
to  be  emperor  of 
Rome  after  all  his 
hardships. 

t/x/S^ 

And  so  shall  all 

[Fol.  86.] 
they  that  seek 
good  prosper. 


"Uus  william  &  his  worf  i  quen  •  winteres  fele, 

•*     liueden  in  liking  &  lisse  •  as  our  lord  wolde,    5508 

&  haden  tvo  sones  sanies  *  ful  semliche  childeren, 

fat  sef f en  Jmrth  goddes  grace  •  were  grete  lordes  after. 

fat  on  was  emperour  of  rome  •  &  regned  after  his  fader, 

fat  ofer  was  a  kud  king  •  of  calabre  &  poyle  ;         5512 

&  mi^ti  men  &  menskful  •  were  f  ei  in  here  time, 

&  feifful  as  here  fader  *  to  fre  &  to  f  ewe. 

f  us  f  is  worf i  wilb'am  •  was  emperour  of  rome, 

fat  hadde  many  hard  happe  •  hade  f  ere-bi-fore,      5516 

&  be  in  gret  baret  •  and  bale  sum  time  ; 

of  alle  bales  was  he  bro^t  •  blessed  be  goddes  nu^t ! 

&  so  schal  eue?ich  seg  •  fat  sechef  to  f e  gode, 

&  giues  him  in  goddes  grace  •  &  godliche  ay  wirchef . 


In  fise  wise  haf  wilKam  •  al  his  werke  ended,        5521 


Thus  hath 
William  ended  all 

his  work,  as  fully  as  f  e  frensche  •  fully  wold  aske. 

following  the 

French  as  well  as    &  as  his  witte  him  wold  serue  •  f  ou^h  it  were  febul. 

at  eche  marines 


he  conld. 


The  metre  is  the 
best  he  could 
make. 


but  f  ou^h  f  e  metur  be  nou3t  mad 

paye,  5524 

wite  him  nou^t  fat  it  wrou^t  •  he  wold  haue  do  beter, 


PRAY    FOR   SIR    HUMPHREY   DE   BOHUN  !  175 

$if  is  witte  in  eny  wei^es  •  wold  him  haue  seined. 

but,  faire  frendes,  for  goddes  loue  •  &  for  ^our  owne  Fair  Mends, 

mensk, 
?e  bat  liken  in  loue  *  swiche  binges  to  here.  5528  pray  for  the  good 

*  f  lord  who  caused 

prei^es  !  for  fat  gode  lord  •  fat  gart  f  is  do  make,  this  to  be  done, 

f  e  hende  erl  of  hereford  •  humfray  de  boune  ;  —  sS,  earl  of 

f  e  gode  king  edwardes  doubter  •  was  his  dere  moder  ;  — 
he  let  make  bis  mater  •  in  bis  maner  speche,  5532  He  had  it  done 

for  those  who 

for  hem  )>at  knowe  no  frensche  •  ne  neuer  vnderstofw].2      kn(W  no  French. 
biddif  fat  blisful  burn  •  fat  bou^t  vs  on  f  e  rode, 
&  to  his  moder  marie  •  of  mercy  fat  is  welle,' 

e  lord  god  lif  •  wil  he  in  erfe  lenges,  5536 


&  whan  he  wendes  of  bis  world  •  welbe  with-oute  ende,  happiness  without 

end  after  death. 

to  lenge  in  J>at  liking  ioye  •  fat  lestej)  euer-more." 

&  god  gif  alle  god  grace  •  fat  gladli  so  biddes,  God  give  grace  to 

&  pertli  in  paradis  *  a  place  for  to  haue.     Amen.    5540  in  'paradise. 

Amen. 

1  MS.  "  preyed." 

2  Read  "  vnderstonde."  —  M.     See  note  to  1.  5262. 


177 


0f 


0f 


Yee  jj«t  lengen  in  londe  •  Lordes,  and  oojjer, 
Beurnes,  or  bachelers  •  bat  boldely  thinken 
Wheber  in  werre,  or  in  wo  •  wightly  to  dwell, 
For  to  lachen  hem  loose  •  in  hur  lifetime, 
Or  dere  thinken  to  doo  •  deedes  of  armes, 
To  be  proued  for  pn's  •  &  prest  of  hemselne,1 
Tend  yee  tytely  to  mee  •  &  take  goode  heede. 
I  shall  sigge  forsothe  *  ensaumples.ynow 
Of  one,  be  boldest  beurn  •  &  best  of  his  deeds, 
That  euer  steede  bestrode  •  or  sterne  was  holden  ! 
Now  shall  I  carp  of  a  King  •  kid  in  his  time, 
bat  had  londes,  &  leedes 2  •  &  lordships  feole  ;3 
Amyntas  be  mightie  •  was  be  man  hoten  : 
Maister  of  Macedoine  •  be  marches  hee  aught, 
Bothe  feeldes,  &  frithes  •  .faire  all  aboute ; 
Trie  towres,  &  tounes  *  terme  of  his  life, 
And  kept  J>e  croune  •  as  a  King  sholde. 
jjen  this  cumlich  King  •  &  keene  in  his  time, 
Had  wedde  a  wife  •  as  hym  well  thought, 
And  long  ladden  hur  life  •  in  lond  togeder. 
Twoo  seemlich  sonnes  •  soone  they  hadden ; 
)}e  alder 4  hight  Alisaunder  •  as  I  right  tell ; 
And  sir  Philip  forsoothe  •  his  frobroder  hight.6 

1  MS.  hymselue,  with  e  written  above  the  y. 

2  MS.  "leethes,"  with  rf  written  above  the  th. 

3  MS.  "feU,"  with  feole  written  above  it. 

4  MS.  alder,  with  e  over  a.     See  note. 

6  Here  follows  the  catchword,  "Cas  fel,  dat  dis  K." 
12 


12 


[Fol.  1  ft.] 
Ye  lords  and 
others,  who  seek 
to  acquire  praise, 


attend  all  to  me. 


I  shall  tell  of  the 
best  man  that  ever 
bestrode  steed. 


Amyntas  was 
a  mighty  king  of 
Macedonia. 


16 


He  wedded  a  wife, 
by  whom  he  had 
20  two  sons; 


Alexander  the 
elder  son,  and 
Philip. 


178 


PHILIP    IS   BROUGHT    UP    AT    THEBES. 


[FoL  2.] 

Amyntas  fell  sick 
and  died. 


Alexander  the 
eldest  son  was 
crowned  king, 


but  soon  died. 


His  mother 
Eurydice  caused 
his  death. 


She  lusted  after 
her  own  children. 


Alexander  refused, 
and  she  killed 
him. 


Thus  he  departed 
this  life. 


[Fol.  2  &.] 


Case  fell,  J>at  this  Kyng  •  as  Christe  wolde  Jjanne,     24 

Was  with  siknes  of-sought  •  &  soone  ber-after, 

Hee  was  graythed  to  grace  •  &  to  God  went. 

His  alder-aldust l  sonne  *  J>at  Alisaunder  hight, 

))o  was  crouned  King  •  to  keepe  be  reigne.  28 

"Well  hee  ladde  be  londe  •  while  hee  lyfe  hadde, 

But  his  term  was  tint  •  or  it  tyme  were. 

And  all  be  cause  of  bi's  case  •  I  con  soone  tell ; 

How  hee  was  doolefully  ded  •  &  doone  of  his  life.      32 

Bat   made    his   moder   J)e    Queene    •   fat   moste   was 

adouted ; 

Eurydice  hue  hight  •  unkinde  of  her  deedes. 
Hue  loued  so  lecherie  *  &  lustes  of  synne, 
J)at  her  chylder  hue  chase  •  unchastly  to  haue.  36 

For  Alisaunder,  hur  sonne  •  assent  so  ne  wolde 
To  fulfill  so  foule  •  her  fleshlych  sinnes, 
Hue  let  kyll  J>&  Kyng  •  with  care  at  his  hert, 
In  be  formest  yere  •  that  hee  first  reigned.  40 

And  'Sus  lafte  hee  his  life  *  our  Lorde  haue  his  soule  ! 
For  a  feller  in  fight  •  found  men  seelde, 
While  him  lasted  his  life  •  londes  to  yeeme.2 
Now  let  wee  Jus  lued  •  lengen  in  bliss,  44 

And  sithe  myng  wee  more  •  of  Jus  mery  tale. 


Many  years  before 
this,  Philip  was 
fostered  and 
brought  up 


by  Epaminondas, 
king  of  Thebes. 


This  king 
cherished  the 
child  well. 


Fel[e]  wintres  tofore  •  in  his  faders  life, 
Than  was  Philip  be  free  •  to  fosteryng  take, 
In  courte  [of  an]  unkouthe  kith  *  with  a  King  ryche,  48 
That  was  chuse3  of  be  childe  *  &  choicelich  hym  kept. 
Hee  that  fostred,  &  founde  •  Philip  in  youthe, 
King  of  Tebes  that  time  •  truly  was  holden, 
Epaminondas  hee  hyght  •  full  hardy  to  nieete.  52 

So  hee  cherished  be  childe  •  cheefe  ouer  all, 
jpat  hee  was  woxen  full  weele  •  &  wyght  of  his  deede, 

1  An  e  is  written  above  the  first  a  in  this  word. 

2  Catchword — Now  let  wee  dis  lued,  &c. 

3  A  y  is  written  above  the  «. 


PHILIP'S    LORDS   REBEL   AGAINST    HIM. 


179 


Forto  abyde  any  beurn  •  in  battle,  or  eles.1 

When  his  broder  with  bale  •  brought  was  of  life,       56 

Ryght  was,  fat  f  zs  renk  *  reigned  hym  after 

To  bee  crouned  a  King  •  in  his  right  riche, 

As  maister  of  Macedoine  *  amonges  f  e  greate, 

For  to  leade  f  e  lond  •  as  hym  leefe  thought,  60 

Men  to  holden  of  hym  •  fat  hed  was  of  all, 

Philip  fared  him  forthe  •  in  a  fayre  wyse, 

To  receiuen  his  right  •  &  reigne  on  his  londes  ; 

But  when  f  e  Lordes  of  fe  lond  *  lelich  wysten  64 

Of  hur  neew  cuwmen  King  •  fat  his  kith  asketh, 

With  greate  werre  fat  wonne  •  f  ei  werned  hym  soone, 

That  by  force  of  hur  fight  •  ftei 2  firked  hym  'Sennes,3 

That   hee  ne   must  in  his  marche   •  with  his  menne 

dwell,  68 

Ne  beleue  in  his  lond ;  •  fat  liked  hym  yll. 
Whan  Philip  felt  tho  folk  •  so  ferse  of  hur  deedes, 
Ayen  to  Tebes  hee  turned  •  teenid  full  sore. 
To  f  e  Kyng  of  this  case  •  hee  carped  soone,  72 

How  hee  was  kept  at  his  coome  •  with  a  keene  route, 
That  hee  was  faine  with  his  folke  •  to  flee  from  his  owne. 
Epaminondas  f  e  King  •  was  carefull  in  hert, 
Till  hee  were  wroken  of  f  e  wrong  *  fat  f  ei  wrought 

hadden.  76 

Hee  graythed  hym  a  greate  oste  •  grym  to  beholde, 
And  cheued  forthe,  with  f  e  4  childe  •  what  chaunse  so 

betide. 

So  with  Philip  f  e  free  •  hee  fared  on  in  haste, 
To  clayme  his  Kingdome  •  &  catchen  f  e  shrews,         80 
That  beraften  hym  "his  ryght  *  with  rufull  deedes. 
Than,  shortly  to  showe  *  f  ei  sharplich  went, 
And  foughten  for  Philip  •  his  fone  to  dustroye, 
Tooke  towres,  &  townefs]  *  tamid 5  Knightes,  84 

1  MS.  "  oreles."  2  Mg.  "  del." 

3  MS.  "  dennes,"  with  thence  above  it. 

4  MS.  Dou,  as  if  for  "  Sou ;  "  but  "  J?e  "  is  written  above  it. 

5  MS.  "  tamed,"  with  an  e  over  the  a. 

12* 


Philip  was  now 
the  rightful  heir 
to  the  crown. 


He  therefore  went 
to  Macedonia. 


His  lords  with- 
stood him. 


[Pol.  8.] 

Philip  returned  to 
Thebes. 


Epaminondas 
wroth, 


and  joined  Philip 
to  punish  the 
lords. 


The  Thebans 
fought  for  Philip, 
and  discomfited 
his  foes. 


180 


PHILIP   IS   CROWNED    KING. 


The  lords  fled 
to  Athens. 


The  king  of 
Thebes  attacked 
it, 

[Fol.  3  &.] 
and  took  it. 


Then  was  Philip 
crowned  king, 
400  years  after 
Rome  was  built. 
[B.C.  859; 
A.U.C.  395.] 


Philip  is  made 
king. 


He  defeats  the 

Assyrians 

[niyrians]. 


They  acknowledge 
Mm  as  lord. 


Felled  J>e  falsse  folke  •  ferked  l  hem  hard, 

With  skathe  were  )>ei  skoumfyt2  *  skape  bei  ne  myght , 

Who-so  weldes  a  wrong  •  J>e  worsse  hym  3  betides, 

For  hee,3  ]>at  reigneth  in  ryght  •  reskueth  troth.         88 

For  fere  of  sir  Philip  •  fledde  they  all, 

And  turned  tit  to  a  towne  •  fat  Attanus  hyght, 

A  stij>  stede,  &  a  strong  •  &  straite  for  to  winne, 

And  kept  keenely  Jjat  cost  •  fro  J>e  Kyng  than,  92 

That  hee  ne  myght  with  J>o  menne  •  medle  no  while. 

The  King  of  Tebs  for  teene  •  targed  no  lenger, 

But  sought  to  be  Citie  •  &  a-saute  made. 

They  "beseeged  it  so  •  on  sides  aboute,  96 

That  they  tooke  J>e  towne  •  &  traytoures  sleew. 

Thus  faire  Philip,  J?e  free  •  his  fomen  awaited, 

And  thus  sought  hee  his  lond  •  with  lo^elike4  dyntes. 

Than  Jns  cumly  Knight  •  was  crouned  soone,  100 

Of  Macedoine  made  Kyng  •  maugre  them  all. 

Fore  hundred  yere  holly  •  as  I  here  tell, 

Sin  J>e  Citie  of  Roome  •  sett  was  in  erth, 

Philip  in  his  freedam  *  faire  gan  dwell,  104 

So  too  reigne  on  his  nyght  '  as  rink  in  his  owne. 

Now  is  hee  crouned  King  •  &  keeppes  his  reigne, 

And  swi)je  hardie  is  hee  *  happes  too  fonde. 

Now  fares  'Philip  be  free  •  too  fonden  his  myght,      108 

And  attles  to  be  Assyriens  •  aunteres  too  seeche ; 

And  nere  blynd  J?e  beurn  •  of  battle  stern, 

Till  hee  had  fenked  ]>e  folke  •  too  fare  at  his  wyll, 

And  wonne  be  won  •  with  werre  full  keene,  112 

Folke  to  fare  with  hym  •  as  hee  faine  wolde, 

To  chesew5  hym  for  cheefe  Lorde  •  &  chaunge  hym  neuer. 

Philip  full  ferslich  •  in  his  fyght  spedde, 

And  prooued  in  his  powre  •  as  Prince  full  noble.      116 

Whan  hee  had  so  them  •  hollich  ifenked, 

1  MS.  seems  to  have  "  ferkerd ;"  see  1.  67.         2  MS.  skourakyt. 
3  See  the  note  on  these  two  words.  4  MS.  lodelik*. 

5  MS.  chose n,  with  e  above  o. 


PHILIP    TAKES    LARISSA   AXD    THESSALONICA. 


181 


Hee  sought  too  a  Citie  •  full  seemely  too  knowe, 
Larissea  hy^t,  \a\,  helde    •  full  hardie  men  in, 
One  J>e  klenist  coste  •  j>at  any  King  aught.  120 

Philip  fetches  hym  folke  •  &  foundes  full  soone 
Too  bidden  jjem  battle  •  &  brodes  in  haste, 
For  to  lache  hym  as  Lorde  •  ]>e  lond  for  to  haue, 
Or  deraine  it  with  dintes  *  &  deedes  of  armes.  124 

Ferse  were  Jjo  folke  •  &  foughten  in  haste, 
Or  j>ei  lesen  J?eir  lond  *  their  life  for  too  spill. 
Longe  lasted  J>at  strife  •  but  lelli  too  knowe, 
By  fin  force  of  his  fight  *  Philip  it  winnes.  128 

Now  hath  Philip  in  fyght  •  freely  wonne 
The  Citie  of  Assyriens  •  with  selkouthe  dintes ; 
And  lordship  of  Larisse  •  laught  too  his  will ; 
And  intoo  Greece  hee  gose  •  with  a  grim  peeple.       132 
Than  hee  turnes  too  a  towne  •  Tessalonie  it  hyght ; 
And  assailes  it  soone  •  J?e  Citie  to  haue. 
Too  [sese]  2  onely  j?e  towne  •  or  any  o]>er  goodes, 
Hee  ne  nyed  it  nought  •  but  needely  too  haue          136 
All  )>o  mightfull  menne  •  ]pat  in  J>e  marches  dwelt, 
Too  bryng  at  his  baner  •  for  bolde  ]?ei  were, 
And  a-losed  in  lond  •  for  leeflich  Knightes. 
For  jrc's  enchesoun  hee  chused  •  too  chasen  hem  Jwre, 
Till  J>ei  were  at  his  wyll  •  as  hee  wolde  ax.  141 

But  or  hee  tooke  so  their  toune  •  teene  gan  spring ; 
Many  a  dulfull  dint  •  deled  jjei  there. 
But  all  Jbei  were  unware  •  wisly  too  knowe  144 

Of  \>at  sorowfull  asaute  •  fat  they  so  had ; 
For  hadde  J?ei  knowe  ]>e  kast  •  of  ]>e  Kyng  stern, 
They  had  kept  well  his  cumme  •  with  carefull  dintes. 
Jjei  see  no  succour  •  in  no  syde  aboute,  148 

That  was  come  to  hur  koste  •  J?e  king  for  to  lett ; 
And  Philip  with  his  fresh  folke  •  so  fast  J>em  assailes, 
That  J?ei  gradden  hur  grij>  •  his  grace  to  haue, 
Him  to  taken  jjeir  toune  •  &  trulich  to  serue,  152 

1  MS.  holde,  with  e  above  o.  2  See  the  iiote. 


He  next  attacks 
Larissa. 


[PoL  4.] 


The  people  are 
fierce,  and  fight 
long. 


He  takes  Larissa. 


He  attacks 
Thessalonica. 

He  did  not  care  to 
rule  over  the 
town,  but  to  make 
the  men  in  it  his. 


It  is  a  hard 
fight. 


[Fol.46.] 

No  one  comes  to 
help  them. 


They  capitulate. 


182  DESCRIPTION    OF    THE   PRINCESS   OLYMPIAD 

For  to  wend  at  his  wyll  •  whereso  hym  liked, 
And  redy  to  his  retainaunce  •  ryght  as  hee  wolde. 


Philip  now  takes        ^ow  is  Philip  full  grym  •  in  fyght  for  to  meete, 
And  many  mightfull  menne  •  may  with  hym  leade. 
Attend,  fe  trie  toune  *  hee  tooke  too  his  wyll,         157 
The  folke  too  fare  with  hym  •  when  hee  fonde  time. 

and  the  city  of      Jje  Citie  of  Assyrie  *  is  sett  too  his  paye, 

And  all  J>e  beurnes  in  Jje  borowe  •  boune  too  his  heste. 


The  Lordship  of  Larisse  •  is  lauht  top  himselue,       161 
Men  too  curame  too  his  crie  •  &  kif  en  f  eir  might. 

and  Thessaionica.  Tessalonie  fe  trewe  holde  •  is  turned  too  hym  alse, 

With  all  fe  weies  in  fe  won  •  his  werre  too  keepe.  164 
3Tow  is  fat  peeple  full  prest  •  &  preeued  of  strength 
For  too  wirchen  his  will  •  &  wend  at  his  neede. 

pwiip  is  doughty   Philip,  for  his  ferse  folke  •  in  fele  l  ober  landes, 

and  dreadful. 

Doughtye  men  douten  *  for  dreedfull  hee  seemes.     168 

By  euery  koste,  fat  hee  com  •  kid  was  his  might, 

For  when  hee  medled  him  moste  •  f  e  maistrie  hee  had. 

i  next  speak  of          To  profre  bis  process  •  prestly  too  here. 

Erabel,  King  of  Erubel 

Moioseis.  j  karp  Of  a  kid  king  *  Arisba  was  hote  ;  172 

The  Marques  of  Molosor  2  •  menskliche  hee  aught, 
For  hee  was  King  of  f  e  kif  *  &  knight  wel  a-losed. 

He  had  a  sister,     Hee  had  a  suster  in  sight  •  seemely  to  sonde, 

The  moste  lufsum  of  life  •  fat  euere  lud  wyst  ;         176 
[Pol.  5.3         Olympias  be  onorable  •  ouer  all  hue  hyght. 

named  Olympias. 

Rose  red  was  hur  rode  *  full  riall  of  schape  : 

With  large  forhed  &  long  •  loueliche  tresses, 

she  had  golden      Glisiande  as  goldwire  •  growen  on  length  ;  180 

eyes',  gr     ****     Bryght  browse  ibent  •  blisfull  of  chere  ; 

Grete  yien,  &  graie  •  gracious  lippes  ; 

Bothe  cheeks,  &  chinne  *  choice  too  beholde  ; 

1  MS.  fale. 

2  MS.  Molosor,  with  a'*  over  the  two  jfirst  o's  /  so  in  1.  204. 
Marques  should  perhaps  be  marches. 


PHILIP   WOOS   AND   WEDS   OLYMPIAS. 


183 


Mouth  meete  pertoo  •  moste  for  too  praise.  184  a  meet  moutn, 

Hur  nose  namelich  faire  •  hur  necke  full  scheene  ; 

Schuft  shulders  aright  •  well  ischaped  armes  ;  well-shaped  arms, 

Hondes  hendely  wrought  •  helplich,  sweete  ; 

Faire  fyngers  unfolde  •  fetise  nailes  ;  188  fair  fingers, 

Sides  seemely  sett  •  seemlich  long.  seemly  sides, 

Hupes  had  hue  faire  •  &  hih  was  hue  pan  ;  Mr  hips, 

Hur  pies  all  porou-oute  •  pristliche  ischape, 

With  likand  legges  •  louely  too  scene  ;  192 

And  Jje  fairest  feete  •  pat  euer  freke  kende, 

With  ton  l  tidily  wrought  '  &  tender  of  hur  skinne. 

Liliwhite  was  hur  liche  •  to  likne  pe  beurde  ; 

Where  is  per  lengged  in  lond  *  a  Lady  so  sweete?    196 

Der  sprong  neuer  spicerie  •  so  speciall  in  erpe, 

'Net  triacle  in  his  taste  *  so  trie  is  too  knowe,  sweeter. 

As  that  Ladie,  with  loue  •  too  lachen  in  armes  ! 


"16 


Wherfore  I  carp  of  tys  case  *  knowe  yee  may.       200 
Philip  pe  free  king  •  that  ferse  was  of  myght, 
For  pe  beurde  so  bry#7it  was  •  of  blee  scheene, 
He  had  his  liking  ilaide  *  pat  Ladie  too  wedde. 
Too  Molosor  with  his  menne  *  hee  meeued  in  haste,  204 
Craued  soone  at  pe  Kyng  •  pat  comelich  beurde, 
For  too  welde  too  his  wife  •  as  hee  will  hadde. 
%e  king  was  full  curtais  •  &  coflich  hym  grauntes, 
For  had  hee  werned  2  pat  wjght  •  wo  had  hee  suffred, 
For  pat  freelich  fode  •  Philip,  wolde  eles  209 

Haue  geten  [hire]  with  grim  stroke  •  of  grounden  tooles. 
pat  time  thought  pe  Kyng  •  to  targe  no  lenger ; 
But  bring  pat  blisfull  •  to  pe  bern  soone.  212 

To  kyng  Philip  hee  comme  •  as  curteis  of  deede, 
And  laffc  hym  pe  Ladie  *  to  lache  at  his  wyll. 
For  hee  thought  on  this  thing  •  proliche  3  in  hert, 

1  MS.  toze,  with  ton  above. 

2  Over  this  word  is  the  gloss — si  prohibuisset. 

3  MS.  proliche,  with-  e  over  the  o. 


Philip  desires  to 
wed  her. 


and  craves  her  of 
her  brother. 


[Fol.  5  b.] 

He  dares  not 
refuse  Philip. 


He  brings  the 
lady  to  Philip. 


He  thought  that, 


184 


PHILIP    INVADES   MOLOSSIS. 


were  Philip  his 
ally, 


none  would  dare 
offend  him. 


Bat  he  made  a 
mistake. 
For,  after  Philip 
had  made  her 
his  queen, 


he  invades 

Molossis. 


His  men  seize 
the  cities. 


[Pol.  6.] 


Brubel  goes  into 
exile,  and 
continues  ia 
sorrow  till  hte 
death. 


3if  hee  had  too  his  help  •  in  his  hie  neede  216 

Of  Macedoine  |je  King  •  a  mighty  man  holdew, 

To  alie  him  too  ]>at  Lorde  •  &  his  loue  winne, 

))er  shoulde  no  bydyng  bern  •  so  bolde  bee  in  erth, 

Too  teene  hym  untruly  •  term  of  his  reigne  ;  220 

Ne  to  greeue  )>e  gome  •  for  gremjje  of  his  help, 

The  while  ~Philip  ]>e  free  •  hym  frendship  kid. 

Hee  was  bitraide  in  his  trust  •  for  truly  J?er-after, 

When  Sir  'Philip  was  fare  •  with  jje  faire  beurde,     224 

And  wedded  \>at  wight  •  with  worship  &  ioye, 

To  bee  Ladie  of  his  land  •  &  his  leeue  make, 

Men  to  queme  hur  as  Queene  •  &  qmklich  hur  serue, 

Bothe  beurdes  &  bern[es]  •  boune l  too  hur  wyll,     228 

To  Molosor  with  maine  •  his  menne  gan  hee  bryng. 

Y-armed  at  all  pointes  •  J>ei  auntred  hem  'Sider ; 

Mani  a  lud  of  J?e  lond  •  raid  hi  to  grounde, 

And  many  a  seemeli  segge  *  sorowe  they  wrought.    232 

J)ei  laft  for  J>o  fe  lond  •  Lordshipes  tooke, 

Seseden  2  ]>e  cities  •  and  seemelich  tounes, 

Keuered  hem  casteles  •  )>e  Kyng  too  distn'e  ; 

For  his  susteres  sake  •  cease  they  nolde,  236 

That  hee  with  werre  ne  wan  •  J>e  won  fat  hee  aught, 

And  )>e  Kyng  of  his  ki]>  •  wiih,  care  ])ei  pinte. 

And  "Philip  unfaithfully  •  j?e  faire  coste  had, 

Eruba 

Arisba  in  exile  •  euer  was  after,  240 

And  neuer  comme  too  his  ki]>  •  but  caught  was  in  teene. 
With  doole  dried  hee  so  •  his  dayes  in  sorowe, 
To  hee  gaf 3  up  his  goste  •  with  God  for  too  dwell. 


Of  J>at  carefall  kyng  •  carp  I  no  farre,  244 

But  leaue  hym  in  languor  •  &  lysten  too  more, 
Philip  seeks  to  be   How  "Philip  chases  as  cheefe  •  chaunces  too  fonde,4 

feared  in  all  lands. 

Too  bee  adouted  as  deth  •  in  diuers  londes. 


1  MS.  seems  to  have  boane. 

2  MS.  ffefeden,  the  en  being  above  the  line. 

3  MS.  gaue,  with  f  above  ue.       4  MS.  fynde,  with  o  over  the  y 


HE    LOSES    AN    EYE    IN    THE    ASSAULT    OF    METHONE. 


185 


When  lie  had  so  hem  [hampred  •  he]  hendely  fetched 

His  make  too  Macedoine  •  with  mirthes  ynow.         249 

He  laught  leue  at  hits  wife  •  &  laft  hur  still 

For  too  line  in  hur  londe  •  in  liking  of  hert, 

That  no  gome  under  God  •  greeuen  hur  myght.        252 

Philip  his  faire  folke  •  ferselich  araies, 

Too  Greece  he  gra[i]j>es  hym  now  •  with  a  grete  will. 

Comothonham 

Hee  comme  too  Methone  •  full  cumlich  a  place, 

Of  any  borowe  best  buylt  •  &  bolde  menne  J>ere,1     256 

One  ]>e  hugest  holde  •  &  hard  for  too  wynne, 

That  was  in  Greece  o  ]?e  grounde  •  grained  too  stond. 

Hee  brought  his  menne  to  J>e  borowe 2  •  &  bliue  it  asailes, 

With  prese  of  his  power  *  hee  profers  J>em  fyght.     260 

Many  a  cumly  Knight  •  &  oj>er  kid  peeple 

On  euery  side  was  sett  •  asaute  too  make. 

Joough  3  Philip  fared  wiih  folke  •  ferefull  in  fyght, 

Litle  gained  his  greefe  •  for  grim  thei  were,  264 

To  warden  jjeir  walles  •  wiih  weies  ynow. 

J)at  citie  wer  sure  men  •  sett  for  too  keepe, 

With  mich  riall  araie  •  redy  too  fight, 

With  atling  of  areblast 4  •  &  archers  ryfe.  268 

Well  fejjered  flon  •  floungen  aboute, 

Grim  arowes  &  graie  •  wiih  grounden  hedes 

Wer  enforced  to  flie  •  her  fone  for  to  greeue. 

So  bolde  were  in  J?e  borowe  •  wiih  balefull  strokes,  272 

)3at  of  Philips  folke  *  fele  they  slew, 

And  many  mightfull  men  •  maymed  hee  J?ere, 

))at  J>e  prent  of  J?at  prese  *  passed  neuer. 

And  Philip  )>e  ferse  King  •  foule  was  maimed ;        276 

A  schaft  wiih  a  scharp  hed  •  shet 5  oute  his  yie, 

That  neuer  sibjjen  forsobe  •  sawe  he  therin. 

j)e  gremj)e  of  bo  grim  folke  •  glod  to  his  hert, 

1  MS.  J>ere,  with  d  (for  $)  over  the  ]>,     See  the  note  on  bolde. 

2  MS.  has  another  o  above  the  first  o. 

3  MS.  Though,  with  \>  over  the  Th. 

4  MS.  areblast,  with  i  over  it,  between  the  a  and  r, 

5  MS.  shet,  with  o  over  the  e. 


He  takes  leave 
of  his  wife. 


He  comes  to 
Methone. 


He  attacks 
Methone  with 
his  army. 


He  finds  them 
ready  to  fight. 


[Fol.  6  b.] 
They  vex  him 
with  arblasts  and 
arrows. 


They  slay  many 
of  his  men. 


A  shaft  shoots  out 
his  own  eye. 


186 


PHILIP    VOWS    TO    BE    AVENGED. 


He  makes  a  vow 
to  be  avenged. 


[Pol.  7.] 


For  his  eger  enemies  •  his  yie  to  lese.  280 

Hee  made  a  uery  uow  •  auenged  too  beene 

Of  fat  teenefull  tach  •  fat  hee  tooke  fere, 

And  swore  swiftlich  his  othe  •  aswage  hee  ne  sholde, 

With  all  f  e  maine  fat  hee  might  *  too  merken l  hem  care, 

For  to  take  J>e  toune  *  f  ough  hee  teene  had,  285 

All  f  e  segges  in  sight  *  sorowe  too  kif  e. 


[Pol.  7  &.] 

He  renews  the 
attack  fiercely. 


His  men  throw 
stones  at  the  walls 
from  engines, 
and  crack  the 
battlements. 


They  beat  down 
the  walls. 


The  citizens 
surrender. 


Thus  was  the 
city  won. 


Philip  enforceth  hym  now  •  his  folke  for  to  gie  ; 
Hee  rydes  thorough-oute  f  e  ronk 2  •  araies  him  neew. 
Many  mightfull  menne  •  made  hee  stryue,  289 

With  archers  &  of  er  folke  •  auntred  hym  nere. 
))ei  lete  flie  to  f  e  floeke  •  ferefull  sondes,3 
Gainws4  grounden  saryght  •  gonne  they  dryue,  292 

Stones  stirred  they  f  o  •  &  stightlich  layde 
On  hur  engines  full  gist 5  •  to  ungome  f  e  walles. 
]5ei  craked  f  e  cournales  •  with  carefull  dyntes, 
j?at  spedly  to-sprong  •  &  spradde  beside.  296 

j)e  Kyng  with  his  keene  ost  •  coflich  fights, 
And  kif  es  all  fat  hee  can  •  f  e  kif  for  to  haue  ; 
))ei  [sesen]  6  on  f  e  citie  •  soothe  for  too  tell, 
Etur  borowe  bet  so  doune  •  with  balefull  strokes,      300 
And  hemself  in  f  e  saute  •  sorowfully  wounded ; 
And  many  a  lifeles  lud  •  layed  to  fe  grounde, 
Jjat  fei  ne  stirred  of  f e  stede  •  strife  for  to  make. 
Hur  3ates  3eede  fei  too  •  &  youlden  hem  soone,        304 
To  Philip  farde  fei  forthe  •  as  fenked  7  wightes, 
Profred  hym  fe  pris  holde  *  &  preies  8  in  haste 
To  deeme  what  hee  doo  will  •  for  hur  deede  yll. 
£)us  9  was  fe  citie  of-sett  *  &  siffen  so  wonne  ;        308 
But  many  a  balefull  beurn  •  bought  it  full  dere, 


1  Cf.  marked  in  1.  932.  2  MS.  rank,  with  o  over  the  a. 

s  MS.  soundes  or  sonndes.  4  MS.  Gamew. 

5  MS.  iust,  with  gist  above  it ;  and  gist  is  marked. 

6  See  note.  7  Over  fenked  is  tJie  gloss,  uanquissbed. 
8  MS.  praies,  with  e  over  the  a.        •  MS.  Dus,  with  \>  over  the  D. 


WAR  BETWEEN  THE  THEBANS  AND  PHOCIANS. 


187 


Komothonham 

Or  kid  Methone  •  too  f  e  Kyng  fell. 

In  Greece,  many  a  grete  toune  •  grim  was  of  strength, 

And  ]>e  menne  of  fat  marche  •  misproude  were ;       312 

Thei  were  so  ding  of  feir  deede  •  ded[a]in  l  fat  they  had, 

J)at  any  gome  under  God  •  gouern  hem  sholde. 

But  as  they  sayden  hemself  •  and  assent  made, 

]3ei  nere  encline  to  no  King  •  hur  kif  for  too  gye.     316 

They  wrought  by  feir  owne  will  •  &  wolde  nought 

eles, 

To  seche  fern  a  Souereine2  •  fe  Citie  to  ^eme. 
Farre  fen  feir  owne  folke  •  fare  they  nolde, 
What  lud  liked  hem  best  •  f  e  Lordship  hee  gat,3     320 
And  on  chees  for  cheefe  •  &  chaunged  lome. 
All  swich  cities  •  fat  seemelich  were, 
Philip  fenkes  in  fyght  •  &  fayled  lyte, 
That  all  Greece  hee  ne  gatt  •  with  his  grim  werk.     324 
In  what  maner  &  how  •  men  may  i  lere, 
))at  hee  withlich  4  whanne 5  •  f  e  worship  of  Greece, 
To  bee  holden  of  hym  *  holly  f  e  raigne, 
For  to  gye  f  e  gomes  •  as  hym  goode  thought.  328 

Now  tell  wee  of  Tebes  •  that  tristy  6  was  holde, 
There  as  Philip  f  e  free  •  to  fostring  dwelt, 
How  f  e  ludes  of  the  land  •  a-losed  for  gode, 
Wer  enforced  to  fight  •  with  hur  fone  hard.  332 

j)er  turned  a-^e  Tebes  •  twoo  trie  places, 
)5e  sikerest  cities  •  that  any  seg  wist ; 
J?e  Lordship  of  Lacedemonie  •  lof  ed  hem  than, 
And  of  Phocos  f  e  folke  •  fast  hem  assailes.  336 

])Q  werre  wox  7  in  fat  won  •  wonderly  stern, 

1  MS.  dedin,  with  disdeine  over  it.     Cf.  1.  584. 

2  MS.  Souereine,  with  a  over  ei. 

3  MS.  hi  J>at,  with  ee  over  i,  and  g  over  the  \>. 

4  MS.  wightly,  with  the  older  spelling  withlich  over  it. 

5  MS.  wanne,  with  wh  over  the  w.     See  "  Werwolf,"  1.  2852. 

6  MS.  trusty,  with  i  over  the  u. 

7  MS.  wax,  with  o  over  the  a. 


In  Greece  were 
many  great 
towns. 

They  would  let  no 
one  govern  them. 


They  did  as  they 
liked  best. 


They  elected  what 
chief  they  pleased. 


Philip  conquers 
them  all. 


[Fol.  8.] 


I  now  speak  of 
Thebes. 


The  Thebans 
are  attacked  by 
the  Lacedemon- 
ians and  Phocians. 

The  war  between 
them  is  very 
stern. 


188 


PHILOMELUS    COMMANDS    THE    PHOCIANS. 


They  fight  on 
foot  and  on 
horseback. 


The  Thebans 
are  vexed  at 
their  enemies' 
fierceness, 
bat  are  not 
afraid  of  them. 


The  Thebans  get 
the  upper  hand, 
and  put  their  foes 
to  a  heavy 
ransom, 


which  they  must 
pay  or  die. 


Not  raising  the 
sum,  the  Phocians 
resume  the  war. 


Philomelus  is 
chosen  their  chief. 


[Pol.  8  6.] 

They  know  they 
must  pay  or  die. 


And  eijxsr  on  hur  enemies  •  egerly  wrought. 

On  a  season  isett  •  assembled  they  bojje, 

With  all  J>e  maine  J?at  they  might  •  metten  ifere ;     340 

Araide  rinkes  aright  •  reulich  smiten, 

On  foote  &  on  faire  horsse  •  fought  ]?ei  samme. 

Priken l  on  a  plaine  feelde  •  preeued  Knightes, 

Bolde  were  bore  doune  •  on  bothe  twoo  halues.         344 

Of  Tebes  J>e  trie  folke  •  wer  teened  in  hert, 

For  hur  ferefull  fone  •  so  ferslich  spedde, 

With  wrayth  of  a  woode  will  •  wonde  2  ]?ei  nolde, 

To  riden  into  the  route  •  rappes  to  deale.  348 

Steedes  stirred  of  J>e  stede  •  strane  men  under, 

And  oother  folke  on'hur  feete  •  Mowed  them  after. 

The  Lacedemonieins  •  lowe  laide  were, 

And  of  Phocus  folke  *  feld  they  also.  352 

The  Tebenieins  teenfully  •  tooke  this  ojjer, 

And  to  a  riche  raunson  •  J?e  rinkes  they  putt, 

That  amounted  [to]  more  •  then  they  might  paye, 

Or  dereine  with  right  •  with  rede  of  Jjemself,  356 

To  prefer  hem  as  prisoners  •  till  they  payde  had, 

To  let  lonely  Jjat  goode  •  or  hur  life  tine. 

\)G  companie  was  carefull  •  &  kest  3  in  hur  hert, 

)pat  Jjei  J>at  raunson  with  right  •  arere  ne  might,        360 

))ei  wer  so  sorowfull  hemself  •  that  summe  to  rere, 

J)at  j?ei  ne  spared  J>at  space  *  to  spenen  4  hur  Hues. 

A  proude  Knight  of  jje  prese  •  hur  Prince  J?ei  made, 

Philomelo  5  J>e  fell  man  •  was  ]?e  freke  hote,  364 

J3e  folke  of  Phocus  too  araie  •  &  ]>e  fight  3  erne, 

With  ludes  of  Lacedemonie  •  to  leggen  on  hard ; 

For  they  kende  J>e  case  •  &  kneew  eche  one, 

But  thei  prestly  payde  •  that  precious  summe,  368 

Jpei  sholde  leesen  hur  life  •  fei  J?em  lothe  thou^t. 


1  An  e  over  the  i.  2  MS.  wonde,  with  e  over  the  o. 

3  MS.  kast,  with  e  over  the  a ;  also  the  e  is  marked. 

4  MS.  spend,  with  nen  (marked)  over  the  d. 

5  MS.  Philomela,  with  o  over  the  a;  see  1.  421. 


THE    THEBANS    SEEK   AID    FROM    PHILIP. 


189 


And  ^if  f  ei  ferde  ]  to  fight  •  their  fone  for  to  nye, 

With  skathe  to  bee  skoumfit  •  <fe  askape  neuer, 

Jjei  wisten  all  full  well  •  wisly  to  knowe,  372 

That  more  dreede  fen  deth  •  drie  f  ei  ne  might ; 

As  goode  thought  hem  go  •  till  they  grounde  sought, 

To  meete  with  hur  fomen  *  &  manlich  deie,2 

As  bee  cowardly  killd  *  for  cateles  want.  376 

Forthe  twrned  thei  tid  •  hur  teene  to  uenge, 

All  to  lachen  or  leese  •  or  hur  lyfe  tine. 

Full  stoutely  with  stiff  will  •  f  ei  stirred  on  hur  gate, 

To  teene  f  e  Tebenieins  *  f  ei  turned  to  fight.  330 

j)ei  dradden  litle  hur  deth  •  &  doughtily  wrought, 

jpei  putt  fern  in  perril  •  &  prikeden  aboute, 

)3ei  rought  lite  of  hur  life  *  &  laiden  on  hard ; 

For  fere,  ne  fantasie  •  faile  they  nolde.  384 

])ei  were  so  hardie  too  harm  *  happes  to  fonde, 

J?at  f  ei  fat  stint  at  hur  stroke  •  stirred  no  more ; 

So  f  ei  felden  hur  fone  •  by  force  of  her  dintes. 

For  greefe  of  hur  grim  stroke  •  grunt  full  many,        388 

jpat  hem  rued  f  e  res  •  fat  f  ei  ne  rest  had, 

Whan  f  ei  f  e  bikering  abide  •  with  bostefull  deedes. 

))us  Phosus 3  with  fyght  •  felden  this  of  ei  ; 

J)ei  tooken  hur  tresour  •  &  teened  hem  sore.  392 

J2ei  of  Tebes  with  teene  •  twrnede  fro  thanne 

Ruefull  &  redeles  •  biraft  of  hur  goodes. 

In  sorowe  bene  they  of-sett  *  to  siken  in  hert, 

3if  f  ei  ne  haue  none  help  •  hem4  to  auenge.  396 

For  ^is  5  feye  folk  fter  5  *  so  fouli  was  harmed, 
Till  f  ei  were  wreken  of  fat  wo   •  wolde  f  ei  nought 

blinne ; 

To  seeche  more  socour  •  assented  they  all. 
])Q  mightie  King  of  Macedoyne  *  moste  was  adouted 
Of  any  wight  in  f  e  worlde  •  f  ei  wist  f  e  soothe.         401 

1  MS.  farde,  with  e  over  the  a. 

2  MS.  dye,  with  deie  (marked]  above  it.  z  MS.  fcosus. 
*  MS.  >em.                       5  MS.  dis,  der ;  and  so  is  written  fo. 


Wherefore  they 
prefer  to  fight. 


Better  fall  than 
be  killed  as 
cowards. 


They  attack  the 

Thebans 

recklessly. 


They  fell  their 
foes  by  sheer 
force. 


Thus  the  Phociaiis 
win  the  battle. 


The  Thebans  are 
rueful,  and  seek 
revenge. 


They  resolve  to 
seek  succour. 


190 


THE   PHOCIANS   SEEK   AID   FROM    ATHENS. 


[Pol.  11.] 
They  go  to  fetch 
Philip,  and  proffer 
him  their 
allegiance. 


To  fetch  Philip,  J?e  folke  •  farde  in  an  haste, 
And  comen  ryght  to  J?e  kith  •  J>ere  jje  King  dwelt, 
Besoughten  hym  of  socour  •  hur  Soueraine  to  bene,  404 
To  be  Lorde  of  hur  land  •  J?eir  lawes  to  keepe, 
Jjei  to  holden  of  hym  •  fe  hye  &  the  lowe, 
"With  fat  hee  wolde  with  hem  •  wend  in  an  haste, 
Hur  enemies  egerly  •  in  ernest  to  meete.  408 

Philip  grauntes  &  gose  •  graithes  his  peple, 
Til  ]?ei  to  Tebes  wer  turnd  •  targe  f  ei  nolde. 
With  his  ferefull  folke  •  to  Phocus  hee  rides, 
And  is  wilfull  in  werk  *  to  wirchen  hem  care.  412 

Folke  of  Phocus  to  fere  •  or  the  fight  comme, 
Werew  ware  of  hur  werk  •  &  went  for  help. 
Jjei  armed  J>e  Atteniens  •  &  aunter  hem  jjider, 
Strained  in  stel  ger  l  •  on  steedes  of  might,  416 

With  grim  graifed  gomes  *  of  Lacedemonie, 
All  redie  araied  •  to  ryden  hem  till. 
Hem  lacked  a  leader  •  Jje  ludes  to  araie, 
Hur  Prince  in  )>e  forme  prese  *  was  prened  to  J?e  erth, 
Philomelo  J>e  faire  Knight  •  in  J>e  fight  died.  421 

When  Jjei  proffred  hem  prest  •  &  J>e  pris  wonne, 
For  J>ei  myssed  ]>at  man  •  they  made  hem  a  neew. 
Enomanws,  an  eger  Kny^/it  •  in  erth  to  fight,  424 

jpei  made  master  of  hem  •  ]>e  menne  for  too  leade, 
And  busken  to  battaile  •  as  bostfull  in  armes, 
With  a  leflich  lust  •  lachte  togeder. 
Of  Phocus  J?e  feU  Duke  •  in  J>e  fight  rydes  ;  428 

Enomanws  Jje  bolde  beurn  •  J>e  battle  araies, 
Hee  was  chosen  for  cheefe  •  in  chasing  of  werre, 
Too   bee   Jjeir   dereworthe   Duke  •   for  doughtie  hee 
thought. 


Now  beene  J>e  parties  prest  •  to  proffren  hur  dintes, 
With  baners  brode  displaide  •  busken  to  meete,       43S 
[Foi.  11 6.]       Gurden  in  goode  speede  •  grislich  farde, 

1  MS.  stelger. 


Philip  sets  out  for 
Thebes,  ready  to 
attack  the 
Phocians. 


The  Phocians 
send  for  help  to 
Athens. 


The  Lacedemon- 
ians also  join 
them. 


Philomelus  had 


Enomanus 
[Onomarchus]  is 
chosen  leader. 


He  is  duke  of 
Phocis. 


Both  sides  are 
ready  for  battle. 


PHILIP    CONQUERS    THE    PHOCIANS. 


191 


Bothe  blonk&?  &  beurnfesj  •  bareii  to  grounde. 

Jjer  was  feld  many  frekes  •  fat  on  f  e  feelde  lay,       436 

Euery  segge  for  hymself  •  bisetten  hur  might, 

))at  many  a  wounded  vryght  •  walowed  }>ere. 

But  "Philip  with  his  wight  men  •  f  e  werre  gan  ^eme, ! 

J)at  by  strength  of  her  strife  •  f  ei  straught  to  foote   440 

All  so  many  as  his  menne  *  mighten  areche. 

Jpus  his  peple  on  jje  plain  •  all  f  e  pris  2  wonne, 

J)at  none  stirred  of  Jje  stede  •  fere  jjei  stroke  sett. 

J)e  ludes  of  Lacedemonie  •  lof  ed  in  hert,  444 

jjat  euer  jjei  stinten  in  strife  •  to  sterue  in  f  e  place. 

Of  Phocus  jje  ferse  men  •  forthoughten  hem  all, 

})at  euer  jjei  farde  to  fight  •  with  Philip  jje  keene. 

Jpus  jjis  cumlich  Kyng  •  fat  ilche  kith  Wynnes ;       448 

Lorde  of  Lacedemoine  •  was  f  e  lud  f  anne, 

And  Phocus  by  fin  strokes  •  freelich  hee  walte, 

And  hathe  all  Greece  at  his  graunte  •  for  his  grete  yie. 


Many  are  felled, 
and  wounded 
wights  wallow 
on  the  field. 


Philip  and  his 
men  overcome  all 
they  can  reach. 


Both  Lacedse- 
inonians 


and  Phocians 
repent  their 


Thus  Philip  is 
lord  of 

Lacedsemonia  and 
Phocis. 


Now  cease  wee  f  e  sawe  •  of  f  is  seg  sterne,  452 

And  of  a  Kyng  wel  i-kid  •  karp  wee  now, 
J?at  entred  in  ^Egypt  *  euer  on  his  liue, 
To  leng  in  fat  Lordeship  •  &  f  e  lond  aught. 
Of  what  kinne  hee  comme  *  can  I  nought  fynde 
In  no  buke  3  fat  i  bed  4  •  when  I  beganne  here 
\)Q  Latine  to  f  is  language  *  lelliche  turne. 
Nectanabus  f  e  noble  man  •  his  name  was  hote, 
})e  nede  of  Mgremauncie  •  hee  nas  nought  to  lern. 
In  art  of  Astronomic  •  able  hee  was  holde, 
And  cheefe  of  enchauntment  •  chaunces  to  tell. 
Hee  was  [kene]  on  his  craft  •  &  cunnyng  of  deede, 
Egipt  by  eritage  •  entred  hee  neuer  ;  464 

Hee   wanne   it  by   witchcraft    •   for    y-wis    hee    was 
knowe.5 

1  MS.  ^enn  or  jeme;  see  1.  365. 

2  MS.  pris,  with  ce  over  the  s. 

3  MS.  booke,  with  u  above  the  oo. 

4  MS.  bed,  with  had  above  it.  5  See  the  note. 


We  now  speak  of 
a  king  of  Egypt. 

456    I  find  nothing 

about  his  kindred 
in  any  book. 


His  name  was 
Nectanabus,  and 
4  gQ    he  was  skilled  in 
necromancy  and 
astronomy. 


He  did  not  gain 
Egypt  by 
inheritance,  but 
by  witchcraft. 


192 


ARTAXERXES     EXPEDITION    AGAINST    NECTANABUS. 


A  prince  of  Persia 
comes  to 
Nectanabus,  and 
says, 


[Fol.  12.] 


"  The  king  of 
Persia  is  going  to 
attack  you." 


Nectanabus  does 
nothing  in 
defence, 


but  secretly  fills 
an  earthen  pot 
full  of  rain-water. 


By  his  craft  he 
sees  ships  coming, 
full  of  armed 
knights. 


A  proude  Prince  &  a  pris  •  fro  Perss  l  was  fare, 

jpat  helde  of  f  is  hye  King  •  hollich  his  londes. 

To  noble  Nectanabws  •  nam  he  his  gate,  468 

And  tolde  this  tydyng  •  to  f  e  Kyng  soone, 

How  hym  was  care  to  curame  •  by  costes  aboute. 

"  J?e  Kyng  of  Perce  with  prese  •  of  peple  full  huge 

Graithes  hym  grim  folke  •  &  greue  }ou  thenketh.2    472 

But  yee  cast  at  his  corame  •  to  keepen  hym  hence, 

Yee  shall  lose  your  lond  •  &  your  life  also." 

For  no  care  of  f  z's  case  •  f  e  King  in  lus  lond 

Kleped3  no  Knighthod  •  ne  no  kid  peeple,  476 

Hee  ne  araide  no  route  •  f  e  raigne  too  keepe, 

But  passed  priuily  •  in  place  full  derne. 

A  prest  erjjen  pott  •  hee  proferes  him  till ; 

Of  rain-water  ryght  full  •  J)e  rink  gon  it  dress  ;         480 

A  bright  braseyn  }erd  *  brode  on  his  hond. 

And  by  f  e  conning  of  craft  *  fat  hee  kid  hadde, 

Hee  sawe  saile  on  f  e  sea  •  seemelich  Knightes, 

Bothe  schippes  &  schoute[s]  •  with  schawes  of  myght, 

Well  i-armed,  iwis  *  werre  too  holde,  485 

J?e  egerest  of  Egipt  •  in  ernest  too  meete. 


The  prince  says, 
"  Sir,  I  told  you 
the  truth. 


Artaxerxes  is 
coming  with  nine 
nations, 


Persians, 
Parthians, 
Medians, 
Syrians, 


Whan  hee  had  fat  happe  •  hollich  awaited, 
})Q  Prince  to  f  e  pris  Kyng  •  prestly  saide,  488 

"  Sir,  I  tolde  you  trouth  •  trist 4  yee  no  noof  er, 
Yee  beene  greeny  bigo  •  but  grace  you~falle. 
Artasarses  f  e  Kyng  •  &  armed  Knightes, 
Oute  of  Perce  beth  prest  •  passing  hider,  492 

With  nine  grete  nations  •  too  nye  fee  here. 
Perce  is  J>e  principall  *  &  Perthe  fat  oof  er, 
Of  Medie  full  mich  folke  •  murder  fee  think ; 
Of  Syria  [a]  siker  oste  •  sechen  too  fight;  496 


1  MS.  Perss,  with  ss  marked,  and  ce  above  it. 

2  MS.  you  thinketh,  with  $  above  the  y,  and  e  above  the  i. 

3  MS.  Kliped,  with  e  above  the  i. 

4  MS.  trist,  with  u  above  the  i. 


NECTANABUS  REPROVES  THE  PRINCE. 


193 


With  menne  of  Mesopotame  •  too  mark  f  e  teene ; 

Of  Augmi  &  Arabes  •  armed  Princes  ; 

Jjer  beene  of  Bosorij  •  beurnes  ynow  ; 

Of  Arofagi  all  men  •  that  armes  now  welde.  500 

Yee  bene  enforced  to  fight  •  with  f  ws  fell  beurnes, 

And  oof  er  weies  of  f  e  weste  •  werre  too  make ; 

Jpis  ilk  tydyng  of  teene  •  trowe  yee  mo  we,1 

And  but  yee  bett  beene  araide  •  bale  you  springeth." 


Mesopotamians, 
Augmi,  Arabians, 
Bosorii,  and  the 
Agriophagi. 


503  Trust  these 
tidings,  and 
beware ! " 


Nectanabus  anonne  right  •  nyed  hym  tyll, 
And  gleming  gainelich  •  too  f  e  gome  saide  — 
"  Keepe  well  thyne  owne  koste  •  fat  f  ei  no  kowme 


Nectanabus 
replies, 

[Fol.  12  6.] 
"  Take  care  of 
your  own  lands. 


J3at  is  take  too  fee  *  truly  too  ^eme.  508 

J)ou  kif  es  no  Knighthod  *  too  karp  as  a  Prince, 

But  as  a  gome  wer  agast  *  f  ou  grendes  thy  speeche. 

jjei  ftei 3  turn  such  teene  •  this  time  hider, 

With  all  fe  might  of  hur  maine  •  mee  too  distroie,  512 

J?e  uertue  of  il  uictorie  •  of  unwele  peeple, 

Is  noghi  stabled  in  strength  •  of  no  stiff  prese. 

Thorou  graunte  of  f  e  greate  God  •  if  him  goode  thinker, 

In  fight  or  in  fell  turn  *  ^Ser4  as  flight  is  of  dintes,  516 

In  battail  or  bolde  stede  •  bigly  too  wirch, 

As  mich  may  a  meane  man  •  as  a  more  stern, 

For  f  ou  seeste  well  thiself  •  (saide  f  e  king  fan), 

A  Lioun  in  a  launde  •  may  lightlych  driue  520 

Of  hertes  an  nolle  herde  •  as  happes  ilome  5  ; 

For  no  strength,  ne  strife  *  no  stifnes  of  members, 

But  as  gracious  Godde  •  grauntes  too  beene." 


You  do  not  speak 
like  a  prince. 

Though  they  try 
to  destroy  me, 
victory  is  not  on 
the  side  of 
strength. 


By  God's  help, 


a  mean  man  may 
do  as  much  as  a 
sterner  one. 

A  lion  can  drive  a 
whole  herd  of 
harts. 

Strength  is  from 
God  only." 


Anon  as  Nectanabus  •  had  namned  f  ese  wordes,  Neetanabus  goes 

Hee  passed  in  his  Paleis  •  too  a  priuie  seU,  525  to  a  secret  ce11' 

Hee  tooke  prestly  a  pott  •  too  preeue  yet  more. 

1  MS.  may,  with  owe  above  ay.       2  MS.  dare,  with  \>  above  d. 
3  MS.  der,  for  fcer  ;  but  we  must  read  fcei. 
*  MS.  der,  with  ]>  above  the  d.  5  Before  and  above  i  is  wh. 

13 


194  NECTANABUS    USES    HIS    MAGIC    ARTS. 

He  makes  ships     Hee  wraught  shipps  of  wax  •  &  rain-water  hentes  ; 

rain-water  in  a      Hee  puttes  it  in  fe  pott  •  &  a  palme  braunche          528 
Hee  helde  hard  in  his  bond  •  &  his  art  kijjes ; 1 
With  all  fe  wyle  of  his  werk  •  J>e  waie  gon  enchaunte, 

By  his  sorcery,  he  By  segging  of  sorsery  •  J>at  hee  sei 2  ]?ere 

Barbary  floating     Fleete  in  Jje  floode  •  farre  fro  J>e  lond,  532 

Of  Barbre  J?e  bryght  God  •  brem  too  beholde; 

and  the  god  of       jje  gaye  God  of  Egipt  •  glisiande  bright, 

Egypt  sailing  .  . 

there  too.  So  sailed  in  J>e  sea  •  in  that  same  tyme. 

Hee  bihelde  how  Jje  God  •  J>at  heried  was  in  Barbre 
Gouerned  hur  goodes  •  by  grace  of  his  mjght.          537 

He  sees  the  god  of  jje  seg  sei 2  well  himself  *  bat  socour  him  fayles, 

Barbary  will  not 

let  the  people        For  no  grace  hur  grete  God  •  graunt  ne  3  might ; 

Of  hem  hoped  hee  help  •  too  haue  at  his  neede,        540 
But  hee  kneew  by  that  kast  •  J?ei  kouth  n.oght  help. 

He  shaves  off  hair  Jje  beurn  for  a  barbour  •  bliue  let  send, 

and  beard,  doffs 

his  armour,  and     His  herd,  heire,  &  hw  hedde  •  hett  hee  too  schaue. 

Hee  cast  of  his  Knightweede  •  &  clojjes  hym  neew,  544 
With  white  sendal  in  syght  •  seemely  too  knowe, 
[Foi.  is.]        Of  gold  swith  gret-won  *  graithes  hee  Sanne  ; 4 

His  gold  and         All  that  Astronomie  •  aught  too  long, 

instruments  of 

astronomy  he        With  ginnes  of  Gemetrie  •  too  ioinen  his  werkes,      548 
Hee  let  trusse  full  tid  *  &  takes  nomore, 
But  fares  with  few  folke  •  farre  fro  J>e  londe. 

and  passes  into      Hee  passes  as  a  Prophet  •  priuely  ]?anne 

Etlnopia,andlives   ^  ^.^  ^  Ethiope  .  &  eft  ^  ^  ^  553 

jjere  hee  lenged  in  Jjat  land  •  as  a  lud  straunge 
Men  kneew  hym  for  no  king  •  kunnyng  hee  seemes. 
when  his  men       Whan  his  menskfull  menne  •  might  nought  fynde 
they  pray  to  their  Hur  ked  King  in  Egipt  •  carefull  J?ei  were.  556 


To  hur  God  Seraphin  *  J 

Koure  doune  on  hur  knees  •  [&]  karpen  J>ese  wordes. 

1  MS.  kipes,  with  ee  above  the  i.    A  p  is  often  (in  copies)  written 
by  mistake  instead  of]}. 

2  MS.  sei,  with  aw  above  ei. 

3  An  o  is  written  above  the  e.  *  MS.  danne. 


SEBAPHIN   GIVES   AN    ORACULAR   RESPONSE.  195 

"  Seemely  Seraphin  "  •  saide  they  thanne,  "  seraphin,  tell  us 

"Tell  us  sum  tydyng  •  of  our  true  Prince,                 560  Nectanabus!" 
Noble  Nectanabus  •  that  now  is  awaye  !  " 

Hur  God  grathliche  spake  •  &  too  be  gomes  saide,  The  god  replies, 

"  He  has  gone 

"  Kares  l  nought  for  yowr  Kyng  •  fis  kith  hath  hee  lete,  away  for  fear  of 

For  peril  of  f  e  proude  Kyng  *  from  Perce  fat  wendes  ; 

Hee  shall  hye  hym  againe  •  &  help  you  faire,  He  will  come 

again." 

And  schend  fern  schamelich  •  fat  sholde  you  greue." 

Of  f  is  swift  answer  •  f  ei  wer  swith  glad,  They  were  glad, 

and  carved  a  god 

And  graueden  a  greate  ston  •  a  God  as  it  were,         568  of  stone, 

I-corue  after  a  Kyng  •  full  craftie  of  werk. 

]5e  frekes  in  that  faire  ston  •  at  his  feete  soone  at  whose  feet  they 

.  wrote  every  word 

Let  write  euery  worde  •  wisly  too  knowe,  that  seraphin  had 

That  Seraphin  fat  Soueraine  •  saide  hem  till,           572  said' 
In  mynde  that  more  folke  •  myght  it  arede. 

Now  nolde  Nectanabus  •  no  while  dwell,  soon  after, 

m               n                 f  ,      TT-               AMI  i  Nectanabus  goes 

loo  f  e  Uourte  01  f  e  Kyng  •  till  hee  corame  were,  to  Philip's  court 

Too  looke  on  Olympias  •  fe  onorable  Queene,           576  to  see  Olympias- 

J)at  was  alosed  in  lond  •  of  diueres  raignes, 

For  one  f  e  brightest  of  blee  *  fat  bore  was  in  erth. 

Whan  f  e  seg  had  seene  •  that  seemely  Ladie,  He  greets  her, 

Too  greete  that  gracious  •  hee  gose  in  a  haste,           580  saym* 

Hee  cummes  too  fat  comely  •  &  coflich  saide  : 

"Haile  !  quemfull  Qaeene  •  quaintly  shape  !  [Foi.  is&.j 

Moste  of  all  Macedoine  •  menskfull  Ladie  !  "             583  "Hani  gracious 

Hee  was  dedaine  on  his  deede  •  "  Madame"  too  segge  would  not  say- 

Too  any  Ladie  in  lond  •  for  lordlich  hee  karpes. 

))e  Queene  quitt  hym  his  speche  •  &  quikly  saide,  The  queen  says, 

«  "M  n  ster 

"  Maister,  welcome,  ywis  •  will[e]  yee  sitte  ?  "  welcome'; 

)?e  Ladie  laches  f  is  lude  •  &  ledes  in  hand  ;  588 

By  hur  side  fat  seg  •  too  sitten  hue  makes. 

))at  worthlych  too  fe's  wight  •  wilsfuHy  saide  : 

"  Fro  what  kith  bee  yee  comme  •  kennes  mee  now  j  whence  do  you 


Ert  f  ou  aught  of  Egipt  •  in  ernest  too  tell  ?  "  592  r° 

1  MS.  Kare,  with  s  above  the  e. 
13  * 


196  NECTANABUS    TALKS   WITH    OLYMPIAS. 

"Queen, you         "  Queene,"  saide  hee  quikly  •  "  fou  quemest  my  hert ; 

gil?whenihe^   A  full  speciall  speeche  •  spoken  yee  haue. 

of  Egypt.  Where  euer  menne  saye  'Egipt'  •  myne  eres  ar  prest, 

For  fat  wortlich l  worde  *  waketh  my  bliss.  596 

The  men  of          It  is  a  Knightly  kith  '  &  kid  men  inne, 

Egypt  understand 

dreams,  and  the     Of  any  wightes  in  wonne  •  wysest  i-holde. 

J?ei  bene  rinkes  aright  *  in  reching  of  sweuenes, 
Too  preeue*mich  priuie  thyng  •  &  pypyng  of  birdes. 
Jpe  ludene 2  of  fat  language  •  lelli  f ei  knowe,  601 

And  bothe  of  burdes  &  bern[es]  •  f  e  burth  too  tell. 

T  am  an  I  am  a  lude  of  fat  lond  *  lered  therin, 

Effvptian 

prophet."  Too  preche  as  a  Prophet  •  preeued  of  witt."  604- 

When  hee  f  ese  tales  her  till  •  had  tolde  soone, 
])G  face  of  fat  faire  thyng  •  fast  hee  beholdes. 

^Tenmewhat      «  Lude,"  saide  fe  Lady  •  "let  mee  iknowe  607 

thought  at  seeing   What  thing  thurlude  thy  thought  •  f  o  fou  mee  bihelde?' 

"  Forsoothe,"  saide  that  seg  •  "  seemely  Queene, 
"  A  bright  god       I  segge,  God  sent  mee  •  too  saue  thee  now, 
save  thee  from       For  too  waste  thy  wo  •  wiih  wille  fat  I  owe. 

Thorou  bone  3  of  a  bright  God  •  busked  I  hider,       612 
Too  defend  fro  doole  fee  •  dere worth  Queene." 

[Foi.  14.]  Whan  hee  with  speede  had  spoke  *  his  speche  to 

f  e  end, 
He  fetches  a  brass  A  brem  brasen  borde  •  bringes  hee  soone, 

tablet  set  in  ivory, 

and  decked  with    Imped  in  iuory  •  too  incle  fe  truthe,  616 

gold  and  silver.       •„,.., ,  ^       .-,  0         , -,  .,.  ,       . .      , 

With  goode  siluer  &  golde  •  gailich  atired. 
In  this  blisfull  borde  •  beholde  men  myght 
Three  circles  were  Three  circles  isett  '  seemelich  rounde. 

)^e  nrs^  cir^e  in  himself  •  seemely  was  holde,  620 

fa  twelue  signes  in  sight  '  sett  ferin-. 

If  any  wight  in  this  wonne  *  wilnes  fern  knowe, 

Kairas  to  f  e  Kalender  *  &  kenne  yee  may. 
in  the  second  was  Sithen  in  fe  seconde  circle  -soothely  too  lere,          624 

1  MS.  worclich.     Cf.  1.  1024.  2  MS.  lude  ne. 

3  MS.  bone,  with  a  second®  above  the  o. 


HIS   ASTROLABE   AND    HOROSCOPE.  197 


Was  craftely  conteined  •  fe  course  of  fe  sonne ;  the  course  of  the 

And  f  e  mark  of  fe  moone  •  made  in  f  e  third,  in  the  third,  that 

))at  bliss  was  for  a  beurn  •  fat  borde  too  biholde. 

jpan  fettes  hee  a  forcer  •  freelich  ischape,  628  Then  he  fetched 

]5at  wraught  was  of  iuory  •  wonderly  faire ; 

Seuin  sterres  bat  stounde  *  stoutlich  imaked,  with  seven 

shining  stars 

Hee  showes  forthe  scheenely  •  shynand  bright.  in  ut 

])Q  bern  couth  ferby  •  boldely  tell,  632  by  which  he  knew 

...  a  man's  birth- 

When  a  gome  were  igett  *  by  grace  01  ms  witt.  hour. 

Foure  stones  in  fath  l  '  forthe  gon  hee  bryng,  He  chose  four 

stones,  belonging 

J3at  lay  longyng  *  too  the  louelich  sterres  ;  to  planets. 

Many  thinges  of  man  •  myght  hee  showe,  636 

By  studie  2  of  f  e  stones  •  in  what  state  hee  were. 

"  Maister,"  quath  f  e  Queene  •  "  quainte  of  thy  werkes,     ^^^^ 

If  bee  liketh  bat  I  leeue  •  thy  lufsum  deedes,  my  dear  lord 

born?" 

Tell  mee  tidly  Jje  time  •  &  term  of  ]>e  ^eres, 

In  what  daie  my  dere  Lorde  •  fat  douhti  is  holde, 

Was  iborne  of  J>e  burd  •  fat  hee  best  loued  ? " 

))e  King  by  his  kunnyng  •  castes  it  soone  ; 

By  ginnes  of  Gemetrie  •  hee  ioifully  teller  644 

Bothe  >e  date,  &  j>e  daie  •  &  ]>e  dere  tyme,  SL'^eX. 

Jpat  Philip  was  forth  brought  •  of  his  faire  mooder. 

Whan  this  rink  had  arad  •  &  redely  showed,  [FoU  14  &-] 

All  Jje  burth  of  J>e  bern  •  by  his  art  one,  648 

"  Ladie,"  saide  hee,  "  louelyche  •  liketh  bee  au^t  eles,    He  asks  if  she 

1  would  know 

j)at  I  shoolde  fee  showe  •  in  a  short  time  2  "  aught  else  ? 

44  Maister,"  saide  fat  menskfull  •  "  mee  likes  too  knowe, 

What  Philip  my  free  lorde  •  fat  fairest  of  londe,      652 

Wil  wirch  by  mee?  *  for  weies  mee  tolde, 

Hee  wyll  forsake  mee  soone  *  &  seeche  hym  a  neew,        for  she  has  heard 

he  will  forsake 

Whan  hee  is   cumme  too  f  ia  kith  *  too  kithe  mee  her. 
sorowe." 


For  yee  ne  hajie  noghi  i-herd  •  holly  be  wrath,      656  (As  you  have  not 

J    "  heard  Philip's 

By  what  cause  f  e  Kyng  •  coueted  in  hert  cause  for  wrath, 

1  tell  you  note. 
1  Stc.   Read  "  fei)?."  3  MS.  studie,  with  i  above  (he  u. 


198 


PHILIP    IN    THE  TEMPLE    OF    AMMON. 


Once  Philip  went 
to  the  temple  of 
Amraon,  and 
said, 

"  What  wiU 
happen  to 
Olympias  ?  " 


"She  wiU  have  a 
child,  the  greatest 
man  on  earth. 


He  will  not  be 


Therefore  was 
Philip  wrathful 
against  her.) 


Nectanabus 
answers,  "  It  is 
uncertain. 


[Pol.  15.] 

When  Philip  has 
forsaken  you,  he 
will  have  to  take 
you  back  again." 

"  Who  will  be  so 
bold  as  to  make 
him  do  so  ?  " 


"  A  god  shall 


Too  lof  e  this  Ladie  •  mee  list  you  tell. 

As  Philip  farde  to  fight  •  in  a  ferce  place, 

Hee  turned  too  a  temple  •  atired  too-rightes,  660 

His  grete  God  Amon  •  grates  too  3elde  ; 

Hee  kneeles  coflich  adoune  •  &  kries  hym  till, 

And  saide,  "  Seemely  God  •  send  mee  too  knowe, 

Of  onorable  Olympias  •  fat  I  on  think,  664 

What  shall  hur  happe  to  haue  •  fat  hende  is  of  deede1?" 

His  God  gaue  an  ansuer  •  &  too  f  e  gome  saide, 

"  Hur  chaunce  is  too  haue  a  childe  •  fat  cheefe  shall  in 

erth 

Of  any  ludes  fat  Hue  •  in  Lordship  wex.  668 

#e  bern  shall  not  bee  Sine l  '  bolde  f  o  f  ou  seeme, 
But  geten  of  a-noof  er  gome  *  in  fat  gaye  burde." 
Jjen  was  ])e  King  carefull  •  &  kest2  for  wrath 
For  too  bring  fat  beurde  •  in  baile  for  euer.              672 
Menne  tolde  this  tydyng  •  too  ]>e  true  Queene, 
Jperfore  hur  lyked  fat  lud  •  his  lore  too  knowe. 

"  Now,"  saide  Nectanabus  •  anon  too  fe  Lady,     675 
"  }?e  sawe  fat  f ou  haste  saide  •  uncertain  is  founde ; 
But  Sei 8  f  ou  ne  hap  noght  yet  •  too  haue  fat  sorowe, 
jpat  fere  shall  bifall  fee  *  within  few  yeres.4 
"Whan  Philip  in  his  foule  will  •  hathe  fee  for-lete, 
Maugre  his  malice  *  or  his  menne  sterne,  680 

Him  tides  to  take  fee  a3ain  •  trowe  f  ou  no  nooder." 
"  Maister,"  quod  fe  Queene  •  "queme  yee  me  might, 
Of  this  unkouth  case  •  too  karp  f  e  soothe. 
When  Philip  f  e  ferefull  •  forsake  mee  thynkes,         684 
Who  durst  bee  so  bolde  •  fat  bides  in  erth, 
Too  make  hym,  maugre  his  menne  •  mee  for  too  take?" 
))us  saide  f  e  seg  •  "  Such  one  I  knowe ; 
A  God  fat  is  gracious  •  &  grete  of  his  myght  688 

1  MS.  J>ine ;  but  above  thesis  a*  witJwut  the  cross  stroke. 

2  Over  the  e  in  kest  is  a. 

3  MS.  dei,  with  though  above  it  as  a  gloss. 
*  Catchword— Whan  Phelip. 


NECTANABUS   DESCRIBES   THE    GOD    AMMON.  199 


Shall  busk  too  thy  horde  bed  •  by  pee  too  ligge, 

And  fro  this  harmfull  happe  •  help  fee  faire."  thou  have  help." 

pe  Ladie  full  louely  •  of  pe  lud  askes, 

"Which  dereworthe  dright  •  desires  mee  too  haue?" 

pis  King  carpes  anon  *  &  cofly  saide,  693 

"  Hee  is  noght  yonge  of  his  yeres  •  pat  yernes  pee  take, 

Noper  olde  of  his  age  •  but  onely  too  showe, 

In  a  meane  maner  •  mightfull  hee  seemes.  696 

Hee  hath  hye  on  hut  hed  •  homes  of  syluer, 

With  golde  gailye  begonne  •  glisiing  bright, 

With  here  on  "his  hedde  •  &  his  herd  also. 

Hee  wyll  nye  [fee]  too-night  •  &  neede  pee  bihooues  700 

Bee  full  prest  too  his  paie  •  &  profer  pee  faire." 

"  3if  I  may  trowe  thy  tale  -  trulich,"  hue  saide, 

"  I  shall  hilich  [pee]  herie  •  with  hert  and  wyll,  th««  as  a  prophet, 

"Noghi  praise  pee  as  a  Prophet  •  pat  passeth  in  londe, 

But  as  a  gracious  Godde  •  greate  I  pee  thynk,  705 

And  bileeue  on  thy  lore  •  all  my  lifetime." 


pan  nolde  Nectanabus  •  no  lenger  abide, 
But  gothe  too  a  greene  grounde  •  pere  grases  wer  sett  ;    worts, 
Farre  fro  pe  Paleis  •  hee  fares  all  alone,  709 

And  laches  in  a  launde  •  full  louely  wortes. 
Hee  grindes  hem  grathly  *  &  gripes  in  honde, 
Hee  wringes  oute  pe  wet  wus  •  and  went  on  his  gate.          tFoi.  is  »j 

and  wrings  out  of 

Hee  passed  intoo  pe  Paleis  •  in  a  preeuy  wyse.          713  them  the  wet 

When  it  dreew  too  pe  derk  •  &  pe  daie  slaked, 

pe  burd  busked  too  bedde  •  &  brought  was  on  slepe,        Atdusk,oiympio8 

pis  King  with  his  conning  •  kithes  his  werkes,          716 

With  wiles  of  witchcraft  •  &  wicked  deedes, 

pat  by  fauour  of  pe  fende  •  &  his  foule  craftes 

Hee  grathes  hym  as  a  God  •  &  gothe  too  pe  burde  ;         ^ayTrnmseif  as 

As  hue  slumbred  on  slepe  •  slilich  hee  wendes,         720  a  s°d» 

And  lyeth  by  pat  Ladie  •  pat  louely  was  holde. 

Whan  hee  his  will  had  wraught  •  hee  wendes  in  haste,   a^  goes  to  her, 

'     and  soon  returns. 

And  straihte  oute  of  pe  stede  *  with  a  stiff  wyll. 


200 


NECTANABUS    ASSUMES    THE    FORM    OF    AMMON. 


She  awakes  in 
wonder. 


She  had  dreamt 
of  Ammon,  with 
silver  horns  and 
face  like  a 
burning  coal. 


Ammon  was  a 
god  shaped  like  a 
sheep. 


All  the  land 
worshipped  him. 


Olympias  had 
dreamt  that  he 
drew  near  her, 
and  said, 


"  Now  is  he 
conceived  that 
shall  keep  thee 
from  care." 


J3an  f  e  burde  in  her  bed  •  braide  of  hur  slepe,  724 

And  whan  shee  wakyng  was  •  shee  wondred  in  hert. 

Hue  mett  on  f  e  midnight  •  of  mirth  full  riue,1 

Jjat  grete  God  Amon  •  gan  f  if  er  wend, 

And  had  seemelich  isett  *  siluern  homes,  728 

And  bright  biased  his  blee  •  as  a  brend  glede. 

))en  was  Amon  ywis  •  of  worship  a-losed, 

And  igrett  for  a  God  •  gretest  in  lond. 

Hee  was  ishape  as  a  sheepe  •  shinand  bright,  732 

I-painted  full  prisely  •  &  precious  stones 

Wer  sticked  on  fat  stock  •  stoute  too  beholde. 

All  f  e  ludes  of  f  e  lond  •  Lordes  &  eles 

Set  hym  for  soueraine  •  f  eir  sokour  too  beene,          736 

And  saide  fere  sacrifice  *  in  selkouth  times. 

Jpanne  or-trowed  Olympias  *  f  e  onorable  Queene, 

J}at  hee  neihed  fat  night  •  nye  too  her  syde, 

And  fonded  hur  fleshly ch  •  or  hee  fare  wolde.          740 

Whan  hee  in  his  lykyng  •  fat  Ladie  lauht  had, 

Hur  seemed  in  fat  same  stede  •  fat  hee  saide  after, 

"  Worldly  wooman  *  well  may  fee  lyke, 

For  thy  keeper  of  care  •  is  concerned  now."  744 


[Fol.  16.] 

She  sends  next 
day  for 
Nectanabus. 


She  tells  him  her 
dream,  and  says. 


"  I  know  not  the 
truth  of  it,  for  I 
was  asleep." 

He  answers,  "  It 
is  quite  true. 


A  morowe  on  f  e  mirie  daie  •  f  is  menskfnll  Queene 
Arises  up  redely  •  and  a  rink  sendee 
Anon  too  Nectanabus  •  &  needely  hym  praies, 
Jjat  he  cony  corame  *  too  carpen  her  tyll.  748 

ftan  laft  Jrc's  lud  •  noght  long  ther-after, 
But  camme  too  fat  louely  •  too  kenne  of  her  lore. 
))e  Queene  tolde  hym  till  *  f  e  tales  too  f  e  ende, 
Of  her  dereworth  dreme  *  fat  draihte  hur  in  slepe,  752 
And  hue  saide  too  fat  seg  •  "  Soothe  of ei  eles 
3if  it  were,  I  ne  wott  •  for  wislich  I  slept, 
Whan  I  fat  sweuen  so  sweete  *  swiftly  mette." 

,"  saide  Nectanabus  •  "ne  trowe  f  ou  no  noof  er,  756 
ilk  sawe  was  soothe  •  &  certain  iprooued. 


1  MS.  riue,  with  f  above  ue. 


NECTANABUS   BECOMES   A   DRAGON.  201 

For  sif  bou  lene  mee  leue  •  too  leng  biside,  Give  me  leave  to 

be  near  thee ; 

for.  too  stand  in  a  stede  •  of  a  straite  place, 

Too  waite  at  a  windowe  •  &  warn  bee  after,  760 

I  shoolde  trie  fe  truthe  •  &  tell  J?ee  soone,  uTs^or^isI 

Wheber  i  faithfull  or  falss  •  founde  thy  sawe. 

For  I  warne  ]>ee  well  •  with  worship  &  ioye, 

Hee  wyll  tee  nye  too-nyght  *  in  a  neew  fourme.       764  To-night  thou 

-i      i  wilt  see  him  "* a 

In  dreme  as  a  dragoun  •  dreche  hee  J?ee  thenkes,  new  form. 

,  . ,  He  will  be  a 

And  sithen  showe  hym  hee  shall  •  a  shawe  as  it  were, 

Mich  liche  i  too  mee  •  by  mark  of  my  face." 

"  Sir,"  saide  J>at  seemelich  •  "  J>i  sawes  bee  mirye,    768  myself." 

bou  shalt  stond  in  a  stede  •  still  biside  ;  "Sir,  thou shait 

be  near.    If  it  be 

3if  it  bee  certain  &  soothe  •  biself  shall  i  chese,  true,  thou  shait 

Too  faj>er  J>e  free  •  that  I  forth  bryng."  fetS?-*" 

])e  burd  bad  hastely  •  by  hur  boure  side,  772 

Jjat  swich'2  a  place  3  were  prest  •  too  prooue  J?e  truthe.4 

Whan  ]?e  leme  &  ]?e  light  •  of  fe  leefe  sonne  [Foi.  21.] 

"Was  idrawne  adowne  *  &  dym  were  cloudes,  At  night,  the 

Jje  Ladie  lay  on  hur  bed  •  &  lysted  too  slepe,  776 

And  this  wonderfull  weie  •  waites  his  place  ; 
Hee  stoode  still  on  ]>e  stede  •  &  stirred  no  foote. 
And  sleyly,  when  Jje  first  slepe  •  slaked  on  wightes,5 
Hee  chases  by.  enchauntement  •  be  chamber  within,  780  Nectanabus  takes 

the  form  of  a 

And  with  a  dragones  drem  •  dreew  too  j)e  bedde.  dragon, 

}}an  hee  meeues  too  hur  mouthe  •  &  makes  his  lidene, 

And  kisses  J?at  cumly  •  &  kithe^  his  wyll ;  comes  *° 

And  sithen  hee  seemed  a  seg  •  hymself  as  it  were,    784 

And  spake  too  her  speedily  •  these  speciall  wordes  ; 

"  On  fee  is  getten  a  gome  •  j?e  grimmest  in  erth,  and  tells  her  she 

J3at  all  weies  in  fe  worlde  •  worship  shall."  mighty  son. 

J3us  quaintely  jji's  Queene  •  was  quemed  with  gyle,  788 

1  MS.  liche,  with  ke  above  che. 

2  MS.  swich,  with  u  above  the  wi. 

3  MS.  place,  with  is  over  ce  ;  perhaps  the  older  copy  had  plais. 

4  Catchword— Whan  $e  leme  of  $e  liht  of  $e  leue  sonne. 

5  MS.  nights,  with  w  above  n. 


202 


OLYMPIAS    SENDS    FOR    NECTANABUS. 


At  daybreak  he 
returns. 


The  lady  arises 
and  is  attired. 


She  sends  for 
Nectanabus, 


and  asks  what 
Philip  will  do  to 
her. 


He  says  that 
Ammon  will 
protect  her. 


And  wend  gamene  with  a  God  •  gracious  of  might, 

Whan  a  libbing  lud  *  lay  in  hur  armes. 

j)is  rink,  or  J>e  sonne  rist  •  romes  a  morowe, 

And  passes  in  ]?e  Paleis  *  prestlich  hym  one.  792 

And  far  forthe  on  ]>e  daye  •  whan  J?e  faire  burde 

Had  long  Jjere  layne  *  &  had  lyst  too  ryse, 

Dereworth  damseles  •  drowen  l  them  Jnper ; 

Too  seme  ]>at  seemely  •  ]>ei  setten  hur  hondes.          796 

Whan  hue  was  redie  araid  •  &  riall  on  sight, 

Hue  sendee  soone  for  J>e  segge  •  &  saide  fese  wordes, 

"  Menskfull  maister  *  makeles  of  witt, 

Tell  mee  now  truly  •  &  targe2  no  lenger,  800 

What  kid  King  Philip  •  J>at  keene  is  of  hert, 

Deemes  with  mee  too  doo  *  mee  dreedes  it  sore  1 " 

}?e  lud  too  this  Lady  •  full  louely  saide, 

"  Of  Philip  haue  jjou  no  fere  •  for  faitly  too  knowe,  804 

Amon  J?e  grete  God  •  by  graunte  of  my  boone, 

Schall  fee  wisse  fro  wo  •  &  wreche  of  his  teene."3 


[Fol.  21  6.] 

He  gathers  herbs, 
squeezes  and  dries 
them. 


He  takes  a  sea- 
fowl,  and  anoints 
it  with  the  juice 
of  herbs. 


Philip,  by  his 
enchantment, 


)3an  farde  Nectanabus  •  forthe  fro  J>at  place, 
Hee  wendes  too  a  wildernes  *  &  waites  him  erbes,     808 
Hee  tempres  hem  tidly  •  &  takes  hem  after, 
And  hee  draines  in  a  dish  •  till  J>ei  dry  were. 
j?an  fetches  hee  a  seafoule  •  faire  of  his  wynges, 
And  sawes  of  sorsery  •  hee  saide  therouer  ;  812 

Of  his  grounden  gras  *  ]>e  wus  can  hee  take, 
))eron  hee  brynges  J>e  brid  •  &  bathes  his  piliis. 
By  help  of  ]>e  Hellfeende  *  hee  hauntes  his  werkes, 
To  gille  Philip  in  Greece  •  whan  J>e  gome  slept.       816 
Whan  it  nied  J>e  night  *  nedelich  &  soone, 
Philip  fared  too  bed  *  &  fell  on  a  slepe. 
))e  chaunce  of  enchauntment  •  chased  his  mynde, 
))at  hee  was  draiht  with  dreme  •  thorou  deuiles  engines, 
met  fat  man  •  on  his  mirie  slepe,  821 

1  MS.  drowen,  with  eew  above  owen.  2  Above  the  ge  is  ie. 

3  Catchword—"  Danne  ferd  Neck" 


PHILIP'S    EXTRAORDINARY    DREAM.  203 

))at  liee  sawe  on  his  sight  *  his  seemely  make, 

How  bat  louelich  lif  •  laide  was  a  bedde,  dreams  that  he 

sees  Olympias 

And  a  gracious  God  *  gripte  hur  in  armes.  with  Ammon, 

Hee  lay  by  Jjat  Lady  •  his  liking  hee  wrou^M ;        825 

And  whan  his  deede  l  so  deerne  •  doone  was  in  haste, 

Amiddes  hur  membre  *  too  maken  it  close, 

Hee  sawe  hym  sowen 2  a  seme  *  by  seeming  of  sweuen, 

And  with  a  gaie  golde  ring  *  hee  gan  it  asele ;  829  who  marked  her 

A  ston  stiked  Jjerein  *  stoutlich  igraue ; 

be  cast  of  be  sonne  course  •  was  corue  berin  ;  on  the  seal  was 

the  Zodiac,  a 

A  litle  Hones  hed  •  louelich  ishape,  832  lion's  head,  and 

With  a  swith  faire  swerd  •  sweetelich  imaked, 

Was  isett  on  fe  sell  •  }je  seme  all  amiddes. 

Whan  Philip  on  J>e  forthe  daie  •  first  gan  arise, 

Hee  cliped  hym  his  clerkes  •  full  conning  of  witt,    836  He  asks  what  the 

Full  noble  Nigremanciens  •  j>an3  [nyed]  hee  in  haste, 

J)at  kouth  such  sweuens  •  swiftly  arede. 

Hee  minges  his  metyng  •  amonges  hem  all, 

And  what  it  might  bee  too  meane  •  fe  menne  gan  hee  ask. 

His  enchauntiour  cheefe  •  jjat  J?e  chaunce  herde,       841        [Foi.  22.] 

Too  J>e  cumly  Kyng  *  kid  these  wordes, 

And  saide,  "  Sir,  forsoothe  •  thy  seemely  make  His  magi  say, 

By  a  gracious  God  •  shall  go  with  childe.  844 

be  prent  bat  was  i-putt  •  on  hur  priuie  membre  that  the  seal-mark 

signifies  what  her 

With  Jje  gaie  golde  ring  •  graue  too-rightes,  son  shall  be  like. 

)3e  leue  Hones  hed  *  jjat  laide  was  amid, 

As  mich  amounteth  too  meane  •  as  I  may  tell,          848 

When  hur  barn  is  ibore  •  bolde  shall  hee  wex, 

And  bee  kid  for  a  King  •  kene  of  his  deedes. 

As  be  Houn  is  Lorde  •  of  liuing  beastes,  He wil1 1» feared 

r  like  a  lion. 

So  J>e  ludes  in  J>e  lond  *  alouten  him  shall.  852 

Jpe  sonne  course  4  of  be  sell  *  sinifieth  also,  Tne  ****««  means 

he  will  conquer  all 

pat  hee  shall  fare  as  farre  •  as  any  freke  dwelles,  to  the  far  East, 

1  MS.  deene,  an  obvious  error.     See  note. 

2  MS.  sowen,  with  ew  above  owen.          3  Over  the  j?  is  d,  for  fc. 
4  MS.  coum;  we  1.  831. 


204  THE  MEANING  OP  THE  DREAM. 

And  right  too  f  e  sonne  rist  l  *  his  raigne  shall  last. 
J3e  swerd  sweetlich  imade  •  in  sweuen  too  rede,        856 
Bitokneth  full  treewly  •  in  times  here-after, 
J}at  hee  shall  grow  full  grim  *  &  graithlich  2  winne, 
The  sword,  that     With  stern  strokes  of  swerd  *  &  striuing  of  dintes, 
in  battle.  m      '  Bothe  boldes  &  boroufes]  •  &  bern[es]  to  his  will,    860 

And  seemely  cities  •  as  soueraine  in  erth." 
Philip  says,          Philip  saide,  "  Forsoope  •  mee  seemed  fat  tyme, 
son  would  be  her    That  I  sawe  f  e  God  *  go  graith  too  hur  bedde. 
comforter."  hee  ^  ^  had  ^^  .  <  Woman,'  he  saide, 


'  Thy  keeper  is  concerned  •  thy  comefort  too  bene,    865 
))at  fee  &  Philip  f  e  free  *  of  fone  shall  auenge.'  " 
"  Sir,"  said  fe  enchauntiour  •  "soothely  too  mene, 
Whan  fe  God  ga,n  speake  •  too  fe  gaie  beurde,        868 
How  hue  concerned  had  •  f  e  help  of  hur  teene, 
Faire  Philip  &  hur  •  freely  too  keepe, 
"  That  means,  he  J)at  is  wisly  too  witte  •  hee  will  you  defend 
and  he/from™     Fro  paines  &  peril  •  fat  perce  fee  ne  shall.  872 

Of  this  mirie  meting  •  well  may  f  ou  lyke, 
Of  swiche3  happes  so  hende  •  herde  I  nere  tell." 

[Foi.  22  &.]          In  f  e  same  sesoun  *  soothely  too  showe, 

Philip  farde  too  fight  •  as  I  tofore  saide.  876 

The  Thebans        ))at  time,  f  e  Tebeniens  •  hee  turned  too  fight 
°          A^ain  f  e  ferefull  folke  •  of  Phocus  4  f  e  riche, 


With  ludes  of  Lacedemoine  •  lasches  too  deale. 
A^ain  Philip  too  fare  •  feele  f  er  5  come.  880 

Nectanabus          Nectanabus  anon  right  *  vriih  his  nice  werke^, 

becomes  a  dragon,  r^QQ  ^Q^Q  j,e  gQme  .  grajthes  hym  SOOne, 

Deraide  as  a  dragoun  •  dreedfull  in  fight. 

Hee  wendes  too  f  e  werre  •  with  Philip  too  holde  ;    884 

In  sight,6  of  f  e  same  shape  •  hee  seemed  fan, 

1  MS.  rist,  with  e  above  i,  making  rest,  which  is  wrong  (1.  791). 

2  MS.  has  a  gloss,  greately,  which  is  wrong. 

3  MS.  swiche,  with  u  above  wi. 

4  MS.  has  an  8  above  the  c.  5  A  d  above  the  \>. 
8  Above  sight  is  written  sute. 


THE    DRAGON    FIGHTS    FOR    PHILIP. 


205 


As  whan  hee  farde  tofore  •  too  f  e  faire  Queene. 

J3an  hee  farde  in  fat  fight  •  as  hee  folke  sleew, 

And  hrutned  in  that  battle  •  buernes  ynow. 

For  dreede  of  f  is  dragoun  •  menne  dreew  fern  fence, 

And  fell  doune  in  f  e  feelde  •  fenked  in  haste. 

J)e  dreede  of  Ipis  dragoun  •  fat  drof l  men  aboute, 

So  fought  for  Philip  -  &  feld  mo  Knightes  892 

ftan  all  f  e.men  of  Macedonie  *  &  more  of  Ms  peeple. 

Whan  this  Kyng  had  kill[e]d  •  with  careful!  strokes 

)3e  Lacedemoniens  •  fat  life  loren  2  hadde, 

And  Phocuswiik  ferse  dynt  *  freelich  ywonne         896 

Thorou  drede  of  f  e  dragoun  •  &  drift  of  his  Knightes, 

j)e  fell  folke  of  Attens  •  fledden  hym  soone, 

And  thought  to  sauen  hemself  •  fro  sorowe  of  his  wrethe. 


888    and  fights  for 
Philip. 


Philip  defeats  the 
Phocians. 


Philip  after  jws  fight  *  in  a  foule  time,  900 

"Was  going  too  [ride]  ouer  Greece  •  as  a  grete  Prince.3 
J)e  armed  Attenieins  •  auntred  hym  till, 
}3ei  wern  ware  of  his  comrae  •  &  his  waie  stoppes. 
|2e  King  kif  es 4  his  gnm  •  too  keueren  him  gate,     904 
But  all  his  werk  was  in  waste    *  fei    werned  his 

thoughtes.5 

.For  hee  ne  sholde  hem  shend  *  &  shamelich  take 
Hur  seemely  cities  •  too  sorowen  hem  all, 
Enforced  were  f  e  entres  •  with  egre  men  fele, 
J)at  hee  ne  might  in  fat  marche  •  no  maner  wend. 
Whan  f  e  seg  sawe  well  •  no  sokour  ne  speede, 
He  was  gretely  agrise  6  •  &  greeued  in  hert, 
For  hee  ne  might  in  f  o  men  •  his  malice  kith. 
To  Tebes  &  Tessalonie  •  fat  truly  hym  holpe, 


Philip's  progress 
is  opposed  by  tile- 
Athenians. 


[Fol.  23.] 


9.08  The  Passes  are 

manned  against 
him. 


912 


He  goes  to 
Thebes. 


1  MS.  droue,  with  f  above  ue. 

2  MS.  loren,  with  ne  above  en. 

3  This  line  is  corrupt ;  see  note. 

4  MS.  keepes,  with  i  above  ee  ;  the  p  being  obviously  miswritlen 
for  J»,  as  elsewhere.      Cf.  1.  529. 

5  Catchword — "  For  he  ne  scholde." 

6  MS.  agrise,  with  d  above  the  e  to  the  right. 


PHILIPS    TREACHERY    TO    THE    THEBANS. 


His  treachery. 


He  kills  the 
princes  and  dukes 
of  Thebes. 


He  burns  their 
towns, 

and  harms  them 
as  much  as  he  had 
helped  them. 


Thus  did  he  out 
of  spite. 

[Fol.  23  ft.] 


He  next  attacks 
Cappadocia. 
[Olynthus  ?] 


The  men  must 
yield  or  fight. 


Hee  went  as  a  woode  man  •  his  wrath  too  auenge. 

Whan  hee  comme  too  fat  coste  •  f  ei  kepten  hym  faire, 

And  gon  too  hur  gates  *  &  grathlich  hem  openes,     916 

And  lete  f  e  rink  riden  in  •  with  his  route  sterne  ; 

And  weies  hym  welcomes  *  with  worship  &  ioye. 

))ei  trowed  no  tresoun  •  untruly  too  haue  ; 

But  Philip  J>e  ferefull  •  faire  thei  grette,  920 

And  lete  hym  prik  with  his  prese  *  in  hur  pns  holdes. 

As  soone  as  f  e  seg  •  was  f  e  citie  within, 

Hee,  wrathfull  [of]  wille  •  wronglich  fare, 

Hee  lete  catch  f  e  King  •  &  kyllen  hym  soone,          924 

And  his  Princes  of  price  •  prestlich  hee  quelde. 

Douhtie  Dukes  with  doole  •  too  deth  gon  hee  bryng, 

And  oof  er  Lordes  of  lond  •  liueles  hee  made. 

Hee  brende  holdes  &  borous  *  &  beurnes  therin,       928 

And  all  went  too  wo  •  fat  they  with  mett. 

As  mich  as  Philip  tofore  •  hem  frendship  wrought, 

Whan  hee  fought  for  fern  •  &  Phocus  distriede,1 

As  mich  maugre  &  more  *  hee  marked  hem  after,     932 

Too  be-traie  them  untruly  •  fat  trusten  hym  till. 

On  weies  &  women  •  awrak  hee  his  teene, 

And  solde  them  too  seruise  •  in  sorowe  too  Hue, 

And  robbed  of  riches  •  all  f  e  riche  tounes.  936 

J)us  hee  wrought  fat  wrong  •  with  wreche  of  his  anger, 

For  teene  of  f  e  Attenieins  •  fat  turned  him  too  kepe.2 

Whan  hee  f  is  cursed  case  •  unkyndely  wrought, 

Hee  ne  laft  no  leng[er]  •  in  that  lond  fan.  940 

For  too  fonde  more  fight  •  his  folke  gan  hee  leade, 

And  fares  too  a  countrie  •  with  Knightes  ynow, 

J^ere  a  citie  was  sett  •  seemely  &  noble, 

J)at  Cappadoce  was  cleped  •  a  full  kid  place.  944 

Many  doughtie  of  deede  •  dwelt  f  erin, 

})at  wern  fresh  too  fight  •  &  fell  of  hur  deedes. 

Philip  bedes  hem  biker  •  &  biddes  fern  yeelde 

1  MS.  distroide,  with  ie  above  oi. 
2  Catchword—"  Whan  he  dis  kursede  caw." 


PHILIP   RETURNS    HOME. 


207 


At  last  he  takes 

the  town. 


J5eir  faire  citie  in  faith  •  or  fight  ]>ei  shall.  948 

J)e  seges  in  J>e  citie  *  Jjemself  so  kept, 

ftat  Philip  lafte  J>ere  long  •  &  litle  hee  spedde. 

But  hee  ne  stint  of  his  strife  •  noghi  a  stounde  while, 

Till  hee  had  take  ]je  toune  •  fat  tristy  was  holde,     952 

And  made  all  J?e  menne  •  meeke  too  his  wyll. 

Whan  hee  had  wonne  Jr/s  won  •  &  wrought  more  teene, 

"With  mirth  too  Macedoine  •  hee  makes  his  chace. 

Hee  priked  too  his  Paleis  •  with  Princes  &  Dukes,  956  He  returns  home. 

And  many  a  seemely  seg  *  J>at  sued  hym  Jjanne. 

Of  hym  ]?e  Queene  was  ware  •  &  wendes  with  ioye,  r  ^iveshiTn 

And  romed  light  too  J>e  rink  •  receiued  him  faire. 

Philip  kisses  his  fere  •  as  fell  for  too  doone,  960 

And  kneew  by  hur  countenaunce  •  hue  cowceiued  had. 

«  Dame,"  saide  bat  douhtie  •  "  how  haste  bou  doone  nowl  philiP  says  8he 

'  has  done  amiss 

Who  hath  fee  unclene  i-kept  *  sithen  I  comme  fro  pee  1 
))ou  haste  medled  amis  *  methynk,  by  thy  chere.     964 
Natheless  I  not  3it  •  nai,  as  I  trowe, 
$of  jjou  haue  cheuesed  fee  a  chylde  •  as  ]>i  chaunce 

fallen  ; 

For  it  is  l  geten  of  a  God  •  thy  gilt  is  J>e  lasse. 
Of  all  J?e  happe  Ipat  fou  liaste  •  hollich  ifounde, 
I  had  minde  on  my  slepe  •  by  meting  of  sweuen, 
A3aines  mee  &  all  men  •  Ipat  may  thee  biholde, 
Blameles  fou  might  bee  •  of  thy  berem-chaunce. 
No  wight  of  thy  werk  •  wite  J?ee  might, 
Sithen  it  is  sonde  of  a  God  •  soothelich  i-prooued." 


968 


972 


for  he  had  learnt 

in  a  dream 

an  about  her. 


[Foi.  24.3 


It  betid  in  a  time  •  tidly  therafter, 
J)at  Philip  made  of  folke  •  a  feaste  fuU  ryche. 
All  his  Princes  of  price  •  praied  hee  thider,  976 

And  oofer  Lordes  of  lond  •  ne  laft  hee  none. 
Whan  hee  is  fare  fro  fight  •  his  folke  for  too  feaste, 
In  Macedoine  with  his  men  •  this  mirth  hee  made. 
As  soone  as  J>ei  were  sett  •  &  serued  too-rightes,       980 
1  MS.  it  it. 


208 


THE    DRAGON    COMES    TO    PHILIP  S    FEAST. 


Xectanabus 
appears  as  a 
dr&gon. 


Ho  goes  up  to  the 
queen  and  kisses 


Philip  says  it  is 
the  dragon  who 
helped  him. 


The  dragon 
flies  away. 


!N"ectanabus  by  ISTigremauncie  *  neew  hym  attires, 

And  in  a  dragounes  drem  •  hee  dreew  to  J?e  halle. 

Hee  cowme  first  too  ]?e  King  •  &  too  )>e  kid  Queene, 

And  sithen  hee  buskes  aboute  *  pe  bordes  echone,     984 

Hee  drouned  as  a  dragon  *  dredefull  of  noyes, 

)}at  all  J?e  gomes  were  agrise  •  of  his  grim  sight. 

))an  farde  hee  forthe  •  too  J>e  faire  Queene, 

And  hee  holdes  his  hed  •  -right  in  hur  lappe,  988 

And  kisses  pat  cumly  •  in  knoweing  of  all. 

Philip  saide  too  his  fere  *  freely  pese  wordes, 

"Dame,  of  this  dragoun  •  I  doo  pee  too  knowe, 

And  euery  liuand  lud  *  pat  lenges  herin,  992 

In  a  brem  battail  •  abrode  in  pe  feelde, 

Whan  I  was  greeny  bigo  l  '  with  a  grim  peeple, 

Hee  co?ftme  flie  too  feelde  •  &  my  fone  schende, 

Jpat  I  was  holpe  by  hym  •  hem  too  distrie."  996 

Whan  Jra's  tale  was  tolde  •  &  tended  of  all, 

])Q  dragoun  dreew  him  awaie  •  with  drift  of  his  winges. 


Another  time, 


a  bird  lays  an 
egg  in 
Philip's  lap. 

[Fol.  24  6.J 


An  adder  comes 
out  of  the  shell, 


In  a  somer  seasoun  *  soone  therafter, 
As  Philip  satt  by  hymself  •  soothe  for  too  tell,       1000 
A  faire  breeding  brid  *  bremlich  went, 
And  in  pe  lappe  of  pat  lud  •  louely  hee  sittes. 
Or  Jns  freelich  foule  •  farde  of  pe  place, 
Hee  bredde  an  ai  on  his  barm  •  &  braides  him  pan. 
Philip  wondred  was  •  of  this  werk  quainte,  1005 

And  satte  still  on  pe  stede  •  stirred  no  foote. 
\)Q  ai  fell  on  J?e  flore  •  in  the  frekes  sight, 
And  )?e  shell  to-shett  •  on  J)e  schire  grounde.  1008 

Whan  it  cofli  too-clef 2  •  per  crep  oute  an  addre, 
And  buskes  full  boldely  •  aboute  )>e  shell. 
Whan  this  worme  3  had  went  •  wislich  aboute, 
Hee  wolde  haue  gliden  in  againe  •  graithlich  &  soone. 

1  MS.  bigo,  with  ne  above  o  to  tJie  right. 

2  MS.  too  clef,  with  eue  above  f. 

8  MS.  worme,  with  wrom  above  it ;  no  doubt  the  older  MS.  Jiad 
wrom. 


AN  ADDER  COMES  OUT  OF  AN  EGG-SHELL. 


209 


But  or  hee  had  in  his  hed  •  hee  hastely  deide,1       1013 
And  dreew  nere  too  his  denne  •  but  deide  bi-side. 
Philip  for  Jws  ferlich  •  fast  gan  wende 
To  noble  ]STigremauncieins  •  ]>at  hym  nyli  were,      1016 
And  asked  hem  an  answer  *  JHS  aunter  too  reede, 
For  cheef  of  enchauntment  •  chosen  J?ei  were. 
'"  Sir,"  saide  one  enchauntiour  *  "  you?  seemely  make 
Shall  bere  such  a  barn  •  in  a  brem  tyde,  1020 

J)at  by  might  of  his  maine  •  &  maistrie  of  Kinges, 
All  so  wide  as  ]?/s  worlde  •  shall  welden  his  raigne.2 
Whan  hee  aboute  hath  ibene  *  abrode  in  J?e  londes, 
And  iwonne  at  his  will  *  )?e  wortlych3  places,        1024 
J)e  kith  J>at  hee  cowme  fro  *  or  hee  com  till, 
Hee  shall  bee  doluen  &  ded  •  as  destenie  fallen. 
As  j?e  addre  of  J>e  ai  *  auntred  aboute, 
And  wolde  haue  shoten  in  J>e  schell  •  or  hee  schent 
were,  1028 

'So  shall  fare  by  Jje  freke  •  Jwt  ferre  may  bee  knowe. 
Whan  hee  hath  reigned  a  roum  •  as  richest  of  all, 
Or  hee  may  too  his  marche  •  with  his  maine  wende, 
Jjerc  hee  was  fostred  &  fed  •  him  fallen  too  dye."    1032 


but  dies  before  it 
can  creep  in 
again. 


It  means  that  his 
son  shall  be  a 
great  conqueror, 


but  will  die 
before  reaching 
home. 


JS"ow  will  I  cease  JMS  sawe  •  &  segge  you  more 
'Of  hym  )>at  hight  Alisaunder  •  holly  J>e  birth.4 

[A  portion  of  the  story  being  here  lost,  the  omission 
is  supplied  from  a  French  prose  text  of  a  similar  type.] 

[Le  terme  de  1'effantement  la  royne  approchoit,  et 
lui  commen^oit  le  ventre  moult  a  douloir.  Si  fist 
;appeller  ISTectanebuz  et  lui  dist :  "  J'ai  grant  douleur  The  <iueen  calls 

for  Nectanabu.>. 

en  mon   ventre."       Nectanebuz  compta  1'eure  et   lui 
dist :  "  Sousleve  toy,  royne,  ung  poy  de  ton  siege,  car 

1  MS.  deide  dyed,  and  deide  is  marked. 

2  Above  the  a  is  an  e. 

3  MS.  wortlych,  with  worthly  above  it.    Cf.  1.  596. 

4  Here  follows  the  catchword—"  Swiche  fortune  fel,"  but  the 
next  leaf  is  blank.     For  an  account  of  the  piece  here  inserted  to 
complete  the  sense,  see  the  note. 

U 


210 


BIRTH    OF   ALEXANDER. 


Alexander  is 
born. 


Earthquakes  and 
thunder,  snow 
aud  sleet. 


Philip  perceives 
that  the  child  is 
divine. 


The  child  is  well 
taken  care  of. 


His  hair,  eyes, 
and  teeth. 


ellemens  sont  orendroit  orribles  du  soleil."  Et  la  royne 
se  leva,  et  la  douleur  se  passa  maintenant.  Apres  ung 
poy,  lui  dist  :  "  Siez  toy,  royne."  Et  elie  s'  asist,  et 
enfanta  ung  filz.  Et  quant  li  enfens  chey  sur.terre,  et 
la  terra  croulla,  et  foudra  tonnoirie,  et  signes  grans 
furent  veus  par  tout  le  monde.  La  noif  meslee  avec 
gresil  chey  du  ciel  et  ouvry  le  terre  conime  des l  pierres. 
La  nuit  targa  a  venir,  et  celle  fa  plus  longue  des  autoes. 
Dont  le  roy  Philippe  fu  moult  esmayez,  et  dist  a  la 
royne  :  "  Femme,  j'ay  pensay  en  mon  cuer  que  cest 
enfant  me  feust  nourris  en  aucune  maniere,  pour  ce  qu'il 
n'est  de  moy  conceus.  Mais  pour  ce  que  j'entens  qu'il 
est  conceus  de  Dieu,  et  pour  ce  que  je  voy  les  elemens 
changier  en  sa  naissance,  vueil-je  qu'il  soit  aussi  bien 
nourris  en  ma  memoire,  comme  s'il  feust  miens  propres. 
Et  vueil  qu'il  ait  nom  Alexandre,  aussi  comme  avait 
nom  mon  aultre  filz  que  j'avais  de  mon  aultre  femme." 

Maintenant  les  dames  de  leans  prindrent  1'enffant 
et  le  nourirent  par  grant  diligence.  Et  sachez  qu'il  ne- 
ressembloit  au  pere  ne  a  la  mere,  mais  avoit  propre  sem- 
blance. Car  ses  cheveux  estoient  comme  crin  de  lyon, 
ses  yeulx  estoient  grans  et  resplendissans,  et  ne 
resembloit  pas  1'un  a  1'autre.  Car  Tun  estoit  noir  et 
Tautre  vair.  Ses  dens  estoient  trop  agues  et  sa  re- 
gardence  estoit  comme  du  lyon.  Et  combien  que  sa 
sestature  feust  petite,  non  pour  quant  aux  signes  qui  se 
demonstroient,  sembloit  il  bien  que  Alixandre  devoit 
estre. 


How  Aristotle 
taught  him  the  7 
arts. 


He  surpasses  his 
companions. 


COMMENT  ARISTOTE  APRENT  A  ALIXANDRE  LES  SEPT  ARS. 

Apres,  il  fu  de  aage  pour  mectre  a  1'escolle.  Le 
roy  Philippe  lui  fist  mectre  et  plusieurs  autres  enffans 
gentilzhommes  avec  lui,  lequel  enffant  les  surmontoit 
tous  de  toutes  choses  en  lettres  et  en  paroles.  Et  aussi 
fait  il  en  ysnelette  et  en  vigueur.  Dont  il  advint, 

i  MS.  deux. 


ALEXANDER  LEARNS  TO  BEAR  ARMS.  211 

quant  il  eut  xii  ans,  il  fit  si  aprins  des  sept  ars  par 

Aristote,   le    ineilleur   qui   oncques   feust,   que   il   ne 

treuvoit  homme  qui  tant  en  seust  comme  il  faisoit. 

Quant  Alixandre  ot  xii  ans  accomplis,  on  lui  bailla  ^J^*8*01 

escuiers  sages  et  congnoissans,  qui  avoient  este  par  le 

pais  et  par  les  terres,  et  avoient  use  toute  leur  vie  les 

armes.     Et  ceux  1'aprindrent  et  enseignerent  si  bien  de 

toutes  choses  qui  aux  armes  appartenoient,  que  il  en  he  is  taught  to 

.    ,      wield  arms. 

toutes  choses  seurmontoit  ses  compaignons.     Quant  le 

rci  Philippe  congnut  la  grant  vigueur  qui  estoit  en  luy, 

si  lui  dist :  "Filz  Alixandre,  je  ayme  moult  la  ysnellete  Philip's  remark. 

de  ton  corps  et  le  soutil  engin  de  ton  courage.     Mais 

tristre  suis  que  ta  semblance  ne  resemble  a  lamienne."1 

Quant  ce  ouy  la  royne  Olimpias,  si  se  doubta  moult,  et  oiympias  says  to 

appella  Nectanebuz,  et  lui  dit :] 

"  Master  on  molde  *  what  may  mee  befall  1  [FoL  17.] 

Of  "Philip  sore  am  I  aferd  •  for  his  fell  speeche,      1036 

For  hee  sayed  too  my  soonne  •  in  ayght  of  myne  yie,       "Philip complains 

TT  , .  ,  ,         „  ,   .         .  ,  that  Alexander  is 

Hee  was  purlich  payed  *  of  his  prise  werkes,  not  like  Mm."    ' 

But  hee  chaunged  his  chere  *  &  too  J>e  chylde  sayed, 
'  That  ]?ow  ne  art  lyke  mee,  lude  •  mee  lykes  full  yll ; ' 
Therfore  my  mynde  &  my  moode  •  is  marred 2  too  care, 
For  his  woorde  am  I  wrou^/it  •  wofull  in  hert."     1042 
"  Queene,"  qwoth  Nectanabus  •  [care  J?ou  no  more,3]        "Nevermind 
For  the   sake  of  thy  soonne   •  [J?at  schal   saue    be   at  your  son  win  help 
nede.'"] 

The  Lude  looked  on-loft  •  late  on  an  eeue,         1045 
And  on  a  starre  too  stare  •  hee  stynt  full  long,  °De  eve> 

Nectanabus  looks 

Hee  hoped  to  haue  there  •  of  his  heites  desyres  ;  on  tne  stars' 

Too  catche  sum  cunnyng  •  hee  kest  up  his  yie.       1048 
When  Alisaunder  jjat  sawe  •  hee  sayed  full  soone, 
"  Father,  wherfore  •  is  J>at  farly  too  tell, 

1  MS.  moye.  2  Ms  maried,  with  r  above  i. 

3  Two  half-lines  are  here  lost,  and  are  supplied  from  conjecture; 
blank  spaces  are  left  for  them  in  the  MS. 

14  • 


212 


NECTANABUS    GAZES   ON    THE   STARS. 


Alexander  asks 
him  to  point  out 
his  favourite 
star. 


He  says  he  must 
wait  till 
midnight. 


[Fol.  17  &.] 


He  asks  if  he 
knows  his  own 
fate. 

"Yes;  my  son 
will  kill  me." 


That  thow  lookest  on-loft  *  so  long  at  Jus  tyme  ? " 
" Soonne,"  sayed  fe  segge  *  "in  syght  I  beholde 
A  brem  sterre  &  a  \)ryght  '  that  mee  best  lykes."  1053 
"  Leeue  l  fader,"  quoth  J>e  freke  •  "fonde  I,  mee  tell, 
The  sterre  fat  yee  staren  on  *  sticketh  it  in  heuin  ? " 
"  Yea,  forsoothe,  deare  soonne  "  •  sayed  hee  than, 
"  It  is  in  heuin  full  hy  •  beholde  who-so  myghk."  1057 
"  And  may  yee,  syr,"  sayed  f  e  chylde  •  "  by  sum  maner 

wise, 

Schowe  mee  schortly  in  shape  •  fat  schynyng  sterre  1" 
"  Yea,  wooste  f  ou  see,  my  soonne  •  in  certeyn  tymes, 
The  inkest  howre  of  Jw's  ny^/it  *  ny  by  my  syde, 
Withoute  fe  citie,"  he  sayed  •  "in  certeyn  places,   1062 
So,  lo  !  myghtst  f  ou  see  *  fat  seemely  sterre  ! " 
"  That  ilk  for  to  see  "  *  hee  sayed,  "  I  desyre, 
And  I  shall  wend  thee  wit/i  •  when  fee  well  lykes. 
But  canst  foil  by  any  craft  *  kenne  mee  now  1066 

What  death  dry  f  ou  shalt  •  by  destinie  shape  ? " 
"  Yea,"  soonne,  sayed  hee  f  o  •  "in  certein  I  knowe, 
That  I  shall  drye  f  e  death  •  in  dreedefull  dedes  stoundes, 
By  encheson  of  my  chylde  *  such  chaunce  shall  fall ; 
But  whan,  wott  I  not  well  *  ne  in  what  place."      1071 


Nectanabus  goes 

down  beside  a 

ditch. 


Nectanabus  in  bat  nya/it  *  as  hym  neede 
Passeth  forthe  pnuely  •  f  e  Paleis  without,2 
Hee  gooth  downe  by  fe  dyche  •  fat  deepe   was  of 
grounde,  1074 

Euyll  it  is  of  syght  •  the  walles  besyde. 
["  Sone,"  sayde  Nectanabus  *  "  see  ^ond  )>e  sterres,]  3 

1077 


He  points  out  the   JoyfullJupiter  •  Myrthfull  Mercurie, 

The  leame  of  his  lyght  '  lykes  well  my  hert  !  " 
So  hee  stynted  fat  stounde  •.  &  styrred  no  foote, 
Hee  pored  on  fe  planetes  *  pass  ere  hee  woolde. 


1080 


1  MS.  Leeue,  with  fe  above  ue. 

2  Here  follows  a  half-line  out  of  place,  "  the  walles  besyde," 
line  "  Euyll  it  is  of  syght  "  Icing  left  incomplete. 

3  A  line  is  here  lost. 


ALEXANDER    DROWNS   HIM    IN    A   DITCH.  213 

Hee  braides  too  be  bank  •  of  be  brode  water,  Alexander  pushes 

him  into  the 

By  pe  shoulderes  hym  tooke  •  &  shift  hym  in  myddes,     ditch. 

With  a  wrathfull  wyll  •  J>ese  woordes  hee  sayed : 

"Wretched  worldly  wyght  •  why  wylst  pou  knowe 

The  priuitie  of  planetes  •  or  precious  starres,  1085 

Syn  pou  art  erthly  thyself  1  •  in  an  yll  tyme 

Kaughtst  pou  in  pat  craft  •  cmmyng  of  happes 

Let  them  bat  in  heuin  bee  •  knowe  hy  thynge* :     1088  "Oniygoas 

should  know 

That  lore  longes  too  Godde  •  &  too  no  lud  eles,  heavenly  things.' 

Thow  pat  worldly  art  wraught  •  thy  wytt  J>ou  bisett 

On  euery  erthly  thyng  •  &  ern  J?ou  nomore  !  " 

The  segge  sayed  this  sawe  •  sounk  or  hee  wer,        1092 

"Truthe  haue  I  bee  tolde  •  in  tymes  ypassed" —  « i  have  always 

told  you  the 

And  with  pat  sawe  pe  soule  •  fro  pe  seg  hee  partes.  truth." 

Alisaunder  anonne  •  ryght  armed  in  hert, 

Hee  did  hym  downe  too  be  dyche  •  as  hee  no  dreede  Alexander  takes 

him  out  dead. 

had ;  1096 

Hee  sprainde  in  a  sprite  •  &  spradde  it  aboute, 
[And  cau^t  vp  pe  cors  •  and  cayres  to  pe  queene.] ! 
"  Saye  mee,  seemely  •  sunne,  what  pou  bryngst  1 "  [Foi.is.] 

"  Ich  haue  broght,"  quoth  pe  burn  *  "  a  ded  body  here, 
That  noble  Nectanabus  *  too  name  was  hote."         1101 
"Sunne,"  sayed  pat  seemelich  •  "my  sorowe  is  pe  more !" 
*'  It  is  thy  foule  fowlye  *  pat  this  fare  wrought,  Alexander 

reproves 

Yowr  caremll  conscience  •  yee  casten  so  large,  oiympias. 

That  yee  wern  no  wyght '  but  wyrch  as  yee  lyst."  1105 

The  Queene  quoth  -nought  againe  •  but  qm'ckly  &  soone  she  cannot  reply. 

Too  burye  pat  burn  •  pe  beurd  gan  heate. 

Of  this  lyueles  lud  •  ne  lyst  mee  tell,  1108 

Of  hym  I  cease  my  sawe  •  &  seche  too  more. 

Ther  was  a  Prince  full  price  •  of  powre  y-holde, 
Keeper  of  Cappadoce  •  that  Kyng  Philip  aught. 
A  huge  horsse  &  a  hy  •  hee  had  that  tyme,  1112       A  HOBSS. 

The  moste  seemely  in  sy#7it  •  pat  euer  seg  wyst. 

1  A  line  is  here  lost,  and  supplied  from  conjecture. 


214 


DESCRIPTION    OF   BUCEPHALUS. 


There  was  a 
horse  that  fed  on 
men. 


He  was  kept 
chained  up. 


Messengers  took 
him  to  Philip  as  a 
present 


Philip  has  a  cave 
built  for  him. 


[Pol.  18  &.] 


Traitors  were 
thrown  to  him  to 
eat. 


Philip  dreams, 
that  whoever 
tames  the  horse 


will  be  king  of 
Macedon. 


Hee  bore  a  liedde  as  a  bole  •  y-brested  to-ryght, 

And  had  hard  on  his  hedde  •  homes  y-grow, 

Menne  wern  his  meate  •  that  hee  moste  looued  ;     1116 

for  as  many  as  hee  myy/it  •  murdre  hee  woolde. 

Hee  was  byglich  ybownde  *  on  bothe  twoo  halues, 

Bothe  his  chaul  &  his  chynne  •  \vith  chaynes  of  yren  • 

Many  locks  wer  laft  •  his  leggs  aboute,  1120 

That  hee  nas  loose  in  no  lime  •  hides  to  greeue, 

To  byte,  ne  to  braundise  •  ne  to  break  no  wows. 

for  hee  so  myghty  was  made  •  in  all  maner  thyngs, 

Of  such  a  body  as  hee  bore  •  fe  blonke  so  sterne,  1124 

Was  neuer  steede  in  no  stede  •  fat  stynt  upon  erth. 

Intoo  meery  Macedoine  •  f  e  messengers  f  ei  camrae, 

~Fiom  what  kith  f  ei  camme  •  cofly  they  tolde, 

Let  greete  hym  with  God  *  &  goode  wyll,1  1128 

And  their  presaunt  of  price  •  proffred  hym  tyll. 

Hee  had  blyss  of  fat  beaste  •  &  blythely  hym  thanks. 

[A  caue  he  comanded  •  to  coynt  men  inouj,]2 

Dupe3  as  a  dunioun  *  dyked  in  erth,  1132 

All  about  bygge  •  with  barrs  of  yern. 

Therfore  f  e  Kyng  had  cast  •  too  keepe  fat  steede, 

In  fat  caue  craftely  *  enclosed  with  gynne. 

For  if  a  trayter  wer  y-take  •  in  tyme  therafter,        1136 

Or  any  thriftles  theefe  •  for  thyngs  accused, 

They  shoolde  bee  cast  in  fat  caue  •  too  fat  kene  blonk, 

And  bee  deuoured  with  doole  •  as  f  e  doome  woolde. 

Anon  as  euer  fe  nyght  •  nyied  on  erth,  1140 

Philip  farde  too  bedde  •  &  fell  on  a  sleepe. 

Of  a  myghtfull  Godde  *  hee  mett  fat  tyme, 

That  on  his  bedsyde  satt  •  &  JMS  sawe  tolde — 

"  Who  prickes 4  on  a  playne  feelde  •  f  e  perelous  beaste, 

Hee  shall  raigne  as  a  ryng  •  ryall  &  noble,  1145 

1  This  line  occurs  in  the  MS.  two  lines  higher  up,  clearly  out 
of  place. 

2  A  line  is  here  again  lost,  and  supplied  from  conjecture. 

3  MS.  Dupe,  with  ee  above  u. 

4  MS.  Tho  pricked,  which  is  unintelligible. 


ALEXANDER    UNBINDS    BUCEPHALUS. 


And  bee  Kyng  of  thy  kith  •  Knyghtes  too  leade, 
When  J>ou  art  doone  &  dedde  •  &  thy  daye  endes." 


215 


I 


When  Alisaunder  was  of  age  •  as  I  shall  tell,       1148 
•Of  full  fifteene  yere  •  faren  too  pe  end, 
Hee  was  hardye  &  hende  *  happes  to  fond, 
And  such  wys  of  his  witt  •  in  worldly  thynges ; 
Lered  on  letrure  •  was  pe  lud  then,  1152 

And  of  latin  pe  lore  •  lellich  hee  wyst. 
In  a  tyme  betyd  *  as  I  tell  after, 
That   many   menne   of  Attenes  •  wit?i>  myckle  oofer 

peeple, 

Did  pern  forthe  on  a  day  *  by  pe  dupe l  caue,          1156 
There  pe  steede  in  stoode  •  strayned  in  bonder. 
They  sawe  lygge  in  theyr  looke  *  legges  &  armes, 
Fayre  handes  &  feete  •  freaten  too  the  bonne,          « 
Of  menne  pat  myslych  wer  •  murdred  therm,          1160 
By  iustes  2  unioyfull  •  iugged  too  death. 
When  Alisaunder  was  ware  •  of  pe  wylde  bfeaste], 
That  was  of  body  so  bolde  *  bremlych  yshaped, 
Too  hym  hee  heelde  forthe  "his  hand ;  •  pe  horss  it 
awaytes.  1164 

Hee  layed  pe  neck  oute  along  •  &  lycked  his  hande*, 
And  sythe  hee  foldes  his  feete  •  &  falles  too  pe>  grounde, 
And  abowed  [to]  pe  burn  •  on  his  best  wyse. 
When  Alisaunder  so  sawe  •  in  his  syght  there,        1168 
How  pe,  steede  was  styll  •  &  no  stryfe  made, 
Bale  thought  fat  burn  •  too  bynde  pat  steede, 
That  so  meeke  was  of  moode  •  &  made  no  noyes. 
Hee  unclosed  pe  caue  •  unclainte  pe  barres,  1172 

And  straihte  into  pe  stede  •  stroked  hym  fayre. 
Hee  raught  forthe  hw  right  hand  •  &  his  rigge  frotw*, 
And  coies  hym  as  he  kan  •  wzt/i  his  clene  handes. 
jpan  hee  loses  his  lockes  •  his  legges  unbyndes,        1176 

1  MS.  Deepe,  with  u  above  ee  ;  see  1.  1132. 

2  Indistinct  and  uncertain. 


Alexander  was 
now  15. 


He  knew  Latin. 


Some  Athenians 
see  the  horse 
lying  amid  men's 
bones. 


[Fol  J9.J 


The  horse  licks 

Alexander's 

hands. 


He  enters  the 
cave. 


He  unfastens  the 
steed's  bonds, 


216 


AI-KXAXDKR    TAMES    BUCEPHALUS. 


and  it  is  as 
meek  as  a  lamb. 


He  rides  him 
about. 


Philip  is 
astonished, 


[Pol.  19  b.] 

and  tells  his  son 
his  dream. 


That  hoc  nas  fast  in  no  foote  *  bifore  ne  bihynde. 

Therof  f  e  blonk  was  blythe  •  &  blainte  no  furre  l 

But  meeke  was  of  maneres  •  withou.t&  mischaunce.3 

Was  nere  lambe  in  no  land  •  lower  of  chere,  1180 

No  hownde  to  his  hous-lorde  3  *  so  hende  to  queme, 

J)at  was  leuer  to  lyke  •  f  e  lude  fat  hym  aught, 

])en  was  f  e  blonk  to  f  e  beurn  •  fat  hym  bistint. 

])an  wendes  fis  weih  •  fe  caue  withoute,  1184 

And  f  e  horss  with  his  hand  •  hendely  bringe*. 

Soone  hee  leapes  on-loft  •  &  lete  hym  worthe,4 

To  fare 5  as  hym  lyst  faine  *  in  feelde  or  in  towne. 

The  steede  strauht  on  his  gate  •  &  stired  hym  under, 

And  wrought  no  wod  res  •  but  his  waye  holdes.     1189 

When  sire  "Philip  gan  see  •  f  e  seg  so  too  ryde, 

And  his  blonk  behelde  •  abated  of  wrath, 

Of  f  e  michel  meekenes  •  marueil  hee  had,  11 92 

That  f  e  steede  so  stern  •  stynt  of  his  fare. 

He  sayde,  "  Sonne  Alisaunder  •  of  f  is  same  chaunce 

Iche  had  mynde  in  my  slepe  *  by  metyng  fownde. 

A  greate  glisiande  God  '  grathly  mee  tolde,  1196 

That  f  ou  shalt  raigne  when  I  rotte 6  •  on  my  ryche 

londes." 

"  Faf  er,"  sayde  f  e  freke  •  "  if  f  ou  foreknowes 
That  I  shall  leade  thy  landes  *  when  thy  life  endor, 
Let  mee  be  proued  as  Prince  •  in  pres  where  I  wend, 
And  fende  mee  finliche  well  •  to  fonde  my  strength." 


Philip  goea  to 
Byzantium. 


Of  this  bounden  beaste  •  blynne  [we  f  e]  speche, 
Of  King  Philip  fe  keene  •  karp  wee  now.  1203 

When  Philip  had  with  his  folke  •  faren  on  Greece, 
And  taken  tresure  ynough  •  in  townes  full  riche, 
Hee  hurd  tell  of  a  towne  •  thriftily  walled, 


1  An  i  above  the  u.         2  che  above  unce.         3  untes  above  us. 
4  MS.  worche,  with  t  above  c.       s  An  \  above  and  between  a  and  r. 
6  MS.  rotte,  with  royte  above  it,  which  may  have  been  miswritten 
for  rotye  in  the  older  copy. 


DESCRIPTION    OP    BYZANTIUM. 


217 


A  citie  sett  by  peece  •  with  full  siker  wardes, 

Byzaunce  fe  bolde  sted  •  was  fe  borowe  liote  ;        1208 

None  better  hym  aboute  •  fat  any  beurn  wyst. 

It  was  chosen  for  cheefe  •  to  cheftaren  in, 

And  many  merchauntes  f  er-in  '  fat  much  goode  aught. 

All  fe  Lordes  of  fe  lond  *  fat  large  was  founde,     1212 

Helde  it  hur  cheefe  holde  •  when  happe  camrae   of 

warre. 

Many  menne  of  f  e  easte  •  of  merchauntes  ynow, 
Wer  brought  to  f  e  borowe  •  too  biggen  &  sell. 
No  defaute  nas  founde  •  in  fat  faire  place,  1216 

On  euery  syde  f  e  sea  •  of-souhte  !  the  walles. 
Pausanias  a  pm  King  •  none  prester  ifounde, 
While  hym  lasted  his  lyfe  •  on  his  lond  riche, 
Let  build  fe  borowe  •  too  byde  therin,  1220 

When  hee  was  ferkid  with  fyght  •  of  his  fone  grimme. 
That  bolde  borou  Byzance  •  fat  buyld  was  to-rihtz^, 
Was  called  syn  in  fat  coste  •  Constantinoble 2, 
Of  Roome  a  riche  Emperour  •  fat  reigned  sythe,    1224 
Constantine  hee  was  cleped  •  a  Kny^t  well  alosed, 
The  sonne  of  saint  Elaine  •  f  e  seemelich  Ladie, 
That  weihes  3  worshipen  yet  *  for  hur  werk  hende, 
A  neew  name  too  fat  borowe  •  hee  named  fan,      1228 
And  called  it  Constantinople  •  fat  knowen  is  wyde. 
For  fat  stalworthe  sted  •  so  strong  was  founded, 
Philip  4  hoped  fat  holde  •  with  his  help  to  wynne, 
For  too  keepe  in  that  kith  •  cumlich  &  riche  1232 

All  hi*  tresour  ytryed  •  for,  in  tresoun  or  gyle, 
That  none  robbed  f  e  rink  •  of  f  ese  riche  thyngos. 
Philip  with  his  ferefull  folke  •  fast  hym  arayes, 
For  too  prouen  his  pride  •  at  fe  pns  borowe.          1236 


Many  men  from 
the  East  bought 
and  sold  there. 


Pausanias  built  it. 


[Fol.20.] 

It  was  afterwards 
called  Constan- 
tinople, 

from  Constantino 
son  of  Helen. 


Since  it  was  so 
strong,  Philip 
wanted  it 


to  keep  his 
treasures  in. 


1  MS.  of  souhte,  with  f  above  the  s,  and  also  saftie  above  the 
latter  part  of  souhte. 

3  MS.  Constantinople,  with  b  above  the  p ;  see  Werwolf,  1. 1425. 
3  MS.  wightes,  with  weihes  (marked]  above  it. 
«  MS.  For  Ph. ;  but  we  must  omit  this  second  For. 


218 


PHILIP    ATTACKS    BYZANTIUM. 


Forthe  rydes  f  e  Kyng  •  vriiJi  his  route  huge, 
Philip  besieges  it.  And  hath  f  e  citie  besett  •  on  sydes  aboute ; 

On  floode  &  on  faire  lond  "his  folke  gan  hee  sett,  1239 

3if  hee  myght  derie  vrii/i  dint  •  fat  dereworthe  place. 

This  seg  biseeged  so  *  f  e  citie  full  long, 

With  all  f  e  maine  f  «t  hee  myght  •  made  his  assautes, 

But  all  J>e  ludes  fat  hee  ladde  •  for  loue  ne  for  aie,1 

No  myght  apeire  fe  place  •  of  a  peny  brede.  1244 

For  fat  freelich  freke  '  as  I  fore  tolde, 

The  kid  Knight  Pausanias  •  fat  King  was  of  Spart, 

That  borowe  in  his  best  state  •  let  build  so  strong, 

That  all  f  e  wightes  in  f  e  worlde  •  it  wynne  ne  myght, 

But  }if  fode  lacked  •  too  ludes  within.  1249 


His  men  could 
not  take  it. 


It  was  too  strong 
for  them. 


[The  next  page  is  "blank,  and  the  rest  is  wanting.'] 


%*  For  an  account  of  the  continuation  of  the  story,  see 
the  note  at  the  end  of  the  "  Notes  to  Alisaunder,"  and  consult 
the  Preface. 


MS.  awe,  with  aie  above  it. 


219 


NOTES  TO  « WILLIAM  OF  PALERNE." 


P.  1.  The  first  quire  of  the  MS.  consisted  of  12  folios,  or  6  pairs  of 
'leaves.  Of  these  the  three  outer  pairs  have  been  slit  up  the  back,  which 
has  occasioned  the  loss  of  the  first  three  leaves,  and  of  the  tenth,  which 
was  once  joined  on  to  the  third.  The  eleventh  and  twelfth  are  fastened  in 
merely  by  their  edges.  The  part  omitted  by  the  loss  of  fol.  10  corresponds 
to  144  lines  of  the  French  text,  whilst  the  first  three  missing  leaves  corre- 
spond only  to  186  lines  of  the  same.  This  is  to  be  accounted  for,  most  pro- 
bably, by  the  fact  that  the  English  translator  did  very  much  as  he 
pleased,  in  some  places  following  his  original  closely,  in  others  condens- 
ing the  story,  and  in  others  again  giving  us  descriptions  and  explanations 
entirely,  as  it  would  appear,  of  his  own  invention.  See  note  to  1.  3. 

P.  2.  Of  the  later  French  prose  version  of  the  story  a  short  specimen 
may  suffice,  as  it  is  obviously  inferior  to  the  old  version  in  rime. 

The  following  corresponds  to  11.  18 — 32  on  pages  1  and  2  : — 

"  Et  nous  signifie  Ihistoire  au  premier  liure  que  iadis  fut  vn  Roy  de 
1  Cecille  due  de  Calabre  &  seigneur  de  la  pouille  nomine  Ebron  riche  /  puis- 
sant /  craint  &  redoute  sur  tous  princes  de  son  temps  /  tellement  que 
roy  :  Prince  :  ne  autre  neust  ose  sur  luy  entrependre  ne  guerroyer. 
Dequoy  aduerty  Lempereur  de  Grece  luy  donna  a  femme  &  espouse  sa 
fille :  tant  belle  sage  /  gente  &  plaine  de  vertus  :  &  deuote  enuers  dieu 
que  rien  plus.  Nommee  estoit  Felixe  plaine  de  toute  felicite.  Laqwelle  a 
cause  de  son  bon  bruict  &  religion  augmentoit  &  accroissoit  merueil- 
leusement  la  renowmee  du  roy  Ebron  son  mary  tant  que  toutes  gens 
prenoieut  plaisir  a  les  voir  &  acquerir  leur  beneuolence." — From  the 
Paris  edition,  printed  by  N.  Bonfons. 

A  considerable  portion  of  the  commencement  of  the  story  is  repeated 
in  the  English  version  near  the  end — (11.  4624 — 4806) — where  we 
find  Embrons,  Gloriande,  and  Acelone  named  Ebrouns,  Gloriauns,  and 
Achillones.  A  perusal  of  this  repetition  of  the  story  gives  us  a  very  fair 
idea  of  the  way  in  which  the  English  translator  must  have  begun  his 
poem.  Ebrouns  died  soon  after  the  affair  with  the  Werwolf,  and  his 
brother  too  (I  suppose),  for  he  is  never  again  spoken  of  as  alive.  Queen 
Felice  lived  to  a  good  old  age,  ending  her  days  in  happiness  and  peace. 
The  Werwolf  turns  out  to  be  the  Prince  Alphouns  or  Alphonse,  eldest  son 
of  the  king  of  Spain. 

P.  4,  1.  115.  Far  was  the  local  name  of  the  Strait  of  Messina,  called 


220  NOTES  (PAGES  6 — 9). 

Faro  di  Messina,  or  Far  de  Meschims  ;  thus  we  read  of  "  fluvium  mag- 
num, qui  dicitur  Le  Far  de  Mesclrines  "  in  Benedict  of  Peterborough  (ed^ 
Stubbs,  1867),  vol.  2,  p.  125  ;  and  again,  at  p.  138  of  the  same  work,  we 
find  the  following. — "  Et  est  notandum  quod  in  fluvio  illo  del  Far  de- 
Meschines  sunt  ilia  duo  pericula  maris  maxima,  scilicet  Silla  et  Caribdis. 
Quarum  una,  Silla,  est  ad  introitum  del  Farprope  la  Baignare,  et  altera, 
scilicet  Caribdis,  est  prope  exitum  del  Far"  Two  formidable  perils 
these,  for  the  Werwolf  to  encounter  on  his  way  ;  but  he  seems  to  have 
safely  avoided  them  ! 

P.  6, 1.  170.  The  exact  distance  of  this  forest  from  Rome  is  afterwards 
stated  to  be  seven  miles.  See  1.  4679. 

L.  1.  (English  text).  The  first  two  extant  lines  of  the  poem  represent 
the  concluding  phrase  of  the  extract  from  the  French — que  tot  li plaist  Ce 
que  la  beste  de  luifait.  The  next  line  in  the  French  text  is,  Uns  vachiers 
qui  vaches  gardoit,  &c. 

3 — 35.  These  thirty-three  lines  are  represented  in  the  French  text  by 
only  seven  short  lines,  which  run  thus  : — 

Uns  vachiers  qui  vaches  gardoit, 

qui  en  cele  forest  manoit, 

el  bois  estoit  avoec  sa  proie, 

.i.  chien  tenoit  en  sa  coroie, 

de  pasture  la  nuit  repaire  ; 

li  chiens  senti  lenfant  et  flaire, 

forment  abaie,  et  cil  le  hue,  &c. 

Hence  it  is  clear  that  the  excellent  lines,  20 — 31,  are  original  ;  and  they 
shew  that  our  own  author  was  a  man  of  very  considerable  poetical  power. 
So  again,  the  idea  in  1.  59 — 

"appeles  and  alle  Binges  •  J>at  childern  after  wilnen,"  — 
is  entirely  his  own,  and  proves  that  he  knew  how  to  add  a  graceful  touch 
to  the  poem  he  copied  from. 

P.  7, 1.  19.  towawe  was  explained  by  Sir  F.  Madden  as  meaning  to  the 
wall;  but  I  fancy  it  is  but  one  word.  See  To-wawe  in  the  Glossary. 

P.  9, 11.  80—93.  Having  shewn  (note  to  1.  3)  how  the  translator  has 
there  written  33  lines  where  his  original  had  but  7,  it  seems  right  to  give 
an  extract  shewing,  on  the  other  hand,  that  he  has  here  only  14  lines 
where  his  original  has  26,  some  of  them  being  very  curious. 

"  or  oies 

del  leu  qui  estoit  repairies 

de  la  viande  quala  enquerre 

par  les  vilains  et  par  la  terre  ; 

avoec  lenfant  tant  en  avoit 

que  a  grant  paine  laportoit. 

et  quant  lenfant  na  retrouve, 

onques  mis  lion,  de  mere  ne, 

ne  vist  a  beste  tel  duel  faire, 

qui  li  oist  uller  et  braire, 

et  les  pies  ensamble  detordre, 


NOTES  (PAGES  9,  10).  221 

et  la  terre  engouler  et  mordre, 

esrachier  lerbe  et  esgrater, 

et  Boi  couchier  et  relever  ; 

et  comme  il  socit  et  confont, 

et  querre  aval  et  querre  amont, 

et  les  larmes  fondre  des  ex, 

bien  peust  dire,  si  grans  dex 

ne  fu  par  nule  beste  fais. 

lors  ert  saillis  ens  el  markais, 

si  met  a  la  terre  le  nes, 

tout  si  com  lenfes  ert  ales 

desi  ou  le  mist  li  vilains. 

le  suit  li  leus  de  rage  plains  ; 

tant  la  sui  a  esperon, 

que  venus  est  a  la  maison." 

P.  9,  1.  80.  The  letter  I,  like  r,  is  one  that  sometimes  shifts  its  place 
in  a  word.  As  we  find  brid  for  bird,  so  we  find  wordle  for  worlde  ;  and 
-wolnk  may  be  intentionally  put  for  wlonk.  Cf.  carfti  for  crafti,  1.  3221. 

83.  no  neij  =  non  ei],  i.  e.  no  egg.     So  thi  narmes  for  thin  annes,  thy 
-arms,  in  1.  666. 

84.  grinne]*.  The  MS.  has  ginne]).    Sir  F.  Madden's  note  is — "  A  verb 
is  wanting  after  ginneth.      We  may,  probably,  supply  it  by  '  so  balfully 
he  ginneth  greue,'  or  by  some  similar  word."     But  this  rather  spoils  the 
rhythm  of  the  line.     Mr  Morris  says — "  it  seems  probable  that  ginne])  = 
howl,  utter,  send  out,  from  AS.  ginan,  to  open,  yawn"     This  is  some- 
what farfetched.      It  is  simpler  to  suppose  that  it  is  rniswritten  for 
.grinne},  which  is  not  an  inappropriate  word,  and  is  familiar  to  us  from 
the  expression  in  the  Psalms — to  grin  like  a  dog,  i.  e.  to  grin  with  rage 
and  spite.     But  it  is  still  more  to  the  point  to  observe  that  there  is,  as  it 
were,  some  authority  for  the  grinning  of  werwolves,  if  we  compare  with 
the  text  the  following  quotation — "  Jjai  grennede  for  gladschipe   euchan 
toward  o'Ser,  as  wode  wulues  J>et  fainen  of  hare  praie."     Morris  :  Early 
English  Homilies,  p.  277  (E.  E.  T.  S.  to  be  published  shortly).     Cf.  also 
•"The  Lyon  did  both  gape  and  gren."     Bp.  Percy's  Folio  MS.  Carle  of 
Carlile,  213. 

P.  10, 1.  121.  Between  this  line  and  the  next,  the  translator  has  missed 
a  portion  of  the  original,  viz.  the  lines  following  : 
"  de  mult  de  gens  estoit  loee  ; 
de  son  signer  avoit  .i.  fil, 
biau  damoisel,  franc  et  gentil ; 
Brandins  ot  non,  ce  dist  lescris." 

"  She  was  praised  by  many  people.  She  had  by  her  lord  one  son,  a 
fine  lad,  frank  and  gentle  ;  he  bore  the  name  of  Brandins  [or  Braundins], 
as  says  the  writing."  The  name  of  Brandins  being  so  very  like  Brande, 
the  translator  may  easily  have  lost  his  place,  and  omitted  the  passage 
unintentionally.  Braundins  is  mentioned  afterwards,  as  the  reader  will 
find. 


222  NOTES  (PAGES  n — ie). 

136.  a  noynemcnt  =  an  oynement,  i.e.  an  ointment,  unguent.  Cf.  note 
to  1.  83.  See  1. 139. 

141.  "  All  the  form  of  man  so  amiss  bad  she  shaped  (transformed).'* 
— Morris  ;  note  to  the  line  in  "  Specimens  of  Early  English." 

143,  144.  "  But  truly  he  never  after  possessed  any  other  resemblance 
that  belongs  to  human  nature,  but  (was)  a  wild  werwolf."  The  con- 
struction is  involved. 

P.  11,  11.  156 — 160.  Here  the  translator,  finding  a  tendency  to  re- 
petition in  his  original,  cuts  matters  short,  omitting  how  the  werwolf 
lived  two  years  in  Apulia,  and  grew  fierce  and  big  and  strong  ;  and  how, 
hearing  of  the  treachery  of  King  Embrouns'  brother,  he  resolved  to  steal 
away  William  in  the  manner  already  described.  It  is  needless  to  say 
that  11.  161 — 169  are  wholly  interpolated. 

P.  12.  1.  206.  There  is  something  amiss  with  this  line;  it  hardly 
makes  sense  as  it  stands.  In  1.  35  the  phrase  is  "  to  hold  to  baie  ; "  in 
1.  46  it  is  "  to  hold  at  a  baye."  So  here,  if  one  may  be  permitted  to 
change  "  &  "  into  "  at,"  we  have, 

to  haue  bruttenet  Jjat  bor  •  at  ]?e  abaie  se]?])en, 
i.e.  "  to  have  afterwards  destroyed  the  boar,  (when  held)  at  bay." 

P.  14, 1.  251.  In  the  original,  William  very  properly  grounds  his  re- 
fusal on  the  fact  that  he  does  not  know  who  the  emperor  is,  or  what  he 
wants  to  do. 

"  non  ferai,  sire,  et  por  coi, 
car  je  ne  sai  que  vos  voles, 
qui  vos  estes,  ne  que  queres ; 
ne  se  voles  riens,  se  bien  non, 
ja  ne  me  face  Dix  pardon  !  " 

261.  "  Read  wend"  and  again  elsewhere,  in  1.  5185.  This  elision  of 
a  final  d  in  such  words  as  hond,  lond,  sheld.  held,  &c.  is  by  no  means  un- 
common in  ancient  poetry,  and  arises  simply  from  pronunciation." — M. 
We  find  wend  in  1.  229. 

267 — 272.  Hereabouts  the  translator  condenses  his  original  with 
great  judgment.  The  "  churl's  "  grumbling,  as  there  given,  is  not  very 
interesting. 

P.  15,  11.  293—295.  The  French  merely  says, 
"  en  ceste  forest  le  trouvai, 

asses  pres  dont  nous  somes  ore." — 
The  man  who  could  turn  this  prosaic  statement  into 

"how  he  him  fond  in  Jjat  forest  •  jjere  fast  bi-side, 
clothed  in  comly  closing  'for  any  Jcinges  sone, 
vnder  an  holw  ok  '  tyurth  help  of  his  dogge  " — 

had  certainly  both  poetic  power  and  a  lively  imagination.  Indeed,  the 
translation  is  very  superior  to  the  original,  as  far  as  I  have  compared  the 
two  It  should  be  observed  that,  immediately  after  writing  the  two  linea 
printed  above  in  italics,  the  translator  boldly  omits  about  16  lines  of  the 
cowherd's  rather  prosy  story. 

P.  16,  1.  325.  Mr  Morris  explains/orders  by  making  it  equivalent  to 


NOTES    (PAGES    16 — 19). 


223 


fayre  dedes,  kind  actions.     That  this  is  incorrect  appears  from  the  fourth 
line  on  fol.  81  (1.  5182), 

"  of  al  ]?e  faire  fordede  '  jjat  he  hade  for  hem  wrou^t." 
The  expression  "fair  fair  deed "  would  be  unmeaning  tautology.     See 
the  glossary. 

329 — 343.  The  translator  here  follows  the  original  pretty  closely, 
giving,  however,  rather  the  sense  than  the  exact  words. 

P.  17,  1.  347.  "  This  is  not  an  error  of  the  scribe,  as  at  first  supposed, 
but  formed  by  the  same  analogy,  as  alizt  for  alighted,  comfort  for  comfort- 
ed, gerde  for  girded,  &c.     It  occurs  often  in  the  Wycliffite  versions  of  the 
Bible." — M.     The  very  word  comaund  (—  commanded)  occurs  in  11. 
2557  and  2564  of  the  alliterative  Romance  on  the  Destruction  of  Troy. 
P.  17,  1.  360 — 365.  Compare  the  original  text — 
"  Salues  inoi  Huet  le  nain, 
et  Hugenet  et  Aubelot, 
et  Martinet  le  fil  Heugot, 
et  Akarin  et  Crestien, 
et  Thumassin  le  fil  Paien, 
et  tos  mes  autres  compaignons  ;"  &c. 

In  1.  362,  Sir  F.  Madden  printed  dwery,  but  he  says,  "  This  word  is 
doubtful  in  the  MS.  and  may  either  be  read  owery  (as  printed  by  Harts- 
horne)  or  dvwrth.  It  seems  to  be  intended  to  represent  the  F.  dru,  drue, 
B.  Bret,  drew,  drud,  signifying  a  loved  friend  or  companion.  But  if  the 
final  letter  be  supposed  to  take  the  place  of  g,  it  may  then  mean  dwarf, 
from  S.  dwerg."" 

The  excellent  suggestion  at  the  end  of  this  notice  of  the  word  is  now 
seen  to  be  perfectly  right  ;  for  dwerth  (dwarf)  is  simply  the  translation 
of  le  nain,  Lat.  nanus ;  and  just  as  dwerlp  is  written  for  dwerg,  so  our 
author  continually  writes  Jmr]>  for  lpur$  —  through. 

For  kinnesman  in  1.  365,  I  should  propose  to  read  Thomasin  or 
Thomasyn.  It  would  improve  the  alliteration ,  of  which  there  is  none  in 
the  line  as  it  stands. 

P.  18, 1.  379.  She  would  have  slain  herself  by  refusing  food,  according 
to  the  French  text. 

"  jamais  sa  bouche  ne  mangast, 

se  cil  ne  la  reconfortast." 

388, 389.  These  "boars  and  bears,  many  horse  loads,  harts  and  hinds, 
and  many  other  beasts  "  have  all  grown  out  of  four  boars  only,  like  Fal- 
etaff's  "  men  in  buckram."  The  French  merely  says, 

de  iiij  senglers  quorent  pris. 
403.  held  =  eld,  age.     Compare 

et  meisme  de  tel  aage 
com  GmlMames  pooit  bien  estre. 

P.  19,  1.  423.     The  translator  here  misses  a  very  curious  statement, 
not  perhaps  understanding  the  allusion.     Nor  do  I. 
de  riches  dras  batus  a  or, 
coin  sil  fust  fix  roi  Alphinor, 


224  NOTES  (PAGES  19— 28). 

qui  sire  et  rois  est  de  hongrie, 
qui  si  est  de  tos  biens  plentive  ; 
ne  adonques  a  icel  tans 
navoit  mie  plus  de  .  iiii  .  ans 
et  norri  puis  .  vii .  ans  tos  plains. 

Here  we  not  only  learn,  once  more,  that  William  was  about  11  years  old 
when  arriving  at  the  emperor's  court  (see  p.  2,  1.  35,  and  p.  15,  1.  296), 
but  we  are  told  that  the  child  was  found  in  rich  apparel  adorned  with 
beaten  gold,  as  if  he  had  been  son  to  the  king  Alphinor,  who  is  lord  and 
king  of  Hungary,  (and)  who  is  so  abundantly  possessed  of  wealth. 
429 — 432.  The  French  text  has 

"  li  damoisiax,"  fait  lemperere, 
"  je  cuit,  par  le  baron  saint  Pere, 
quil  est  de  mult  tres  haute  gens  ; 
car  mult  par  est  et  biax,  et  gens,"  &c. 
P.  23,  1.  433.  The  French  text  continues  thus  :— 
et  souspirer  et  baaillier, 
et  refroidier  et  reschaufer, 
muer  color  et  tressuer, 
et  trambler  tot  en  itel  guiwe, 
comine  se  fievre  mestoit  prise,  &c. 
P.  24, 1.  455.  Compare 

dont  ai  je  tort  qui  en  blasmoie 
mon  cuer. 

460.  The  French  text  throws  no  light  on  the  true  reading.  The  am 
in  the  MS.  is  indistinct.  Sir  F.  Madden  suggested  "  nad  J)ei  ben,  i  may 
boute  bale,"  &c.,  which  I  have  adopted,  with  the  slight  change  of  may 
into  mijt. 

470.  We  should  have  expected  to  find  brouner  rather  than  broun. 
472.  There  seems  something  wrong  here.  I  had  proposed  to  read 
— "  to  the  harde  asente,"  i.  e.  assent  to  the  infliction.  Sir  F.  Madden 
considers  that  the  introduction  of  to  offends  the  ear,  and  proposes, 
but  with  diffidence,  "  the  hardere  asente,"  i.  e.  assent  with  difficulty. 
The  French  does  not  help  one,  being  much  more  concise  in  this  pas- 
sage. 

P.  25.  After  1.  500  we  should  expect  some  such  line  as, 

"  So  heried  ouer  al  •  and  so  hey}  holden." 

P.  28, 1. 576.  The  catchwords  are  written,  as  usual,  at  the  bottom  of 
the  last  page  of  each  quire. 

584.  The  MS.  has  "  he  kosin  ful  nere,"  instead  of  "  here  kosin." 
This  is  due  to  the  omission  of  the  small  flourish  which  is  used  as  a  con- 
traction for  er.  In  the  same  way  we  find  "  fide  "  instead  of  "  Jjidere  " 
in  1.  47,  and  elsewhere. 

592.  For  Idlest,  Sir  F.  Madden  has  leuest.  The  two  words  would  be 
exceedingly  alike,  for  the  scribe  makes  his  Ts  so  short  that  they  are  very 
little  longer  than  the  first  stroke  of  a  u.  But  over  the  second  downstroke 
(which  is  a  little  shorter  than  the  first)  a  long  fine  stroke  can  be  detected, 


NOTES  (PAGES  28 — 34).  225 

which  is  his  method  of  dotting  an  i.  Leuest  means  most  dearly,  and 
leliest  is  most  leally,  so  that  the  sense  is  much  the  same. 

600.  The  MS.  has  1.  601  before  600,  but  the  emendation  so  obvi- 
ously assists  the  sense,  that  it  hardly  requires  apology. 

P.  29,  1.  611.  For  this  line  and  the  preceding  the  MS.  has — 
"  &  ofter  J?an  ix.  times  •  hit  take]?  me  a-daye, 

&  ten  times  on  J>e  ni^t  •  nou^t  ones  lesse." 

I  have  taken  the  considerable  liberty  of  changing  the  places  of  nine  and 
ten,  because  the  alliteration  of  both  lines  is  thereby  improved.  The  ten  is 
as  well  suited  to  the  chief-letter  in  talce]>,  as  nine  is  to  the  initials 
of  ni$t  and  nouyt.  I  do  not  suppose  that  any  one  will  quarrel  with  the 
alteration  of  the  sense.  When  we  consider  that  these  numbers  were 
selected  for  no  other  reason  than  to  secure  alliteration  it  must  be  right  to 
place  them  where  they  best  fulfil  that  object. 

625.  For  "  cosynes  "  read  "  cosyne." — M.  This  suggestion  is  sup- 
ported by  11.  594  and  602.  But  there  is  no  harm  in  retaining  cosynes, 
as  it  is  used  to  denote  a  female  cousin,  as  in  Lancelot  of  the  Laik,  11. 1185, 
1270,  2287,  and  2802. 

P.  30,  1.  645.  I  suspect  that  "  answeres  "  ought  to  have  been  "  an- 
swered." Cf.  note  to  1.  1076. 

649.  The  MS.  has  merely  "  after  Jjrowe,"  which  makes  the  line  halt. 

P.  31,  1.  692.  The  MS.  having  here  the  letters  "  ihu  "  it  is  difficult  to 
write  the  word  otherwise  than  "  ihesu."  Otherwise  the  h  is  a  cor- 
ruption of  the  Greek  H  or  e,  so  that  "  iesu  "  would  be  a  truer  form.  On  the 
contraction  IHC  for  IHCOYC,  out  of  which  I.H.S.  has  been  made  (the  mark 
of  contraction  being  at  the  same  time  turned  into  a  small  cross),  see 
Hone's  Ancient  Mysteries  Described,  p.  282. 

698.  The  c  and  t  being  much  alike,  Metynt  may  be  meant  for  Metync, 
but  Metyng  is  better  spelling ;  see  1.  706. 

P.  32,  11.  712,  713.  The  construction  is — "  For  there  is  no  lord  in 
any  land,  enjoying  life — no  emperor  nor  renowned  king  known  to  be  so 
rich — that  he  is  not  of  sufficiently  low  birth  to  wed  that  seemly  lady." 

723.  The  word  houes  nowhere  occurs  again  in  the  poem,  the  usual 
form  being  bihoues.  The  alliteration  also  points  out  that  the  initial  bi 
is  really  required. 

P.  33,  1.  753.  "Read,  tok  him  til  a  sete." — M.  But  I  am  not  sure 
that  this  ingenious  emendation  is  altogether  required ;  tid  may  be  here, 
as  elsewhere,  another  spelling  of  tit  =  soon,  quickly. 

756.  Here  "  For  J>at"  seems  to  mean  "  for  whom"    See  1.  769. 

771.  The  MS.  seems  to  have  "  chanber"  in  685  and  here  ;  but  it  is 
probably  a  mere  slip  for  "  chauber,"  the  spelling  adopted  in  11.  755  and  769. 

P.  34,  1.  788.  "  This  is  not  so  much  an  error  as  an  abbreviation  be- 
fore an  infinitive,  which  has  occurred  to  me  often  in  other  MSS.  It 
should  properly  be  '/or  to  slake.'  Bryant  places  this,  very  unnecessarily, 
among  the  list  of  provincialisms." — M.  Forto  is  very  common  in  this 
MS.  See  1.  783  just  above.  Another  form  is  forte,  which  occurs  in  Piers 
Plowman,  Text  A.  vii.  277. 

15 


226  NOTES  (PAGES  34 — 46). 

793.  Sir  P.  Madden  prints  "  as  a  wo  werjj  wei^h,"  with  a  reference  to 
the  common  phrase  "  wo  worth."  The  MS.  may  also  be  read  "  wo  wery  " 
=  wo-weary,  weary  with  wo.  The  word  "  worj)  "  is  spelt  elsewhere  in 
the  MS.  with  an  o. 

799.  wher,  whether. 

804.  Go  we  is  a  form  of  invitation.  Of.  "  go  we  dyne,  go  we  "  in  Piers 
Plowman;  A.  prol.  105.  It  occurs  again  in  1.  1184. 

P.  35, 1.  824.  "  to  glade  with  uch  gome,"  i.  e.  to  gladden  each  man 
with.  See  note  to  1.  1825. 

843.  J?a  is  put  for  \at  frequently  in  the  present  poem.  See  11.  765 
and  903. 

P.  36,  1.  862.  whiles,  wiles.     So  also  we  find  where  for  were. 

P.  37,  1.  883.  "  So  completely  was  that  word  wound  in  to  his  heart.'* 
But  this  is  rather  a  forced  phrase,  and  it  would  have  been  quite  as  well 
if  the  scribe  had  written — 

so  witerly  was  Jjat  wi^h  •  wounded  to  herte, 
i.  e.  so  completely  was  that  man  wounded  to  the  heart. 

909.  Repeated,  nearly,  from  1.  433. 

P.  38,  1.  920.  Read  "  ther  ne  schal  wizth."— M.  I  copy  "no  wi3th  " 
from  1.  786. 

P.  39,  1.  964.  salerne.  "  The  city  of  Salerno  was  famous  from  very 
early  times  for  its  university  and  school  of  medicine,  which  was  pro- 
tected and  flourished  most  under  the  Norman  princes." — English  Cyclo- 
pedia. Cf.  Morte  Arthure,  ed.  Perry,  1.  4312. 

P.  41,1. 1021.  "  There  is  some  error  here,  apparently,  in  the  MS."— M. 
If  hete  is  to  stand,  it  may  mean  to  bid,  from  the  A.S.  hatan,  to  bid,  pro- 
mise. Then  the  line  means — "and  to  bid  her  then  to  play  as  she  pleased 
in  the  meanwhile."  Here  =  her.  Cf.  1.  1716. 

1028.     For  antresse  we  should  expect  to  find  "  aunteres." 

P.  42,  1.  1069.  "  Ouer  gart  gret  ost.  Gart  appears  here  to  be  an 
error  of  the  scribe,  and  should  be  omitted." — M.  Not  so  ;  over-gart 
means  excessively.  See  Stratmann. 

1075.  tyding  seems  to  be  the  plural  form.  See  1.  1134,  and  note  to  1. 
4877. 

1076.  Read  "a-greued." — M.     It  is  worth  noting  that  s  is  not  unfre- 
quently  written  for  d.     In  "  Pierce  the  Ploughmans  Crede,"  1.  6,  patres 
is  written  for  paired. 

P.  43, 1.  1093.  So,  too,  e  is  often  written  for  o  ;  we  should  expect  to 
find  onys  in  this  line,  for  in  alliterative  lines  the  vowels  used  as  rime- 
letters  are  generally  different  ones.  0  is  written  for  e  in  1.  818. 

P.  44, 1.  1127.  In  a  strong  light,  the  word  "  )>ider  "  can  be  traced  as 
having  occupied  the  apparently  blank  space.  It  was  probably  erased 
as  having  been  repeated  by  mistake.  Hence,  there  is  no  word  to  be 
supplied  here. 

P.  45,  1.  1163.  "  Jje  ferst  batayle"  means  "the  first  battalion  or  com- 
pany."  Cf.  1.  1152. 

P.  46, 1.  1190.  fresly  =fersly,  fiercely.     This  shifting  of  the  letter  r 


NOTES  (PAGES  46 — 5s).  227 

may  have  been  intentional.    See  "  The  Romans  of  Partenay  ;  "  ed.  Skeat, 
1866  ;  preface,  p.  xvi.     Cf.  note  to  1.  80. 

1196.  "Read  'grettest;'  and  also  in  1.   1365.     The      is  similarly 
elided  from  '  menskfullest,'  in  1.  1435."— M. 

1211.  The  word  so  is  required  for  the  alliteration,  and  it  improves 
the  sense.      What  so  =  howsoever,  and  occurs  elsewhere. 

P.  47, 1.  1222.  "  For  te  read  to." — M.    But  perhaps  te  may  stand.  See 
notes  to  1.  788  and  1093. 

1226.  In  the  "  Romans  of  Partenay,"/br  is  miswritten  for  fro  over 
and  over  again.     See  note  to  1.  1190. 

P.  48,  1.  1280.  The  initial  vn- belongs  to  loth  words,  i.e.  tmwounded 
or  «mtaken. 

P.  49, 1.  1299.  dede  depe,  caused  to  be  summoned.  Cf.  dedefecche  in 
1.  1303. 

1307.  We  must  read  hem,  not  he.  The  scribe  probably  forgot  to 
make  the  stroke  over  the  e. 

P.  50, 11. 1323-4.  I  have  ventured  to  transpose  these  lines,  as  they  are 
otherwise  devoid  of  sense.  The  MS.  has — 

"  wij)  alle  worchipe  &  wele  so  was  he  sone 

to  burye  him  as  out  to  be  swiche  a  burne  nobul ;  " 

but  it  is  clear  that  "  so  was  he  sone  "  (  =  so  was  he  soon  buried)  must 
end  the  sentence. 

1350.  The  sense  seems  to  require  the  insertion  of  be  or  ben — "  nadde 
be  fe  socour  of  o  seg,"  &c.  Cf.  1.  1358. 

P.  51,  1.  1358.  forsake,  deny.     Cf.  Gerrn.  versagen. 
P.  52,  1.  1401.  The  second  he  may  be  miswritten  for  hire  or  here,  i.  e. 
her.     Read  "  to  come,  here  granted."     Cf.  note  to  1.  584. 
1415.  but  thei  thre  one,  except  they  three  only. 

P.  53,  1. 1425.  "And  who,  by  descent,  was  then  keeper  of  Constanti- 
nople." But  the  relative  is  omitted,  probably  by  an  intentional  idiom. 

It  may  be  observed  here,  that  it  appears  by  the  sequel  that  the  Em- 
peror of  Greece  was  the  father  of  the  Queen  of  Palermo,  and  William's 
grandfather.  Also,  the  emperor's  son  was  called  Partendo  or  Partenedon, 
and  was,  of  course,  William's  uncle. 

1427.  The  ending  -and  in  grethand  is  doubtless  a  mere  mistake,  due 
to  the  word  glimerand  just  before. 

P.  54,  1.  1478.  Diting  is  simply  miswritten  for  tiding.  Such  an  in- 
version of  letters  is  occasionally  found  ;  thus,  in  the  Romance  of  Par- 
thenay,  aduertise  is  written  for  aduersite  (adversity)  more  than  once. 

1490.  mened  of,  bemoaned  by  ;  so  in  11.  1491,  1492,  we  find  biloued 
wty  meaning  beloved  by. 

P.  55,  1.  1504.  We  have  had  this  line  before.     See  1.  246. 
1516.  her  sche  sese  mty,  ere  she  might  cease. 
P.  57,  1.  1576.  This  line  has  occurred  before.     See  1.  1033. 
P.  58,  1.  1627.     Compare, 

"  In  middes  on  a  mountayne  •  at  midmorwe  tyde 

Was  piht  vp  a  pauilon  •  a  proud  for  jje  nones, 

15* 


228  NOTES  (PAGES  59 — 71). 

And  ten  jjousend  of  tentes  •  I-tilled  besydes,"  &c. 

Piers  Plowman,  Text  A.  ii.  42. 
"Tentes  and  pauilons  streght  and  pight  freshly." 

Romans  of  Partenay,  869. 

P.  59,  1.  1638.  hese,  ease.  Cf.  her,  ere,  1.  1516  ;  and  hende,  end,  1 
1369. 

1640.  Mornyng  out  mesure,  mourning  without  measure. 

1644.  The  line  would  sound  better,  if  born  and  was  were  to  change 
places,  as  in — 

"  Mai  bonne  Ipat  Tie  born  was  •  to  bodi  or  to  soule." 

Piers  Plowman,  A.  i.  60. 

1654.  Both  alliteration  and  sense  require  some  such  word  as  ivist, 
which  I  have  inserted. 

1662.  tent,  intent,  purpose,  design.  See  Tent  in  Halli well's  Dic- 
tionary. 

1664.  profiles  loue.  This  might  seern  to  mean  "for  love  of  the  pro- 
phet." But  this  would  be  quite  out  of  place,  and,  in  fact,  the  line  ex- 
presses the  same  idea  as  1.  3251  does. 

P.  60,  1. 1676.  The  negative  prefix  in  vnperceyued  affects  all  the  words 
following  it  in  the  same  line.  Cf.  note  to  1.  1280. 

1686.  For  this  story  of  dressing  up  in  bears'  skins,  see  S.  Baring 
Gould's  Book  of  Werewolves,  p.  36.  Egillson's  explanation  of  the 
O.Norse  word  berserkr  is,  one  who  wears  a  bear's  sarlc,  or  a  habit  made 
of  bear-skin  over  his  armour. 

P.  61,  1.  1723.  This  mention  of  bear-baiting  at  a  stake  is  worth  re- 
marking. Cf.  Havelok,  1.  1840. 

P.  62,  1.  1742.  "You  appear  so  furious  a  bear  for  a  man  to  look 
upon." 

P.  63, 1. 1777.  whiche.  We  should  have  expected  to  find  hou  used  here. 

1793.  This  is  William's  second  experience  of  a  "  dern  den  "  under  a 
"  holw  hok."  See  11.  17,  295. 

P.  64, 1.  1825.  to  Jcepe  wity  our  Hues,  to  preserve  our  lives  with.  Com- 
pare — 

"  0)>er  catell,  ojjer  clo)>  •  to  coveren  wij>  our  bones," 
(i.  e.  or  wealth,  or  cloth  to  cover  our  bones  with);  Pierce  the  Ploughman* 
Crede,  1.  116. 

P.  67,  1.  1944.  lenge^p  may  also  be  read  lengey.  But  the  true  read- 
ing is  probably  Ung\e,  i.  e.  lengthen,  as  in  1.  1040.  Cf.  1.  2345. 

P.  68,  1.  1957.  It  is  not  uncommon  in  MSS.  to  find  the  word  pope 
erased  or  struck  out.  See  The  Romans  of  Partenay,  p.  xviii. 

P.  69, 1.  1983.  For  at  sent  Sir  F.  Madden  would  read  a-senle,  as- 
sented. But  I  think  the  MS.  reading  may  stand  ;  at  sent  =  at  assent, 
i.  e.  that  she  was  an  assenting  party.  For  sent  =  assent,  see  Halliwell. 
See  also  1.  3017. 

P.  71, 1.  2073.  tret?  andtene.  "  This  expression  is  very  ancient,  and 
may  be  found  in  Oaedmon." — M.  See  Ccedmon;  ed.  Thorpe,  p.  137, 
1.  15. 


NOTES  (PAGES  73 — 97).  229 

P.  73,  1.  2127.  docrie,  cause  to  be  proclaimed.  So  in  1.  2145,  let  he 
sende  =  he  caused  to  be  sent.  See  1.  2174. 

P.  76, 1.  2236.  for-walked,  tired  out  with  waking  or  watching,  fatigued 
for  want  of  sleep. 

"  It  should  properly  be  for-waked  [as  in  1.  790],  but  this  variation  be- 
tween waked  and  walked  is  to  be  met  with  in  other  MSS." — M.  Com- 
pare 

"  And  sone  the  knycht  he  be  the  brydill  nom, 
Saying,  "  Awalk  !  It  is  no  tyme  to  slep." 

Lancelot  of  the  Laik,  1.  1048. 

P.  77,  1.  2254.  Perhaps  bi  should  be  be  ;  then  Ipat  him  bi  jiue  schold 
=  that  should  be  given  him. 

P.  82,  1.  2432.  helles.  "Bead  delles."—  M.  But  Mies  may  stand, 
as  being  the  plural  of  hel,  a  hill  ;  see  11.  2233,  2318. 

P.  83,  1.  2463.  I  think  the  rhythm,  alliteration,  and  sense  would  all 
be  improved  by  inserting  softeliche  : 

And  as  sone  as  he  hade  softeliche  '  sette  it  adowne. 

2471.  Perhaps  we  should  read  blemched,  i.  e.  blemished. 

P.  84,  1.  2501.     \at  he  bar,  that  which  he  bare. 

P.  85,  1.  2554.  semes.  Printed  serues  in  Sir  F.  Madden's  edition,  with 
the  note  : — "  This  word  is  doubtful,  and  looks  in  the  MS.  more  like  seines" 
But  the  word  is  semes,  in  which  the  first  stroke  of  the  m  is  not  quite 
joined  on  to  the  second.  There  is  no  stroke  above  it  to  show  that  it 
is  an  i  /  nor  do  I  read  the  word  as  selues.  Semes  means  horse-loads. 

P.  87,  1.  2626.  Here  is  a  direct  allusion  to  the  part  of  the  story  which 
is  lost  in  our  English  MS.  It  will  be  found  in  the  French  text,  on  p.  2. 

P.  89,  1.  2680.  leng^e.  Or  it  may  be  read  lengye,  which  would  be  per- 
haps better  in  this  place.  Lengye  (the  infinitive  mood,  like  wonye  in  1. 
3312)  is  to  dwell,  remain  ;  lenglpe  is  to  lengthen. 

P.  90,  1.  2707.  sece.  Printed  seie  in  Sir  F.  Madden's  edition  ;  but  a 
close  examination  of  the  MS.  shews  sece  to  be  the  word.  The  sense  is — 
"Now  cease  we  to  talk  about  the  besiegers  ;  "  of  which  "  Now  say  we  " 
is  the  exact  contrary. 

P.  91, 1.  2731.  greyt.  This  may  be  also  read  gre^t;  the  usual  form  is 
grey^ed.  Cf.  the  form  a-grelped  in  1.  52. 

P.  94,  1.  2845.  This  "  park  "  is  the  orchard  or  menagerie  already  men- 
tioned at  p.  3, 1.  65. 

2864.  drey.  This  may  also  be  read  dre]>,  as  printed  by  Sir  F.  Madden. 
I  have  printed  drey,  as  coming  closer  to  the  form  dreijh,  in  1.  2796. 

P.  95.  1.  2870.  The  sense  and  alliteration  both  require  the  word 
doubter  to  be  inserted;  see  1.  2875. 

2890.  bilaft,  remained  or  stayed  behind,  whilst  the  hart  fought  the 
beasts. 

P.  96,  1.  2900.  Sir  F.  Madden  prints  «  fat  he  gart,"  &c.;  but  the  MS. 
has  gate.  Gart  or  garte  makes  better  sense,  and  is  perhaps  right.  If  so, 
the  wrong  spelling  gate  was  copied  from  1.  2895. 

P.  97,  1.  2964.  J>e  kinges  sone,  i.  e.  to  the  king's  son. 


230  NOTES  (PAGES  98 — m). 

P.  98, 1.  2998.  So  also  we  have  hire  Ipoujt  in  1.  2873,  and  here 
four  lines  below  it. 

P.  99, 1.  3021.  busked  hem,  i.  e.  ])ei  busked  hem.  This  omission  of 
the  nominative  is  frequent,  and  no  doubt  intentional. 

P.  102,  1.  3105.  "  Probably  for  er  than  an  em."— M.  Er  than  would 
mean  ere  then,  or  sooner  then,  with  reference  to  the  er  following.  I 
almost  think  the  first  of  the  three  er's  is  best  omitted.  That  ar  is  mis- 
written  for  an,  there  can  be  no  doubt. 

3116.  Insert  the  metrical  dot  after  ben.  The  alliteration  follows  a 
rule  not  unusual  in  old  English,  that  each  half-line  is  alliterative  within 
itself.  Thus  :  — 

It  wenty  ]?at  we  ben  •  ri^t  swiche  as  it-selue. 

P.  105,  1.  3203.  Something  seems  wrong  here.  If  ne  be  inserted, 
and  fair  changed  into  fairre  (=  more  fair,  as  in  1.  4437)  it  would  be 
clearer.  Perhaps,  then,  we  should  read — 

alle  men  vpon  mold  •  ne  mi^t  sen  a  fairre  coupel,  &c. 

3220.  "  Something  seems  wanting  to  complete  the  sense,  such  as 
neuer  wol  i  haue.' "— M.     That  is,  we  should  read — 

ojjer  armes  al  my  lif  atteli  •  neuer  wol  i  haue — 

where  atteli  is  the  infinitive  mood.  If  the  line  is  to  stand  unaltered,  atteli 
must  be  put  for  attele  i;  i.e.  other  arms  all  my  life  I  design   never  (to) 
have.     Then  the  alliteration  would  fall  upon  the  vowels,  as  thus  : — 
o)>er  armes  al  my  lif  •  atteli  neuer  haue. 

3221.  It  is  difficult  to  tell  whether  or  not  the  spelling  carfti  was  in- 
tentional.     Carfty  appears  also  in  The  Romans  of  Partenay,  1.  5708  ;  and 
kerse  is  the  usual  old  spelling  of  cress. 

P.  106,  1.  3260.  The  word  to  seems  to  be  required,  and  the  line  then 
means,  "  for  it  had  advanced  to  night,  by  that  time."  To  fare  forth  is 
to  proceed,  advance,  go  onward,  go  forth  ;  see  11.  2730,  4450.  Cf.  also  1. 
3526. 

P.  107,  1.  3282.  For  Icnty  Jcud,  a  better  reading  would  be  Jcud  kni$t. 
The  sense  is  the  same  both  ways. 

3290.  For  is,  Sir  F.  Madden  prints  his.  Both  spellings  of  the  word 
occur  throughout  the  poem.  The  MS.  has  is  in  this  place. 

P.  108,  1.  3315.     One  of  the  now's  is  redundant. 

P.  110,  1.  3374.  "  A  word  seems  requisite  to  eke  out  the  line.  Per- 
haps we  might  read — '  Kniztes  with  sire  William  thanne  kauzt  god  hert.'  " 
— M.  Whilst  adopting  this  suggestion,  I  have  ventured  slightly  to  shift 
the  inserted  word.  It  now  occurs  to  me,  however,  that  the  real  error  is 
in  Jcaujt.  This,  being  plural,  should  be  kau^ten  or  kauffi  and  then  the 
flow  of  the  verse  would  be  preserved  without  any  insertion  of  an  extra 
word  at  all. 

P.  Ill,  1.  3399.  Perhaps  it  should  be,  "ac  spacly  as  )>e  spaynoles," 
&c. 

3404.  lorlde.  "  Read  lorde,  and  in  the  following  line  lord.  The  same 
singular  mistake  (if  it  be  one)  occurs  in  p.  142,  I.  24  [1.  3955  of  the  pre- 
sent edition]  for  lordschip.1" — M. 


NOTES  (PAGES  112 — 125).  231 

P.  112,  1.  3450.  "  The  illuminator  has  neglected  to  supply  the  capital 
letter  here." — M.  The  little  w  was  made,  as  usual,  by  the  scribe  for  his 
guidance.  Three  times  the  illuminator  has  mistaken  his  instructions, 
and  made  a  large  M  instead  of  a  W  ;  see  11.  4660,  4880,  4923. 

P.  113,  1.  3477.  The  word  omitted  is  no  doubt  knijt,  for  this  word  is 
considered  as  being  alliterative  to  crist ;  see  1.  3671. 

P.  114,  1.  3509.  The  werwolf  leapt  into  the  sea,  and  crossed  the 
Straits  of  Messina  to  the  opposite  shore.  This  part  of  the  story  gives  us 
some  idea  of  what  the  missing  part  of  the  English  translation  was  like. 
See  p.  4. 

P.  115,  1.  3530.  The  MS.  may  be  read  either  sthoure,  or  schoure  (as 
in  Sir  F.  Madden's  edition).  Sthoure  is,  I  think,  the  word  meant ;  for 
see  1.  3536.  The  scribe  uses  th  as  equivalent  to  the  sound  of  t  very  fre- 
quently ;  see  mijthi,  mtyh  in  11.  3549,  3557  just  below,  and  wijtthli  in  1. 
3581. 

3533.  We  should  perhaps  read,  "<£  conquered." 

P.  117,  1.  3597.   lot  me  worty,  let  me  be,  let  me  alone. 

So  in  Piers  Plowman,  ed.  Wright,  p.  12. 

For-thi  I  counseille  al  the  commune 
To  late  the  cat  worthe. 

P.  118,  1.  3639.  There  is  a  sort  of  gap  in  the  sense  which  seems  to 
point  to  the  loss  of  some  such  line  as 

Meyntened  so  his  men  •  Jjat  manly,  J>ei  sone. 

3646.  "The  final  words  of  this  and  the  two  preceding  lines  are  partly 
erased,  but  legible.  The  later  hand  has  endeavoured  to  restore  them." 
— M. 

P.  119,  1.  3665.  for  he,  sc.  the  king  of  Spain's  son.  The  change  of 
the  subject  is  rather  a  rapid  one. 

P.  120,  1.  3695.  "  A  verb  is  here  wanting  to  complete  the  sense." — 
M.  It  is  difficult  to  guess  the  missing  word ;  perhaps  the  sense  may  be 
bettered  by  reading, 

but  I  mijt  nou^t  awei  J>er-with  •  i-wisse,  sire,  &  treujje. 

3705.  J)e  saules.  Read  "  there  sanies." — M.  An  almost  better  reading 
would  be  "  here  saules,"  but  is  not  so  like  what  the  scribe  has  given  us. 

P.  121, 1.  3737.  man  wod.  Perhaps  an  error  for  wod  man. 

P.  122, 1.  3778.  torn,  opportunity.  Not  a  very  common  word.  It 
occurs,  however,  in  Piers  Plowman,  A.  ii.  160. 

I  have  no  torn  to  telle  •  Jje  tayl  J>at  hem  folwejj. 

P.  123,  1.  3789.  Iced.  This,  if  pronounced  issed,  seems  to  be  equiva- 
lent to  the  Scottish  yschit,  issued,  a  not  uncommon  word  in  Barbour's 
Brus. 

3799.  The  scribe's  spelling  of  Jmr&  was  clearly  influenced  by  his  know- 
ledge that  he  was  about  to  write  the  word  your  very  soon. 

3803.  &  I  mowe  come  bi,  if  I  can  get  hold  cf. 

P.  124,  1,  3825.  The  word  \at  should  be  omitted,  but  it  is  in  the  MS. 

3835.  In  hounde,  there  is  a  (superfluous)  stroke  over  the  n. 

P.  125, 1.  3883.  Ferde  is  the  reading  in  the  parallel  line,  3737. 


232  NOTES  (PAGES  125 — us). 

3884.  The  question  has  been  raised  whether  in  the  phrase  in  Judges 
ix.  53 — "  all  to-brake  his  skull  " — we  ought  to  join  the  to  to  the  word  all 
or  to  the  verb  brake.  It  seems  certain  that,  originally,  the  to  was  a  part 
of  the  verb,  and  separate  from  all,  and  the  present  line  is  an  excellent 
evidence  of  this.  It  seems  equally  certain  that,  in  the  sixteenth  century, 
the  prefix  to  was  not  very  well  understood,  and  the  result  was  that  ail-to 
was  considered  as  a  short  way  of  writing  altogether.  See  "The  Bible 
Wordbook,"  by  J.  Eastwood  and  W.  Aldis  Wright.  Those  who  would 
consider  the  to  as  belonging  to  al,  and  who  consider  alto  as  properly  only 
one  word,  must  go  on  to  explain  what  is  meant  by  alfor,  albi,  and  ala  ; 
for  we  find  in  this  very  poem  the  prefixes /or-,  U-,  and  a-  also  preceded 
by  the  word  al  See  11.  790,  793,  661,  872. 

P.  127,  1.  3925.  The  first  "  &  "  seems  redundant. 

P.  130, 1.  4042.  &  fyouyt,  i.  e.  and  he  thought,  an  example  of  the  omis- 
sion of  the  pronoun,  a  license  in  which  the  author  indulges  rather  freely. 

4055.  dared,  became  motionless  as  if  stupefied.  The  word  occurs  in 
Chaucer. 

P.  131,  1.  4061.  any-skines,  written  any  skines  in  the  MS.  I  have 
preserved  this  curious  spelling,  because  I  have  observed  it  elsewhere, 
viz.,  in  one  of  the  Trinity  MSS.  of  Piers  Plowman.  See  the  foot-note  to 
P.  PI.  A.  ii.  26,  in  my  edition,  and  also  the  foot-note  to  Passus  x.  2.  In 
the  latter  place,  foure  skenis,  foure  skynnes  are  various  readings  forfoure 
kunne.  In  fact,  any  skines  is  only  another  way  of  writing  anys  kines. 
"  Such  forms  as  alleskynnes  (all  kinds  of),  nosJcynnes  (no  kind  of),  are  in- 
stances of  the  genitives  alles  (of  all),  and  nones  (of  none)."  Morris  : 
Specimens  of  Early  English,  p.  xxiv.  I  would  submit,  however,  that 
alleskynnes,  noskynnes,  are  here  wrongly  translated  ;  the  former  means, 
of  every  kind,  the  latter,  of  no  kind,  just  as  any  skines  means  of  any  kind, 
and  foure  skynnes  means  of  four  kinds.  The  phrase  in  Piers  Plowman, 
"  of  foure  kunne  Jjinges,"  means,  of  things  of  four  kinds. 

4065.  Probably  an  error  for — "  jjattow  ne  wost."  The  sense  is,  "  It 
can't  be  that  you  don't  know." 

P.  132, 1.  4104.  That  chaunged  is  the  right  reading  is  rendered  pro- 
bable not  only  by  the  recurrence  of  the  word  in  1.  4500,  but  by  the  use 
of  the  equivalent  wordforschop  in  1.  4394. 

P.  133, 1.  4150.  Probably  we  should  read,  "  ne  may  zou  deliuere." — M. 
This  is  a  slightly  bolder  alteration,  but  a  considerable  improvement. 

P.  137, 1.  4278.  "  Se}e  in  MS.  Bead  '  sothli  for  sothe.'  A  pleonasm 
arising  from  some  blunder  of  the  scribe." — M. 

P.  140, 1.  4379.  "  A  slight  liberty  has  been  taken  here,  and  also  [in 
lines  2323,  3942].  In  all  three  cases  the  word  is  written  in  the  MS. 
'  wirthe  '  or  '  worthe,'  but  the  correction  is  so  obvious,  and  the  differ- 
ence so  small  between  c  and  t  [in  the  MS.],  as  to  warrant  the  altera- 
tion."— M.  It  may  be  added  that  sc  is  almost  always  written  like  st. 

P.  141,  1.  4418.  his  grefforgaf,  gave  away,  i.  e.  laid  aside  his  anger. 
Gref  is  sometimes  anger  caused  by  vexation,  as  in  Alisaunder,  1.  264. 

P.  145,  1.  4551.  knew  his  sone  sone,  knew  his  son  soon. 


NOTES  (PAGES  ue — 152).  233 

P.  146, 1.  4577.  "  Therefore,  0  King  of  heaven,  praised  should  you 
be,  who  have  lent  thee  (Alphonse)  thy  life,  to  deliver  us  all."  It  is  rather 
an  awkward  sentence  ;  but  it  is  usual,  in  Early  English,  to  find  "  hajj  " 
put  for  "  hast "  in  a  sentence  thus  framed. 

P.  147,  1.  4632.  boute  bot,  without  a  boat  ?  The  usual  meaning  of 
boute  bot  is  "  without  remedy,"  but  this  would  be  unsuitable  here,  for  we 
have  "  boute  hurt  oj>er  harm  "  in  the  next  line.  The  werwolf  had  to 
swim  across  the  Straits  of  Messina,  and  doubtless  found  it  a  hard  task,  for 
he  took  care  to  secure  a  boat  for  the  return  journey.  See  1.  2729.  In 
1.  567  we  have  "  boute  mast,"  and  in  1.  568  "  boute  anker  or  ore."  More 
probably,  however,  boute  bot=  boute  bod,  without  delay,  as  in  1.  149. 

P.  148, 1.  4662.  ioye.  Sir  F.  Madden  prints  "  fo]>e,"  with  a  note  that 
we  should  read  "  ioye."  A  close  inspection  of  the  MS.  shews  that  the 
first  letter  is  really  an  i,  with  a  blur  to  the  right  of  it  making  it  look 
like  a  long  s.  The  letters  y  and  J?  are  made  alike,  throughout  the  MS. 

4666.  most,  i.  e.  most  glad. 

P.  150,  1.  4716.  god  vnder  god,  wealth  under  God  ;  the  author  uses 
under  God  or  under  heuene  to  signify  throughout  the  world.  The  expres- 
sion is  repeated  in  1.  4732,  and  in  1.  4730  we  find  "  worldes  god  "  for 
worldly  wealth. 

4717.  Read  "  it  ne  schal  redili." — M.     After  this  line  occur  the  lines, 
"  &  fyerto  hei^eli  am  i  holde  •  for  holliche  i  knowe, 

Jjat  alle  J>i  sawes  be  so]?  •  fiat  jjou  seidest  ere." 

These  lines  are  out  of  place  here,  and  occur  in  their  proper  places  lower 
down.  The  repetition  of  them,  however,  teaches  us  somewhat ;  for  it 
affords  a  most  certain  proof  of  the  unsettled  state  of  orthography.  We 
here  find  the  same  scribe,  in  re-writing  the  same  lines,  altering  heiyeli 
and  holliche  into  hei^eliche  and  holli,  so  that  he  considered  the  endings  -li 
and  -liche  as  perfectly  interchangeable,  and  it  was  a  mere  chance  which 
of  the  two  he  adopted.  We  also  find  seidest  altered  to  saidest,  shewing 
the  equivalence  of  the  ei  and  ai  sounds.  There  is  also  a  difference  of 
reading  ;  for  "  ]ji  sawes  "  reappears  as  "  Ipe  sawes."  Lastly,  the  change 
of  "holde"  into  "hold"  shews  the  uncertainty  attending  the  use  by 
scribes  of  the  final  e. 

4730.  woldest  ^erne,  wouldst  yearn  for,  wouldst  desire  to  have. 

P.  151. 1.  4736.  a  mite  wor^.  Just  below,  1.  4754,  the  phrase  used  is 
a  bene  wor\.  Compare 

Schal  no  deuel  at  his  dejj-day  •  deren  him  worfy  a  myte. 

Piers  Plowman,  A.  viii.  54. 
A  straw  for  alle  swevenes  signifiaunce  ! 
God  help  me  so,  I  counte  hem  nought  a  bene. 

Chaucer,  Troil.  &  Cress,  bk.  v.  st.  52. 

So  we  find,  in  the  Knightes  Tale — the  mountance  of  a  tare  (1.  712) — 
nought  worth  a  myte  (1.  700)  ;  in  the  Milleres  Tale — nat  a  kers  (1. 
568)  ;  and  in  the  Pardoneres  Tale — the  mountance  of  a  corn  of  ivhete 
(1.  401). 

P.  152,  1.  4785.  wil  our  lord  wold,  whilst  our  Lord  would  (permit  us 


234  NOTES  (PAGES  153 — 159). 

to  live).  This  is  repeated  in  1.  4802.  In  the  present  line,  however,  wil 
our  lord  wiliest  would  be  a  better  reading. 

P.  153,  11.  4797,  4798.  "  All  the  nobles  immediately  prayed  for  them 
busily,  (on  the  understanding)  that  they  must  by  all  means  amend  their 
trespass,"  viz.,  by  a  life  of  penitence.  Such  an  ellipsis  is  not  uncommon  ; 
in  1.  4800,  however,  the  introduction  of  the  word  so  before  that  makes 
the  sense  clearer. 

P.  154,  1.  4827.  This  line  is  repeated,  slightly  varied,  at  1.  4888. 

P.  155,  1.  4877.  tiding.  Both  this  and  tidinges  are  plural  forms.  Cf. 
1. 1075. 

P.  159, 1.  5004.  bemleem  ;  so  in  MS.  Read  "  beseem,"  i.  e.  Bethlehem. 

5013.  hurtel.  "  This  term  is  used  in  Chaucer  twice,  Cant.  T.  2618,  4717 
[ed.  Tyrwhitt],  arid   in  the  Wycliffite  versions  of  the  Bible  is  far  from 
uncommon.     We  find  it  also  inserted  in  the  Prompt.  Parv.    '  Hurtelyne, 
as  too  thynges  togedur,  impingo,  collide  ; '  and,  at  a  more  recent  period, 
Shakspeare  introduces  it  into  his  Julius  Cassar,  Act  ii.,  sc.  2. 

'  The  noise  of  battle  hurtled  in  the  air, 
Horses  did  neigh,  and  dying  men  did  groan/ 

The  line  in  which  this  word  occurs  in  our  Romance  is,  perhaps,  the 
finest  of  the  whole  poem,  and  not  surpassed  by  the  more  polished  diction 
of  the  Dramatist." — M. 

I  would  add  that  hurlest  is  a  reading  adopted  for  hurtlest  in  later 
editions  of  Cant.  Tales,  in  1.  4717.  But  we  find  in  Chaucer  the  word  in 
another  place,  "  And  hertely  they  hurtelen  al  attones." 

Legend  of  Good  Women;  Cleopatra,  1.  59. 

It  occurs  twice  in  the  "  Romans  of  Partenay  ; "  see  the  glossary.  It 
is  used  with  great  effect  by  Gray — 

Iron  sleet  of  arrowy  shower 
Hurtles  in  the  darkened  air  ; — 
though  he  obviously  copies  here  from  Shakespeare. 

5014.  desgeli.  I  let  this  word  stand,  though  I  believe  it  should  be 
desgesli,  or,  better  still,  desgisli,  disgisli,  or  disgisili,  for  which  latter  form 
see  1.  485.     It  is  best  explained  by  a  passage  from  Chaucer's  Persones 
Tale — "  precious  clothing  is  coupable  for  ...  his  straungeness  and  dis- 
gisines,"  &c.     Hence  disgisili  means  strangely,  extraordinarily,  unusually, 
inordinately,  and  is  equivalent    etymologically   to  disguisedly ;   but   it 
should  be  noted  that  the  meaning  of  the  Old  French  desguiser  is  rather  to 
alter  than  to  conceal  the  outward  appearance  of  a  thing,  whence  desguiser 
is  often  used  in  the  sense  of  to  trim,  deck  out,  or  adorn.     In  the  present 
case,  the  sense  is,  that  "  there  was  so  strange  and  unusual  a  din,  that  all 
the  earth  quaked."      In  1.  485,  Meliors  laments  that  she  would,  if  she 
married  beneath  her,  "  be  extraordinarily  disgraced."     We  must  not  con- 
nect this  with  the  A.  S.  digellice,  secretly,  for  this  would  contradict  the 
sense  in  both  places.     The  din  (1.  5014)  was  not  secret,  but  very  mani- 
fest;  and  in  1.  485  Meliors  is  expressing  that  it  is  open  and  public  and 
unusual  disgrace  that  she  is  afraid  of,  and  that  if  she  could  keep  the  mat- 
ter secret,  all  would  be  well. 


NOTES  (PAGES  160 — 175).  235 

P.  160.  1.  5035.  I  fail  to  discover  any  alliteration  in  this  line. 

P.  167. 1.  5262.  vnderston  is  probably  the  provincial  pronunciation  of 
vnderstonde ;  thus,  and  only  thus,  can  we  explain  the  curious  reading 
vndersto  in  1.  5533  (which  is  very  clearly  written),  where  the  scribe  has 
forgotten  to  make  a  stroke  over  the  o  to  denote  the  n.  Cf.  note  to  1. 261. 

P.  168.  1.  5300.  For  i  kneio  we  should  probably  read  i  know.  The 
letters  e  and  o  are  often  miswritten,  one  for  the  other. 

5322.  Jjo.  Read  "]je." — M.  But  I  do  not  feel  convinced  that  the 
alteration  is  needed.  As  it  stands,  we  may  translate  it — "  Readily  to- 
wards Rome  then,  by  the  direct  way  ;  "  taking  ri^tes  gates  as  an  adverbial 
expression.  There  is  some  difficulty  about  rtyes  ;  see  the  glossary. 

P.  170.  1.  5378.  "  Anon  then  in  haste  he  bad  (men)  cause  his 
steward  to  come  to  him,"  &c.  Come  sometimes  means  become  ;  this  might 
suggest  the  sense,  that  William  made  the  cowherd  his  steward,  but  the 
latter  explanation  is  disposed  of  by  1.  5391. 

P.  172.  1.  5437.    This  curious   expression,  "the  emperor's   mother 
William,"  meaning  "the   emperor  William's  mother,"  deserves  notice. 
It  is  the  usual  old  English  phrase.     Thus,  in  Chaucer's  Squyeres  Tale,  we 
find 
"  Or  elles  it  was  the  GreJces  Tiors  Sinon  "  (C.  T.  ed.  Tyrwhitt ;  1.  10523). 

That  is,  "  or  else  it  was  Sinon  the  Greek's  horse."  In  my  opinion,  it 
was  very  injudicious  of  later  editors  to  substitute  GreJcissch  for  GreJces  ; 
for,  with  the  latter  reading,  the  line  can  only  mean — "  or  else  it  was  the 
Greek  horse,  Sinon,"  which  makes  out  Sinon  to  be  the  name  of  the  horse  I 

P.  174. 1.  5516.  "  That  had  had  many  hard  haps  theretofore,  and  (had) 
been  once  in  great  trouble  and  misfortune."  The  repetition  of  hadde  is 
quite  right. 

P.  175.  1.  5536.  3^7,  give  ;  like  gif  in  1.  5539  below.  It  is  not  the 
conjunction  yf  (if)  in  this  instance. 


236 


NOTES  TO   "ALISAUNDER." 


[N.B.— In  the  following  notes,  by  the  Greek  text  is  meant  the  text  of  MS.  No. 
113  (du  supplement)  of  the  Bibliotheque  du  Roi,  a  long  extract  from  which  is  given 
in  "  Notices  des  Manuscrits  de  la  Bibliotheque  da  Roi,"  torn.  xiii.  p.  219,  edited  by 
M.  Berger  de  Xivrey.  By  the  French  text  is  meant  the  text  of  MS.  Bibl.  du  Roi,  No. 


7517,  quoted  in  the  same  volume.  By  the  Latin  text  (unless  otherwise  specified)  is 
meant  the  version  contained  in  "  Historia  Alexandri  magni  regis  Macedonie  de 
preliis,"  printed,  according  to  the  colophon,  in  A.D.  1490.] 

P.  177,  1.  9.  one,  i.e.  Alexander  ;  though  in  1.  11  the  poet  begins  to 
tell  first  of  all  about  his  grandfather  Amyntas. 

21.  Twoo  sonnes.  Rather  three,  viz.  Alexander,  Perdiccas,  and  Philip. 
Perdiccas,  like  Alexander,  was  put  to  death  by  the  wiles  of  Eurydice, 
according  to  MS.  C.C.C.  219. 

22.  The  variations  of  spelling  are  due  to  the  fact  that  the  copyist  has 
evidently  made  alterations  of  his  own  in  order  to  make  the  significations 
plainer.     Thus  alder  (which  occurs  again  in  1.  27)  is  explained  by  elder. 
It  is  very  fortunate  that  he  has  been  at  the  pains  to  preserve  the  old 
spelling.     It  must  be  noted  that  he  sometimes  places  the  old  spelling, 
sometimes  the  modernized  spelling,  in  the  text.    Thus,  in  1. 1132,  we  find 
Dupe  altered  to  deepe,  but  in  1.  1156  he  writes  deepe,  with  the  old  spelling 
dupe  above  it.     I  have  therefore,  in  all  cases,  adopted  that  spelling 
which  seems  rightly  to  belong  to  the  original  MS. 

P.  178.  1.  28.  LI.  4651  and  5226  of  the  Werwolf  resemble  this  one. 

30.  "  Nee  multo  post  alexander,  insidiis  eurydicis  matn's  appetitws 
occumbit.  Cui  amintas,  in  scelere  deprehensse,  propter  communes 
liberos,  ignarus  eisdem  quandoque  existiosam  fore,  pepercerat."  MS. 
C.C.C.  219,  fol.  2.  See  also  Orosius,  ed.  Havercamp,  1738,  p.  168. 

33.  In  this  line,  the  cross-stroke  to  the  initial  D  is  made  in  the  MS., 
showing  plainly  that  the  letter  D  was  used  in  the  original.  In  other 
places,  the  copyist  has  written  the  small  letter  ft  without  the  cross-stroke, 
as  in  1.  41,  and  elsewhere,  and  I  have  not  always  noticed  this ;  for  the 
omission  of  the  cross-stroke  is  very  common  even  in  a  thirteenth  century 
MS. ;  see  Mr  Morris's  Genesis  and  Exodus  (E.  E.  T.  S.,  1865).  It  may 
be  added  that  the  copyist  has  two  ways  of  making  a  d ;  one  with  a  long 
up-stroke,  i.e.  ft  without  the  cross-stroke,  and  the  other  with  the  up-stroke 
curled  round  to  the  left  and  brought  down  again.  Only  the  former  of 


I 


NOTES  (PAGES  ns — 182). 


237 


these  is  used  where  ^  is  meant.  This  is  a  convenient  place  for  observing 
that  there  is  a  second  copy  (inferior  and  with  several  omissions)  of  the 
first  43  lines,  at  a  later  page  of  the  MS.,  viz.  on  fol.  16  b.  The  following 
variations  may  be  noted : — In  1.  2,  for  thinken,  the  second  copy  has 
thynken,  with  an  e  over  the  y.  No  doubt  the  original  had  thenken  (the 
right  spelling,  see  Werwolf,  1.  711),  and  it  was  rendered  by  thinken  or 
thynken.  In  1.  3,  for  whe^er,  another  reading  is  outher.  In  1.  4,  for  loose 
the  second  copy  has  lose,  which  is  better ;  I  am  convinced  that  the 
original  could  not  have  had  so  many  double  vowels  as  abound  in  this  copy ; 
thus  yee  and  oojjer  in  1.  1  should  rather  have  been  ye  and  ofyer.  In  1.38, 
for  her  the  second  copy  has  the  more  usual  spelling  hur. 

44.  In  the  Werwolf,  we  find  the  same  method  of  concluding  a  para- 
graph, and  nearly  in  the  same  words  ;  see  11.  5396,  5466. 

47.  "  Igitur  alexander,  inter  prima  initia  regni,  bellum  ab  illiriis, 
pacta  mercede  et  philippo  fraZre  dato  obside,  redemit.  Interiecto  quoque 
tempore,  per  eundew  obsidem  cum  thebanis  grafo'am  pacis  reconciliat. 
Quae  res  philippo  maxima  incrementa  egregias  indolis  dedit.  Si  quidem 
thebis  triennio  obses  habitus,  pmna  puericise  rudimewta  in  urbe  seueritatis 
antiquse  et  in  domo  epaminondas  surami  et  philosophi  et  imperatoris  de- 
posuit."  MS.  C.C.C.  219,  fol.  2.  And  see  Orosius,  as  above. 

P.  180, 11.  87,  88.  hym  betides,  For  hee.  The  MS.  has  Jiee  betides, 
for  hym,  with  ee  over  ym  in  the  latter  word.  The  reading  given  in  the 
text  is  the  only  one  that  can  be  grammatically  correct. 

90.  "  Primum  bellum  cum  Atheniensibus  gessit." — Orosius. 

102.   This  date  is  from  Orosius.     It  is  right  within  a  few  years. 

109.  Assyriens,  i.  e.  Illyrians.  "  Post  hos,  bello  iu  illiriis  (sic)  trans- 
late, multa  milia  hostium  caadit ;  urbera  nobilissimara  larisseam  capit." 
MS.  C.C.C.  219,  fol.  2  b.  So  in  Orosius;  and  indeed,  the  Assyrians  are 
out  of  the  question.  The  reader  must  expect  to  find  the  greatest  con- 
fusion in  the  proper  names ;  in  one  of  the  French  copies,  for  instance, 
Artaxerxes  is  called  Arressessers.  In  1.  130,  we  have  Larissa  called  the 
city  of  the  Assyrians. 

P.  181,  11.  119,  131.  In  both  places,  the  e  in  Larissea  or  Larisse  has 
a  slight  tag  below  it.  In  Latin  MSS.,  this  denotes  ce,  arid  we  thus  have 
another  slight  indication  that  our  author  translated  from  the  Latin.  Cf. 
note  to  1.  255. 

124.  Over  deraine  is  written,  as  a  gloss,  the  later  spelling  deraigne. 
One  or  two  quite  unimportant  variations  of  this  kind  I  have  omitted  to 
mention. 

133.  "  Inde  Thessaliam  non  magis  amore  victoriae,  quam  ambitione 
habendorum  equitum  Thessalorum,  quorum  robur  ut  exercitui  suo  ad- 
misceret,  invasit." — Orosius,  as  above. 

135.  The  MS.  has  see,  with  swee  or  swa  above  it,  hardly  legible.  In 
1.  299,  there  is  a  similar  difficult  word.  Considering  both  passages,  the 
word  blundered  over  is  probably  sese,  sesen.  Cf.  Seseden  in  1.  234. 

P.  182, 11. 155 — 170.  Orosius  simply  says,  "Igitur  victis  Atheniensibus, 
subjectisque  Thessalis  ;"  and  in  MS.  C.C.C.  219  we  merely  find,  "  Quibus 


238  NOTES  (PAGES  183 — iss). 

rebus  feliciter  prouenientibws."  That  the  poet  has  spun  this  out  into  16 
lines  seems  to  me  highly  probable,  and  it  will  therefore  be  but  a  vain 
search  to  look  for  an  original  that  may  agree  with  his  translation  more 
closely.  Just  below  we  have  22  lines,  178 — 199,  which  seem  to  me 
evidently  his  own,  every  word  of  them. 

172.  Arisba  or  Erubel.  In  his  edition  of  Orosius,  Havercamp  adopts 
the  spelling  Aruba,  the  common  reading  being  Eurucha;  we  also  find 
the  spellings  Amelia,  Erybba,  Arymba,  &c.  Compare — "  Olimpiadew, 
neoptolemi  regis  molossorum  filiam,  uxorera  ducit,  conciliante  nuptias 
fraZre  patrueli  auctore  uirginis  sarraba  rege  molossorwm,  qui  sororem. 
olimpiadis  troadam  in  matn'monio  habebat ;  quas  causa  illi  exitium  (sic) 
maloruwqwe  omm'tim  fuit."  MS.  C.C.C.  219,  foL  3. 

P.  183,  1.  199.  Cf.  Werwolf,  1.  671. 

P.  184,  1.  234.  Seseden  begins  with  a  double  long  s.  Wherever  I 
have  printed  ss,  it  is  to  denote  a  character  resembling  a  German  sz. 

240.  "  (Aruba)  privatus  in  exilio  consenuit." — Orosius. 

P.  185,  1.  248.  hampred  is  doubtless  the  word  wanted.  It  occurs  in 
the  Werwolf,  1.  1115,  &c. 

255.  Comothonham.     Several  MSS.  of  Orosius  have  "  Cu.  mothonam 
urbem  oppugnaret,"  &c.  ;  where  Cu  means  Cum.     Hence  the  strange 
word  Comothonham,  repeated  in  1.  310;  and  hence,  also,  a  clear  proof  that 
the  poet  translated  from  a  Latin  original,  as  he  himself  asserts  in  1.  458. 

256.  The  MS.  has  "  holde  menne  J>ere,"  but  the  alliteration  shows 
that  we  must  read  bolde  ;  holde  belongs  to  the  next  line,  which  see. 

264.  greefe,  i.e.  vexation,  anger  ;  cf.  Werwolf,  4418. 

268.  areblast.  Bather,  read  arblast,  which  the  copyist  has  turned 
into  aireblast,  i.e.  air-blast! 

P.  186,  1.  284.  merken.  Probably  not  an  error  for  maken,  as  might  be 
thought ;  for  the  word  occurs  again  in  1.  932.  See  the  Glossary. 

291.  flocke.    Possibly   an  error  for  folke ;   yet  flocke  makes  good 
sense.     Sonndes  or  sound.es  is  ho  doubt  put  for  sondes,  messengers. 

292.  The  MS.  reading  "  Gamws  "  must  be  a  mistake  for  Gainws  or 
Ganws  ;  see  Gainus  in  the  Glossary. 

295.  cournales;  see  Werwolf,  1.  2858. 

299.  The  MS.  lias  seene  or  seeue,  with  i  over  the  ee.  The  right  word 
is  perhaps  sesen,  written  sesene,  and  read  as  seiene  by  the  copyist. 

302.  Here  and  elsewhere  many  a  is  written  "  many  a,"  with  the  a 
above  the  line,  as  if  it  did  not  belong  to  the  phrase  ;  but  see  Werwolf, 
11.  3410,  3411.  A  large  portion  of  the  description  of  this  siege  of  Methone 
is  doubtless  of  the  poet's  own  invention. 

P.  187, 1.  329.  The  outline  of  the  story  of  these  wars  is  given  in  Orosius. 

P.  188,  1.  347.  wonde  is  no  doubt  the  right  word,  wende  being  an 
ignorant  gloss  upon  it,  subversive  of  the  sense. 

349.  MS.  has  strane,  or  straue.     Perhaps  it  means, 

"  Steeds,  stirred  from  the  place,  strain  under  men." 
Otherwise,  for  strane  read  stronge,  and  the  sense  is, 

"  Steeds  stirred  from  the  place  under  strong  men." 


NOTES  (PAGES  189 — 193). 


239 


For  men  under  =  under  men,  see  I.  1188. 

362.  spenen  is  the  right  reading,  and  is  put  for  spenden,  like  wen  for 
wend,  &c. 

P.  189,  1.  391.  The  alteration  of  Phosus  into  3>osus  is  a  convincing 
proof  that  the  copyist  took  an  occasional  liberty  with  the  spelling.  He 
could  not  have  had  <bosus  before  him  in  an  Old  English  MS.  of  the  14th 
century. 

P.  190,  1.  416.  The  copyist  has  written  stelger,  and  marked  it  as 
being  a  word  he  did  not  understand.  The  words  may  have  been  run 
together  in  the  older  MS.  Stel  ger  is  simply  "  steel  gear." 

421.  Here  is  another  proof  that  the  poet  probably  followed  the  Latin 
of  Orosius.  We  find  there  the  phrase — "  Philomelo  duce  " — whence  he 
adopted  the  form  Philomelo  in  1.  364,  and  did  not  alter  it  here.  Yet 
Orosius  afterwards  has — "  sequenti  prselio  inter  immensas  utriusque 
populi  strages  Philomelus  occisus  est :  in  cujus  locum  Phocenses  Ouo- 
marchum  ducem  creaverunt." 

P.  191,  1.  439.  jeme.  The  MS.  has  either  "  $enn  "  or  "  ^eme."  The 
latter  is  right  ;  see  1.  365. 

445.  This  line  means,  "  that  ever  they  paused  in  the  strife,  (though 
it  had  caused  them)  to  die  upon  the  field." 

451.  for  his  grete  yie,  in  return  for  his  great  eye  ;  a  curious  way  of 
expressing  that  his  vow,  mentioned  in  1.  281,  had  been  fulfilled. 

452.  Here  the   more  historical   part  of  the  story  ceases,  and  the 
romance  properly  begins.       From  this  point,   also,  the  poet  translates 
from  a  different  source,  as  explained  in  the  Preface.     LI.   452 — 1092 
should  be  compared  with  the  first  722  lines  of  Mr  Stevenson's  edition  of 
"  The  Alliterative  Romance  of  Alexander"  (Roxburghe  Club,  1849)  ;  from 
MS.  Ashmole  44.     See  also  Gower,  Conf.  Amant.  bk.  vi. 

457.  This  shews  that  the  poet  used  more  books  than  one  to  translate 
from.  His  regret  that  he  could  not  trace  the  lineage  of  Nectanabus 
shews  that  his  probable  object  in  the  preceding  part  of  the  poem  was  to 
trace  the  lineage  of  Alexander,  and  to  say  something  about  his  father 
and  grandfather. 

459.  Nectanabus;  called  also  Anectanabus,  Anec,  or  Natabus.     The 
story  of  Nectanabus  is  utterly  rejected  by  Lambert  li  Tors.     See  "  Li 
Romans   d'Alixandre,"  par  Lambert  li  Tors  et  Alexandre  de  Bernay ; 
herausgegeben  von  Heinrich  Michelant :  Stuttgart,  1846,  p.  5. 

460.  This  line  occurs,  slightly  altered,  in  the  Werwolf,  1.  119. 
463.  Some  such  word  as  Jcene  or  kid  must  be  supplied. 

465.  T-wis  may  mean  prudent,  knowing  (A.S.  ge~wis),  but  as  it  is  else- 
where always  an  adverb  in  both  poems,  I  prefer  to  think  that  the  sentence 
is  incomplete  ;  and  that  this  line  ought  to  be  followed  by  some  such  line 
as — 

"  For  a  wel  kud  clerke  •  and  koynt  in  his  liue." 

P.  192,  1.  473,  But,  except. 

475 — 483.  The  Latin  is — "now  movit  militiam,  neqwe  preparavit 
exercitum,  sed  iwtravit  cubiculum  palatii  sui  ;  et  deprewdews  concham 


240  NOTES  (PAGES  102,  193). 

eream  plenam  aqua  pluuiali,  tenewsque  in  manu  virgam  eream,  hie  per 
magicos  incantationes  intelligebat  in  ipsa  concha  classes  nauium  super 
eum  potewtissime  venientes." 

493.  nine  grete  nations.  The  number  nine  may  have  been  selected 
merely  for  the  alliteration.  The  names  of  these  nations  vary  greatly  in 
the  different  copies.  The  "  Augmi  "  or  "  Augni  "  (for  our  MS.  may  be 
read  either  way,  on  account  of  the  m  or  n  being  here  represented  by  a 
horizontal  line)  may  perhaps  be  the  A£avol  of  the  Greek,  or  the  "  Argiri" 
of  the  Latin  text.  By  the  "  Bosorii "  the  translator  would  probably  mean 
the  men  of  Bussorah  or  Bassorah  ;  yet  this  city  was  not  founded  till  A.D. 
636.  It  represents  the  Boo-Tropoi  of  the  Greek  text,  and  possibly  answers 
to  the  "  Rosphariens  "  of  the  French  text  (MS.  Bibl.  du  Roi,  No.  7517). 
The  "  Agiofagi  "— ("  Agiophii  "  in  the  Latin  text)— are  the  "  Agrio- 
phagi  "  mentioned  in  the  Latin  MS.  No.  8518  of  the  Bibl.  du  Roi  : 

"  Another  folk  woneth  in  the  west  half, 
That  eteth  never  kow  no  kalf, 
Bote  of  panteris  and  lyouns, 
And  that  they  nymeth  as  venesons. 
Othir  flesch,  no  othir  fysch, 
No  othir  bred,  heo  no  haveth,  y-wis. 
Feorne  men,  and  othir  therby, 
Clepeth  heom  Agofagy? 

Weber's  Metrical  Romances,  v.  i.  p.  261. 

P.  193,  1.  515.  The  Christian  sentiment  in  this  line  and  in  1.  523,  of 
ascribing  strength  to  God  only,  is  the  poet's  own. 

I  here  add,  by  way  of  illustration,  the  speech  of  Nectanabus  as  given 
in  the  various  texts. 

2i)  pev,  KdXatg  KOI  enieiKwg  rjv  tTriffrtvOrjc;  fypovpav  ^vXarrwv,  KO.I  prj 
TUVTO.  \tyt.  AttXaig  yap  KOI  ov  orpariwritfwe  ktyQiyfa.  Ov  yap  iv 
ox\<t)Ji  ^urafjiig,  uXX'  iv  TrpoQv^iq.  o  TroXepog.  Km  yap  tig  \lb)i>  TroXXac 
tXa^ouc  t^ttpwtraro.  Keu  elg  XVKOQ  TroXXag  dye'Xae  Troipviwv  f.<JKv\tvat.v. 
"£lfrre  ovv  ffv  TTopevOfjc  cLfjia  rolQ  iv  viTorayrj  aoi  ffTpaTtwTaiQ  rijv  iciav 
Trapara^tv  ^uXarre'  Xoyw  yap  tv\  r&v  fiapfidpiiiv  dvapidfJirjTOV  TrXrjdog 
TreXaya  eiriKaXv^u). — MS.  Bibl  du  Roi,  No.  113  (suppl.) ;  quoted  in 
Notices  des  Manuscrits  de  la  Bibliotheque  du  Roi  ;  torn.  xiii.  p.  223. 

"  Custodiam  quam  tibi  cowdidi  bene  obserua  ;  sed  non  tamew  sicut 
princeps  militie  egisti,  sed  sicut  homo  tirnidus.  Uirtus  enim  now  hec 
valet  in  multitudme  populi,  sed  in  fortitudine  animorum  ;  an  nescis  quod 
vnus  leo  mwltos  ceruos  in  fugam  vertit?  " — Historia  Alexandri ;  edition 
of  1490,  page  1. 

"  Va-t-en  a  la  garde  que  je  t'ai  commandee,  et  veille  curieusement,  et 
pense  de  bien  garder  ta  reccomandise.  Car  tu  n'a  pas  parle  comme  prince 
de  chevalerie,  inais  comme  homme  paoureux.  Car  il  n'affiert  pas  k  gou- 
verneur  de  peuple  qu'il  s'espouvente  pour  grant  quantite  de  gent ;  car 
victoire  ne  gist  pas  en  multitude  de  gent,  inais  en  vigueur  et  force  de 
courage.  N'as  tu  pas  veu  par  plusieurs  fois  que  ung  [lyon  ?]  meit  a  la 


NOTES  (PAGES  194 — 196). 


241 


fuite  grant  quantite  de  serfz  [cerfz  ?].!  Aussi  se  peut  poy  contretenir  la 
grant  multitude  contre  les  vigureux." — MS.  BibL  du  Roi  ;  quoted  in  the 
above  vol.,  p.  287.  See  also  Alexander,  ed.  Stevenson  ;  p.  4,  11.  97 — 110. 
P.  194,  1.  532.  Fleete  certainly  means  to  float  here  ;  yet  the  Latin  has 
"  videbat  qualiter  egiptii  sternebanttw  impetu  classiurn  Barbarorum."  Out 
of  this  the  translator  has  made  this  curious  passage  about  the  "  god  of 
Barbre,"  the  origin  of  which  is  to  be  traced  to  a  misunderstanding  of  the 
Greek  text,  which  says,  "  he  sees  the  gods  of  the  Egyptians  steering  the 
enemies'  boats,  and  the  armies  of  the  Barbarians  being  guided  by  them." 

545.  white  sendal ;  "  linea  vestimenta." 

549.   let  trusse,  commanded  his  men  to  pack  up. 

557.  Seraphin;  so  spelt  in  the  French  text.     The  Latin  has  Serapis. 

P.  195, 1. 565.  He  shall  hye  hym  againe.  The  response  of  the  oracle  must 
be  given  in  the  words  of  the  Greek  text.  It  runs  thus  :  6  ^vy 
y/^ft  ird\LV  iv  alyviTTO),  ov  yj/poirfcwv,  aXXa  vta^wv,  Kal  TOVQ 
riptiv  irtpactQ  i/7rord£et.  Here  the  word  iripaaQ  is  ambiguous,  and  may 
mean  "  having  destroyed "  or  "  the  Persians."  M.  Berger  de  Xivrey 
draws  special  attention  to  this  oracle,  which  he  considers  as  the  basis  of 
the  whole  romance.  It  was  fulfilled,  not  by  the  return  of  the  old  man 
Nectanabus,  but  by  the  visit  to  Egypt  of  his  son,  the  young  man 
Alexander.  It  is  accordingly  alluded  to  again  in  the  passage  where 
Alexander,  seeing  the  great  image  (mentioned  by  our  author  in  1.  568), 
inquires  whom  it  represents.  He  is  told  it  represents  Nectanabus,  upon 
hearing  which  he  falls  down  and  kisses  the  feet  of  it.  Of.  Alexander,  ed. 
Stevenson,  1.  1135  ;  Weber's  Metr.  Rom.  vol.  i.  p.  67. 

574.  Here  begins  a  new  paragraph — "  Quomodo  Anectanabits 
ascendit  palaciuw  ad  Olimpiam  reginam  ;  "  and  in  Mr  Stevenson's  edition 
is  the  heading — "  Secundus  passus  Alexandri." 

584.  "  Aue  regina  Macedonie  !  dedignatws  ei  dicere  domina" 

P.  196,  1.  594.  "  Uerbum  regale  dixisti,  quawdo  egiptios  nomiwasti." 

596.  The  MS.  has  worclich,  a  mere  error  for  wortlich,  which  is 
another  spelling  of  worthlich  ;  cf.  1.  1024. 

601 .  ludene  of^at  language,  the  speech  (or  meaning)  of  that  language. 
''Sum  uuderstandis  in  a  stounde  •  the  steven  (voice)  of  the  briddis,"  &c. 

Alexander,  ed.  Stev.  1.  252. 

Compare  also  the  passage  in  Chaucer  about  Canace  understanding  the 
language  of  birds. 

— sche  understood  wel  euery  thing 
That  eny  foul  may  in  his  lydne  sayn, 
And  couthe  answer  him  in  his  lydne  again. 

The  Squyeres  Tale,  Pars  Secunda;  11.  88—90. 

613.  We  should  rather  read,  Too  defend  \eefro  doole. 

616.    Imped,    set;    lit.    engrafted.     "Tabulaw*    ereara   et   eburneam 

1  The  editor  has  a  note—"  On  reconnait  la  les  idees  provenant  de  la  superiorite 
si  marquee  de  la  chevalerie,  au  moyen  age,  sur  les  serfs  et  sur  les  vilains."  True, 
no  doubt ;  but  serfz  probably  means  stags  in  this  passage,  nevertheless. 

16 


242  NOTES  (PAGES  196 — 201). 

mixtam  auro  et  argento."   Of.  "  His  ars-table  he  tok  oute  sone  ;  "  Weber, 
Metr.  Rom.,  vol.  i.  p.  17.  It  was,  I  suppose,  an  astrolabe-planisphere. 

620.  The  contents  of  the  circles  are  wrongly  given.  They  should 
be  (1.)  The  12  intelligences — "  duodeci/w  intelligewtias  " — "  les  xii.  in- 
telligences, c'est  assavoir  les  xii.  entendemens  ;"  (2.)  the  signs  of  the 
zodiac,  called  in  MS.  Ashmole  "  a  dusan  of  bestes  ; "  and  (3.)  the  courses 
of  the  sun  and  moon. 

P.  197,  1.  628.  forcer,  a  box  ;  "  une  boiste  d'ivoire."  It  contained  a 
species  of  horoscope,  in  which  were  the  seven  planets,  to  each  of  which 
was  assigned  a  particular  kind  of  stone.  Thus  in  1.  634  we  should  rather 
read,  "Seuen  stones,"  but  the  poet  has  written  Foure  for  the  sake  of  allitera- 
tion, regardless  of  facts.  The  seven  stones  are  mentioned  in  the  Latin 
MS.  Bibl.  du  Koi,  No.  8518.  "  Jovem  quippe  viseres  aerino  lapide  nun- 
cupatum.  Solem  cristallo,  Lunain  adamante,  Martern  dici  sub  lapide 
hematite,  Mercurium  smaragdo.  Venus  autem  saphirina  erat ;  Saturnus 
in  ophite.  At  vero  horoscopus  lygdinus  erat."  The  Greek  text  has  the 
same. 

656 — 674.  This  passage  is  not  in  the  Greek,  Latin,  or  French  texts, 
and  was  inserted  by  the  translator  from  another  source  (see  note  to  1. 
837),  to  account  for  Philip's  ill-will  against  Olympias.  The  interpolation 
is  needless,  as  a  dream  is  contrived  by  Nectanabus  expressly  for  Philip's 
information  soon  afterwards  ;  see  11.  807 — 874.  The  present  passage  is 
also  omitted  in  MS.  Ashmole  44. 

P.  199,  1.  694.    "  Neqwe  iuvenis  neqwe  senex,  et  barbam  canis  habens 
ornatara.     Unde  si  placet,  esto  illi  parata,"  &c.     The   "  silver  horns," 
however,  are  essential,  as  being  the  chief  characteristic  of  the  god  Amrnon. 
"  With  tachid  in  his  for-toppe  •  two,  tufe  homes.'" 

Alexander,  ed.  Stevenson,  1.  319. 

698.  glisiing  is  another  form  of  glisiande,  glistening. 

700.  Supply  the  word  J>ee.  Nye,  to  draw  nigh,  occurs  in  11.  739,  817  ; 
and  nye  \ee  in  1.  764. 

702.  "  Si  hec  videro,  non  vt  prophetam  nee  diuinuwi,  sed  vt  deum 
ipsutfi  adorabo." 

710-744.  This  passage  is  much  amplified.  It  is  much  shorter  in  the 
Ashmole  MS.,  and  the  Latin  merely  has — "  euellit  herbas,  terewsqwe  eas 
et  succos  illarum  tulit,  et  fecit  incantationes  per  diabolica  figmewta  ;  vt 
in  eadem  nocte  Olimpia  deum  Hamorc  cowcumbentem  secum  videret, 
dicentewiqwe  ei  post  cowcubitum,  mulier,  concepisti  defensorewi  tuum." 

P.  200,  1.  726.  riue.  The  MS.  has  riue,  with  /  over  the  u,  rightly 
explaining  riue  by  the  modern  word  rife. 

738.  Or-trowed,  lit.  over-trowed,  and  hence,  suspected,  imagined. 
Compare  ouer-trowe  in  the  Glossary. 

756.  No  noo]>er,  none  other,  nothing  else.  So  also  J)i  narmes  for  J»n 
armes  (Werwolf,  1.  666). 

P.  201, 1.  760.  Too  waite  at  a  window,  to  watch  at  a  window.  A 
favourite  phrase  of  our  author's.  See  Werwolf,  11,  779,  2982,  3030,  3300. 

764.  The  line  would  run  as  well  again  if  ]?ee  nye  were  altered  to  nye 


NOTES  (PAGES  201 — 203). 


243 


\>ee.  Compare — "  Nam  ille  deus  in  figura  draconis  ad  te  veniet ;  et  exinde 
humana?/i  formam  accipiens  ;  et  mea  similitudine  apparebit." 

770.  "  Si  veritatew  probare  valebis,  te  quasi  patrem  pueri  habebo." 
But  this  is  sometimes  curiously  altered,  as  in  the  following  : 

u  Then  salle  I  cherische  the  with  chere  •  as  thou  my  child  were, 
Loute  the  lovely  and  love  •  alle  my  lyfe  days." 

Alexander,  ed.  Stevenson,  1.  368. 

774,  775.  These  two  fine  lines  certainly  surpass  the  bald  statement — 
"  circa  autew  primam,  vigiliam  noctis." 

779.  slaked  on  wightes,  fell  relaxingly  upon  men.  Wightes,  not 
mightes,  is  the  right  reading.  Compare — 

"  Qwen  it  was  metyn  to  the  merke  *  that  menn  ware  taryst,1 
Andfolke  was  on  thair  firste  slepe  •  and  it  was  furth  evyne." 

Alexander,  ed.  Stevenson,  1.  374. 

781.  a  dragones  drem,  a  dragon's  droning.     Drem  or  dream  is  some- 
times a  loud,  droning  sound.      The  Latin  has — "  et  sibilando  contra 
cubiculuw  Olimpie  cepit  trawsuolare."     The  French  has   "  ala  sufflant 
entour  le  lit."     Cf.  11.  982,  985. 

782.  makes  his  lidene,  i.  e.  talks  softly.      Compare  ludene  above, 
1.  601, 

P.  202, 1.  802.  Deemes,  i.  e.  will  deem.  Philip  had  been  from  home 
for  some  time ;  she  wonders  what  he  will  say  when  he  returns. 

808.  "  Euellens  herbas,  triturauit  eas  et  tulit  succum  illaruw,  appre- 
hendensqwe  auem  marinara,  cepit  super  earn  incarctare,  illam  de  succo 
herbarum  liniens." 

813.  Compare — 
"And  [with?]  the  wose  of  the  wede  •  hire  wengis  anoyntes." 

Alexander,  ed.  Stevenson,  1.  413. 

817.  The  phrase  tried  \e  night  occurs  in  the  Werwolf,  1.  770. 

P.  203,  1.  824.  The  Latin  has  "deus  Hamon;"  and  "  Amon"  is  here 
mentioned  in  MS.  Ashmole. 

826.  The  word  deede  was  miswritten  deene  owing  to  confusion  with 
deerne.  Compare — 

"  jjat  deede  derne  '  do  no  mon  scholde." 

Piers  Plowman,  ed.  Skeat,  A.  x.  199. 

In  the  Latin  follows — "quod  videret  os  uulue  consuere  et  aunulo  aureo 
consignare  et  in  ipso  aunulo  erat  lapis  vbi  erat  sculptum  caput  leoms 
et  currws  solis  et  gladius  peracutus." 

837.  nyed,  approached  (a  favourite  word  with  our  author),  is  almost 
certainly  the  word  required  here.  The  following  passage  is  worth 
notice  here. 

"  Philipe  aussi  long  temps  apres  ses  nopces  songea  quil  seelloit  le 
ventre  de  sa  femme  dung  grant  seel  auquel  estoit  graue  lymaige  dung 
lyon  ;  par  lequel  songe,  comme  plusieurs  eussent  expose  a  phellippe  quil 


1  Read 


taryst,"  i.e.  to  rest. 
16* 


244  XOTES  (PAGES  203 — 205). 

se  donnast  garde  de  sa  ferame,  Aristawder  le  deuin  affermoit  quelle  auoit 
chargie  denfant.  Car  on  ne  seelle  point  les  choses  vuydes  ;  et  que  elle 
se  deliueroit  dung  enfant,  plain  de  couraige  et  ayant  nature  de  lyon. 
^[  Deuawt  ce  on  auoit  veu  vng  dragon  couchant  empres  olympie  qui  lors 
dormit,  la  quelle  chose  Refroida  tresfort  Phelippe  enuers  elle."  MS. 
Douce  318,  chap.  iii.  The  same  MS.  informs  us  further  that  Philip 
avoided  Olympias,  because  he  feared  magic  or  poison  ;  that  he  sent  to 
Delphos,  and  was  told  to  sacrifice  to  the  god  "  Amon,"  and  that  he  would 
lose  an  eye  as  a  punishment  for  having  beheld  Amon  with  her  ;  all 
which  is  related  by  Plutarch.  But  Eratosthenes  says,  his  mother  only 
told  Alexander  the  secret  of  his  birth  on  his  setting  out  on  his  expedition. 
A  similar  story  is  told  of  the  mother  of  Scipio  Africanus.  Plutarch  explains 
the  dragon  story  by  saying  that  Olympias  belonged  to  a  tribe  that  reli- 
giously cherished  serpents  of  great  size.  Justin  says,  Olympias  dreamt  of 
having  conceived  a  serpent.  "Vincent  lystorial  "  (i.  e.  Vincent  of  Beau- 
vais,  in  his  "Speculum  Historiale")  ascribes  the  engendrure  of  Alexander 
to  Neptanabus,  but  this  is  flat  against  Holy  Scripture,  since  in  the  book 
of  Maccabees  [bk.  1.  chap.  i.  v.  1]  Alexander  is  expressly  called  the 
"  son  of  Philip."  All  this,  and  more,  is  to  be  found  in  the  above- 
mentioned  MS.,  chap.  iii. 

853.  J>0  sonne  course  of  Jje  sell,  the  course  of  the  sun  upon  the  seal. 
MS.  Ashmole  has  "the  course  one  the  sonne." 

P.  204, 1.  855.  sonne  rist,  rising  of  the  sun,  the  far  East ;  "  ad  orientem, 
vnde  sol  egreditur." 

860.  The  MS.  has  boldes,  but  we  must  read  holdes  ;  cf.  note  to  1.  256. 

873.  meting,  dream.     See  the  Glossary. 

875.  Here  begins  a  new  paragraph  in  the  Latin,  with  the  heading, 
"  Qualiter  Anectanabus  in  Sgura  draconis  antecedebat  Philippurn  in 
prdio  deuincendo  et  hostes." 

879.  lasches,  lashes,  i.  e.  heavy  strokes.  Cf.  the  phrase  "  to  deal 
dints  ; "  Werwolf,  3440. 

883.  Deraide,  acted  madly  or  terribly.  It  is  the  past  tense,  not  the 
past  participle,  but  we  ought  perhaps  to  supply  hym  after  it. 

P.  205,  1.  895.  Here  loren  is  correctly  glossed  by  lorne,  i.  e.  lost. 

900-953.  The  whole  of  this  passage  is  an  interpolation  from  another 
source,  and  belongs  rather  to  history  than  to  the  romance.  The  drift 
of  it  agrees  with  the  account  given  by  Orosius. 

901.  The  MS.  has — "  Was  going  too  J?e  ouer  Greece,"  &c.  But  the 
word  "  J>e "  must  be  corrupt,  being  an  article  without  a  substantive, 
and,  moreover,  a  verb  is  required.  I  propose  ride  as  very  probably  being 
the  correct  reading,  as  it  is  the  expression  used  in  1.  5471  of  the  Werwolf 
in  a  similar  case.  If  the  first  two  letters  of  tide  were  erased,  de  might 
easily  be  confused  wilh  *&e  or  )>e. 

903.  The  Athenians  stopped  him  by  occupying  the  pass  of  Ther- 
mopylae. "  Athenienses  .  .  .    angustias  Thermopj^larum  .  .  .  occupavere." 
Orosius,  ed.  Havercamp,  1738,  p.  171. 

904.  to  keueren  him  gate,  to  recover  (or  obtain)  for  himself  a  passage. 


NOTES  (PAGES  206—208).  245 

908.  Jje  entres  ;  the  entries,  i.e.  the  pass.     Enforced,  strengthened, 
forcibly  occupied. 

909.  We  must  read  either  ]>o  marches,  or  \at  marche  ;  for  the  plural 
form  J)0  see  1.  912.     The  MS.  has  ]pat  marches. 

911.  agrised  is  a  gloss  upon  agrise,  the  form  used  by  our  author. 
913.  Philip,  failing  to  harm    his  enemies,  cruelly  attacks  his  own 
allies  ;  "  paratum  in  hostes  bellum  vertit  in  socios."     Orosius. 
P.  206,  1.  923.   Besides  of,  we  almost  require  to  insert  was. 
"Hee  wrathfull  of  wille  was  •  wronglich  jjare." 

928.  Lines  2621,  2647  in  the  Werwolf  resemble  this  line. 

933.  The  MS.  has  traie,  with  be  written  before  it  above  the  line  ; 
perhaps  traie  is  the  right  reading,  and  betraie  the  gloss  upon  it. 

934.  "  Conjuges    liberosque    omnium  sub  corona   vendidit,  templa 
quoque  universa  subvertit,  spoliavitque,"  &c.      Orosius. 

940.  He  ne  loft  no  lenger,  he  remained  no  longer  ;  cf.  1.  950. 

942.  fares,  goes.  This  makes  sense,  but  I  suspect  the  right  word  is 
cay  res. 

944.  "Post  ha3C  in  Cappadociam  transiit,  ibique  bellum  pari 
perfidia  gessit,  captos  per  dolum  finitimos  reges  interfecit,  totamque 
Cappadociam  imperio  Macedonia  subdidit."  Orosius.  The  editor 
(Havercamp)  remarks  that  this  is  false,  and  that  Cappadociam  is  a  mere 
mistake  for  Chalcidicam  or  Chalcidem  ;  and  he  is  doubtless  right,  as  the 
siege  of  Olynthus  in  Chalcidice  must  be  meant. 

P.  207,  1.  954.  At  about  this  line  we  drop  the  history  and  return  to  the 
romance,  taking  it  up  from  1.  899. 

965.  "  Nevertheless  I  know  (it)  not  yet,  nay,  as  I  trow."  Not  —  ne 
wot.  This  is  awkward  enough.  It  represents  the  Latin — "  Peccasti, 
inquit,  et  now  peccasti,  quia  violentiam  a  deo  passa  es." 

974.  This  line  occurs  in  the  Werwolf,  1.  1416  ;  cf.  also  1.  5250.  It 
should  be  observed  that  a  new  paragraph  begins  here  in  the  Latin,  with 
the  heading,  "Quomodo  Anectanabus  in  figuram  draconis  apparuit 
Philippo  in  conuiuio,  et  osculatus  est  Oliwipiam." 

980.  Cf.  Werwolf,  1.  4906. 

P.  208, 1.  982.  See  note  to  1.  781,  and  cf.  1.  985.  The  Latin  has 
"  fortiter  sibilabat." 

992.  liuand  lud,  living  man  ;  a  favourite  phrase  of  our  author's  ;  see 
1.  790,  and  Werwolf,  11.  1690,  3678,  5429. 

994.  greefly  Ugo,  grievously  beset ;  bigo  is  glossed  by  bigone. 

999.  Here  begins  a  new  paragraph  in  the  Latin,  with  the  heading, 
"  Quornodo  auis  generavit  ouum  in  gremio  philippi,  de  quo  confracto 
exiuit  serpens,  qui  statim  mortuws  est." 

1004.  "  He  laid  an  egg  in  his  lap,  and  then  hurries  away."  Hee 
might  stand  for  she,  but  him  is  always  masculine.  We  should  certainly 
have  expected  to  find  the  feminine,  as  in  the  Latin  and  in  MS.  Ashmole44. 

1008.  to-shett,  i.  e.  "  brast  all  esoundir,"  as  MS,  Ashmole  has  it.  Cf. 
too-clef  in  the  next  line. 


246  NOTES  (PAGES  209 — 211). 

P.  209,  1.  1013.  had  in  his  hed,  got  his  head  in.  Deide  is  the  right 
spelling,  and  dyed  the  gloss. 

1022.  Raigne  is  the  old  spelling,  reigne  the  gloss. 

1024.  wortlych  is   found   as  an  occasional   spelling    of  worthlych  ; 
worthly  is  a  gloss.    Cf.  1.  596. 

1025.  "  Ere  he  come  unto  the- country  that  he  came  from." 

1026.  doluen  andded ;  more  correctly,  ded  and  doluen,  i.  e.  dead  anil 
buried.     Cf.  Werwolf,  5252,  5280. 

1030.  roum  may  mean  room,  space  ;  and  hence,  a  while. 
1031-2.  u  Ere  he  may  wend  with  his  host  to  his  (own)  land  where  he- 
was  fostered  and  fed — it  befalls  him  to  die." 

1033.  Here  begins  a  new  paragraph  in  the  Latin,  without  a  heading, 
and  in  MS.  Ashmole  44  is  the  heading  "  Tercius  Passus  Alexandri." 

1034.  A  portion  of  the  story  is  here  lost.     I  might  have  supplied  the 
omission  from  MS.  Ashmole  44  (see  Stevenson's  edition,  11.  525 — 672)r 
but  the  great  length  of  this  passage  and  the  consideration  that  to  supply 
the  omission  from  another  alliterative  poem  might  lead  to  confusion  be- 
tween the  two,  were  reasons  against  this.    Or  it  might  have  been  supplied 
from  the  Latin,  beginning  at — "  Appropircquaws  autera  tempws  pariendi '" 
— and  ending — "  Audiens  hec  Olimpia  terrore  perterrita  vocauit  Anec- 
tanabum,  et  dixit."   It  seemed  to  me,  however,  that  a  quotation  from  the 
French  would  be  more  acceptable,  and  the  omission  is  supplied  therefore 
from  MS.  Bibl.  du  Roi,  No.  7517,  as  edited  in  the  13th  vol.  of  "  Notices 
des  Manuscrits,"  &c.  ;  pp.  297-299.     The  following  words  may  require 
explanation  : — 

chey,  fell  ; — croulla,  shook  ; — noif,  snow  (explained  by  neige  by  the 
editor  of  the  French  text)  ; — targa,  tarried,  delayed  ; — me  feust,  perhaps 
we  should  read  ne  feust,  for  the  Latin  has,  "cogitaui  quod  infantulws  iste 
nullatenws  nutriatur,"  and  the  Ashmole  MS.  has, "  That  this  frute  shall 
haue  na  fostring  •  ne  be  fed  nouthire  ; " — vair  (Lat.  "  glaucus  "),  gray  ; 
MS.  Ashmole  has  "  ^elow  ;  " — sestature,  stature  ; — nonpour  quant,  never- 
theless ; — ysnellete,  quickness  (cf.  O.E.  snell)  ;  —  doubta  moult,  feared 
greatly. 

P.  211, 1.  1038.  "  He  was  very  well  pleased  with  his  noble  deeds,  but 
(then)  he  changed  his  demeanour,"  &c. 

1041.  The  MS.  has  maried,  with  r  over  the  i.  Hence,  the  old  word  was 
marred,  altered  to  maried  ;  for  marred  is  a  common  word  with  our  author. 
Marred  too  care,  vexed  unto  great  anxiety,  is  a  not  very  intelligible 
phrase,  and  therefore  liable  to  alteration.  It  means  much  the  same  as 
wofull  in  hert  in  the  next  line. 

1043,  1044.  Blank  spaces  are  left  in  the  MS.  for  the  two  half-lines. 
Compare — 

"  Be  no^t  afri^t,"  quoth  the  freke  •  "  ne  afrayd  nouthir, 
It  sail  the  noy  no^t  a  neg  •  nane  of  his  tho^tes." 

Alexander,  ed.  Stevenson,  1.  675. 

In  which  passage,  a  neg  is  equivalent  to  an  eg.     There  is  nothing  lost 
(save  a  half-line)  between  11.  1044  and  1045. 


NOTES  (PAGES  212,  213).  247 

P.  212,  1.  1054.  fonde  /,  mee  tell,  I  ask  (you  to)  tell  me. 
1055.  Cf.  "  Quat  sterne  is  at  36  stody  one  •  quare  stekis  it  in  hevyne." 
Alex.  1.  683. 

1061.  inkest,  blackest.  The  MS.  is  rather  indistinct;  the"&es*"is 
plain,  but  the  beginning  of  the  word  is  represented  by  a  straight  horizontal 
stroke  (elsewhere  used  for  m  or  n),  with  a  dot  over  the  very  commence- 
ment of  it.  Enke=ink  occurs  in  "  Meidan  Maregrete"  ed.  Cockayne, 
stanza  61  ;  and  in  Wycliffe's  version  of  the  Bible.  The  Latin  merely 
has,  "  Sequere  me  hora  noctis,"  &c. 

1076-7.     Compare  the  version  in  MS.  Ashmole — 
"  Alexander,  athill  sonne  *  (quoth  Anec  his  syre), 
Loo  yondir,  behald  over  thi  hede  •  and  se  my  hatter  werdis    (dire 

destinies), 

The  evylle  sterne  of  Ercules  *  how  egirly  it  soro^es, 
And  how  the  mode  Marcure  *  makis  sa  mekill  joy, 
Loo  yondir,  the  gentill  Jubiter  •  how  jolyle  he  schynes."     (11.  701-705.) 
1080-1.  Hee  pored,  i.e.  Nectanabus.     Hee  braides,  i.e.   Alexander. 
Perhaps  there  are  a  few  lines  lost  between  these  two.    Compare — 
u  The  domes  of  my  destany  •  drawis  to  me  swythe, 
Thik  and  thrathly  am  I  thret  •  and  thole  mone  I  sone 
The  sla^ter  of  myne  awen  son  •  as  me  was  sett  ever.'* 
Unethis  werped  he  that  worde  •  the  writt  me  recordis, 
Thanne  Alexander  as  sone  *  was  at  him  behind, 
And  on  the  bake  with  slike  a  bire  •  he  bare  with  his  handis 
That  doune  he  drafe  to  the  depest  •  of  the  dike  bothom. 

Alexander,  11.  706—712. 

The  Latin  has — "Fata  mea  mihi  propinquam  mortem  a  filio  meo 
comminantur.  Taliter  eo  vidente,  accessit  ad  eum.  propinquius  alex- 
ander,"  &c. 

P.  213,  1.  1092.  sounJc  or  hee  wer,  ere  he  was  sunken. 
1094.  This  corresponds  with  1.  722  of  MS.  Ashmole  44.  Though 
there  is  not  the  slightest  hint  of  any  omission  in  Mr  Stevenson's  edition, 
there  must  be  several  pages  lost  in  the  Ashmole  MS.  between  this  line 
and  the  next ;  for  the  story  leaps  at  once  from  the  dying  words  of 
Nectanabus  to  the  duel  of  Alexander  and  Nicolas,  entirely  omitting  the 
rest  of  the  story  as  told  in  the  Greaves  MS.  Hence  from  1.  1094  to  the 
end  is  the  only  existing  copy  in  alliterative  verse  of  this  portion  of  the  story. 
It  does  not  go  quite  far  enough  to  supply  the  whole  of  the  lacuna  in  the 
Ashmole  MS.,  but  it  nearly  does  so,  contributing  155  lines  towards  it. 

1094.  hee  in  this  line  is  probably  put  for  hue,  i.  e.  she,  the  word  soule 
being  feminine. 

1095.  armed,  fortified,  bold. 

1098.  The  French  has — "  et  prist  maintenant  le  corps  et  le  porta  au 
palais.  Quant  la  royne  le  vit,  si  lui  dist,  '  Filz  Alixandre,  que  aportes 
tu  ? '" 

1103 — 1105.  These  words  belong  to  Alexander.  The  French  has — 
"  En  ycelle  maniere  que  tu  souffris  que  il  feusse  mon  pere,  a  tort,  pour  ce 
que  tu  ne  le  me  deis,  Fas  tu  fait  occire  a  tort." 


248  NOTES  (PAGES  213,  214). 

1107.  heate,  false  spelling  for  hete,  command. 

1110.  The  initial  T  of  this  letter  is  rather  larger  than  usual,  and  a 
new  paragraph  begins  here.  At  this  point  I  should  conjecture  that  the 
Quartus  Passus  of  the  Ashmole  MS.  may  have  commenced.  In  our 
MS.  "  A  HORSS  "  is  here  written  in  the  margin,  to  intimate  that  the  story 
of  Bucephalus  begins  here.  In  the  Latin,  a  new  paragraph  begins  here 
with  the  heading — "  Qualiter  quidam.  priwceps  de  Capadocia  aduxit  equum 
bucifallum  ad  philippum  regem  macedonum." 

P.  214,  1.  1114.  a  hedde  as  a  bole,  a  head  like  a  bull ;  an  allusion  to 
the  etymology  of  Bucephalus,  from  /3ovc,  an  ox,  and  fc£0a\»),  a  head.  The 
name,  however,  really  means  a  horse  branded  with  a  mark  like  a  bull's 
head  ;  see  Liddell  and  Scott's  Greek  Lexicon.  I  here  add  the  description 
of  Bucephalus  as  given  in  the  Old  High  German  poem  of  Alexander, 
written  in  the  twelfth  century  by  a  priest  named  Lamprecht,  as  a 
specimen  of  that  version.  For  the  translation  I  crave  indulgence,  as  it 
may  not  be  quite  correct.  The  letter  z  (italic)  is  used  instead  of  a  letter 
in  Weismann's  edition  which  resembles  a  z  with  a  slight  tag  to  it. 

das  ros  daz  was  wunderlich  The  horse  was  wonderfully 

irre  unde  vil  stritich,  wilful  and  very  full-of-strife, 

snel  unde  stare  von  gescafnisse,  quick  and  strong  of  shape, 

des  suit  ir  sin  gwisse.  (of  it  should  ye  be  certain). 

iz  hete  unzalliche  craft  He  had  unspeakable  strength, 

unde  urnm&sliche  macht ;  and  measureless  might  ; 

iz  irbeiz  di  lute  unde  irsliich,  he  bit  people  and  slew  (them), 

iz  was  freislich  gmich.  he  was  terrible  enough. 

ime  was  sm  rnunt,  To  him,  was  his  mouth 

da?  wil  ih  u  tun  kunt,  (that  will  I  make  known  to  you) 

alseime  esele  getan.  just-like  an  ass's  made. 

di  nasen  waren  ime  wite  uf  getan.       His  nostrils  were  wide  opened, 

sine  oren  waren  ime  lane,  his  ears  were  to  him  long, 

daz  houbit  magir  unde  slanc.  his  head  meagre  and  lank. 

sine  ougen  waren  ime  allirvare  his  eyes  were  to  him  of-all-colours 

glich  eineme  fliegendin  are.  like  (those  of  a)  flying  eagle. 

Sin  hals  was  ime  lockechte,  His  neck  was  to  him  covered-with- 

locks, 

ih  wene  iz  were  lewin  geslehte.  I  ween  he  was  of  a  lion's  kind, 

lif  den  goflfen  hatiz  rindis  har,  On  his  shanks  had  he  heifer's  hair, 

an  den  siten  liebarten  mal  :  on  his  sides  leopards'  spots  : 

s6  sarrazin  ioh  cristin  man  like  Saracen,  so-also  Christian  man 

nie  nihein  bezzer  ros  gwan.  never  a  better  horse  won. 

Alexander,  vom  Pfaffen  Lamprecht,  von  Dr  H.  Weismann,  1850,  p. 
16.  See  also  the  description  of  Bucephalus  in  Weber's  Met.  Rom.,  vol. 
i.  p.  33. 

1130.  hym  may  refer  to  the  spokesman  of  the  messengers  ;  but  hem 
would  be  a  better  reading. 

1131.  The  French  has — "si  dist  a  ses  ministres,  Receves  ce  cheval, 
et  le  jnetes  en  une  grant  quage  de  fer,  et  illeuc  1'encloys,"  &c.     He 
comanded  lygge,  would  mean  "  he  commanded  (men)  to  build." 


NOTES  (PAGES  2 15- -2 is).  249 

1144.  Who  prickes  is  surely  the  right  reading;  compare— "  celle 
nuit  songa  li  roys  que  une  voys  li  disoit,  que  oil  qui  chevaucheroit  se 
cheval  regneroit  en  son  rengne  apres  sa  mort." 

P.  215,  1.  1158.  in  theyr  looke,  in  their  sight. 

1159.  freaten,  false  spelling  forfreten,  eaten. 

1161.  The  MS.  may  be  read  as  "iustes"  or  "  iuyses,"  the  word  being 
indistinct.     The  former,  however,  is  certainly  meant. 

1162.  The  line  ends  with  the  letter  b  followed  by  a  space  ;  beaste  is 
the  spelling  in  1.  1130. 

1167.  abowed,  like  alouted  (for  which  see  Werwolf,  3716,  3721), 
should  perhaps  be  followed  by  the  word  to. 

P.  216,  1.  1186.  lete  hym  worthe,  let  him  be,  let  him  do  as  he  liked. 
See  note  to  Wei-wolf,  1.  3597. 

1193.  The  MS.  has  stynt,  with  ed  above  it  to  the  right.  Thus  stynt 
is  the  old  reading,  stynted  the  gloss. 

1201.  We  learn  from  the  Latin  that  Philip  grants  Alexander's  re- 
quest by  giving  him  a  royal  chariot  and  a  company  of  knights,  and  the 
story  of  the  duel  between  Alexander  and  Nicolaus  or  Nicholas  follows 
shortly  after.  But  our  author  again  digresses  from  the  romance  story 
at  this  point,  and  takes  up  the  history  of  Orosius. 

P.  217,  1.  1226.  The  story  of  the  Finding  of  the  Cross  by  Helen,  the 
mother  of  Constantine,  is  well  known,  and  is  here  alluded  to. 

1231.  This  line  begins  with  "For  Philip,"  but  the  For  is  redundant, 
as  it  appears  in  the  line  above.  For  "  to  wynne  "  we  should  probably 
read  "  wynne,"  as  the  to  is  inserted  above  the  line  by  the  copyist,  who 
may  not  have  known  that  infinitives  are  often  used  without  it. 

1233,  1234.  "  For  that,  in  treason  or  guile,  none  should  rob  the 
man,"  &c. 

P.  218, 1.  1241.  The  conclusion  answers  to  the  passage  in  Orosius — 
"  Philippus  vcro,post  longam  et  irritam  obsidionem,  ut  pecuniam  quam  ob- 
sidendo  exhauserat,  prsedando  repararet,  piraticam  adgressus  est."  Orosius, 
lib.  iii.,  cap.  xiii.,  ed.  Havercamp,  1738,  p.  174.  We  may  readily  imagine 
that  the  poet,  after  a  description  of  Philip's  fleet  and  piratical  expedi- 
tions, would,  on  arriving  at  the  passage — "  ad  Scythiam  quoque  cum 
Alexandra  filio  praedandi  intentione  pertrarisiit  " — revert  to  Alexander's 
exploits  at  the  mention  of  his  name.  No  doubt  also,  instead  of  giving 
the  historical  account,  he  must  here  have  taken  up  the  romance  again 
by  relating  Alexander's  duel  with  Nicolas  ;  for  which  see  Mr  Stevenson's 
edition  and  Weber's  Metrical  Romances. 

But  it  may  fairly  be  observed,  that  the  portion  of  the  Romance  ex- 
hibited in  this  fragment  is,  in  a  certain  sense,  complete.  The  whole 
Romance  may  be  divided  into  three  parts  :  (1.)  the  infancy  of  Alexander; 
(2.)  his  acts  ;  (3.)  his  death.  The  first  of  these  is  contained  in  the  first 
1201  lines  of  the  fragment,  and  lines  1202 — 1249  do  not  properly  belong 
to  the  Romance  at  all.  To  add  a  sketch  of  the  remaining  two  parts  is 
inexpedient,  on  account  of  the  great  length  of  the  second  part.  The  first 
part  is  contained  in  the  first  37  pages  of  Weber,  whilst  the  whole  Romance 
occupies  327  pages. 


2DO 


GLOSSARIAL  INDEX. 


ABBREVIATIONS,    &C. 

Dan.  Danish.— Du.  Dutch.— F.  French.— G.  German.— Lat.  Latin.— O.N.  Old 
Norse  or  Icelandic. — A.S.  or  S.  Anglo-Saxon. — Su.G.  Suio-Gothic  (Ihre's  Glossary). 
— Prompt.  Parv.  Promptorium.  Parvulorum  (ed.  Way,  Camden  Soc.). — P.  PI.  Piers 
Plowman — Ch.  Chaucer. — Roq.  Roquefort's  Glossaire  de  la  Langue  Romane. — 
Wycl.  Gloss.  Wycliffite  English  Glossary.— adj.  adjective,  &c. 

The  following  are  used  in  a  special  sense — v.  a  verb  in  the  infinitive  mood ;  pr. 
s.  present  tense,  3rd  person  singular  ;  pr.  pi.  present  tense,  3rd  person  plural ;  pt.  s. 
past  tense,  3rd  person  singular ;  pt.  pi.  past  tense,  3rd  person  plural.  Other 
persons  are  denoted  by  1  p.  and  2  p.  Also  imp.  is  used  for  the  imperative  mood, 
and  pp.  for  the  past  or  passive  participle. 

NOTE.    Numbers  with  an  obelus  (f)  prefixed,  refer  to  the  "  Alisaunder." 

The  numbers  refer  to  the  lines  of  the  two  poems.  For  an  account  of  the  method 
of  reference  in  the  former  edition,  see  note  at  the  end  of  this  index. 


A-,  throughout  the  poem,  is  gener- 
ally disjoined  from  the  word  of 
which  it  forms  a  prefix  or  part, 
and  this  is  universally  the  practice 
in  MSS.  of  ancient  English  poetry. 
In  most,  if  not  all,  words  of  Saxon 
origin  it  represents  and  is  equiva- 
lent to  the  S.  on,  an,  of,  or  af,  as  a- 
boute,  a-dowi,  a-drad,  a-ioyned,  a- 
liue,  a-niyt,  a-slepe,  a-wey,  a-tcondred, 
&c.  The  same  rule  holds  good  in 
other  branches  of  the  Gothic 
language.  See  Ihre  and  Wachter. 
—  M. 

A,  int.  ah  !  602,  663,  845,  928, 
&c. 

A,  2  p.  s.  imp.  have,  978,  1177. 


from  the 


iff  35    ' 

F.  hunting  phrase,  etre  aux  abbots, 
to  stand  at  nay.  See  abbots  in  Cot- 
grave,  and  abash  in  Wedgwood. 


A-bate,  v.  to  abate,  1141. 
A-beye,  ?;.  S.  to  atone  for,  2790. 

Cf.  abye  in  Chaucer. 
A-bide,  v.  S.  to  wait  for,  await, 

tarry  for,  1131,  1732,  2269,  3072. 
Abowed    to,    bowed    down    to, 

1 1167. 
A-buschid,  pp.    F.    in    ambush, 

3634. 

Ac,  106,  Ac. ) 
Ak,  678,        |  conj.  S.  but. 
Ek,  715,        ) 

A-chape,  1248,  \      v 

A-schape,  1671, 1855,3013,  J  v' 

to  escape  ;  pp.  a-chaped,  2805  ;  a- 

schaped,   2341,   2816;    a-schapet, 

2549. 

Acorde,  v.  F.  to  agree,  2657.  Ch. 
A-cord,  n.  F.  agreement,  2964.  Ch. 
A-coupyng,  3438,  }  -p  .  ,  fc 
Coupyng,  3602,  }n'  *'  V1° 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


251 


pp.  S.  afraid, 
terrified.  A.S. 


encounter.     0.  F.  acoper,  heurter, 

frapper  au  cote.    Roq. 
Acoyed,  pt.  s.  enticed,  56.     Ch. 

See  Coies. 
A-cuntred,  pt.  pi.  F.  encountered, 

3602. 

A-day,  190,    \  in  a  day,   in  the 
A-daye,  610,  j  day-time. 

A-doteJ),  pr.  s.  grows  silly,  2054. 

See  Doted. 
A-doun,  adv.  down,  1073,  1244. 

"See  Taylor's   Note  on   Tooke's 

Diversions  of  Parley,  v.  I.  p.  ix, 

ed.  8vo."— M. 
Adouted,  pp.  F.  feared,  dreaded, 

t  33, 1 247,  t  400. 
A-drad,1980,2005,  j 
Adradde,  1783, 
A-dredde,  4034, 

on-drcedan. 

A-fraied,^.  afraid,  2158. 
A-fri^t,  pp.  frightened,  2784.   A.  S. 

frihtan. 
Agast,  pp.  aghast,  terrified,  1778. 

A-gayn,  adv.  S.  again,  395.     See 

A-^ayue. 

A-gayn,  233        V          g        { 
A-geynes,  1341,  ]r 

towards.    See  A-^eynes. 
A-gelt.     See  A-gult. 

A-greJ-ed  62       1  ™>.dressed,pre- 
A-greijjed,  1598,  f  u 

pared,  made  ready.    See  Greifce. 
A-greued,  pp.  grieved,  641,  2116. 

[Miswritten  a-greues,  in  1.  1076.] 

A-grise,  $£>.  afraid,  terrified,  1743, 
f  911,  f  986.  Ch,  Cf.  A.S.  a- 
grisan,  to  fear. 

Agult,  v.  to  offend,  sin  against, 
4401 ;  pp.  a-gelt,  4391.  A.S.  a- 
giltan. 

A-hi^t,  pt.  s.  was  called,  586. 
See  Hi^t. 

Ai,  n.  S.  an  egg,  f  1004,  f  1007. 

Aie,  n.  S.  awe,  fear,  f  1243. 


A-ioyned,  pp.  F.  adjoining,  near, 
1753. 

Ak.     See  Ac. 

A-knowe,  pp.  S.  Always  joined 
with  the  verb  ben,  to  be,  as  "was 
aknowe,"  421 ;  "  ich  am  aknowe," 
4391;  "we  &?  aknowe,"  4788.  To 
be  aknowe  =  to  be  aware,  to  ac- 
knowledge, confess.  "  Been  a- 
knowe  wyl  fully.  Confiteor.  Be 
a-knowe  a-geyne  wylle.  Fateor" 
Prompt.  Parv.  Cf.  A.S.  on-cndwan. 

Al,  Alle,  adj.  S.  all.  "  To  write 
correctly  al  should  be  used  for  the 
sing.  nom.  and  alle  for  the  pi.  (as 
the  S.  eal  and  ealle]  but  the  rule  is 
often  violated,  particularly  in  MSS. 
of  the  14th  and  subsequent  cen- 
turies. This  observation  might  be 
extended  to  a  large  class  of  adjec- 
tives and  substantives  which  have 
now  lost  their  final  syllables." — M. 
Alt  alle,  At  al,  in  all  things,  283, 
597.  Al  bothe,  both  of  them,  where 
al  is  an  expletive,  851.  Al  a  ni^f, 
all  one  night,  all  night,  2215.  And 
see  Algate,  Alway. 

Alday,  all  day,  1682. 

Alden,  pp.  holden,  1875.  See 
Halde. 

Alder,  elder,  f  22. 

Alder-,  gen.  pi.  of  all.  Used  only 
with  an  adjective  in  the  superl. 
degree.  Alder-aldmt,  eldest  of  all, 
f  27.  Alderftrst,  Alder-formest, 
first  of  all,  3345,  4884. 

Aides,  pr.  s.  holds,    441.      See 

Halde. 
A-legget,^/>.  F.  alleviated,  allayed, 

1034.     See  Allay  in  Wedgwood. 
A-leide,  pt.  s.  S.  abolished,  put 

down,  5240. 
Algate,   Al-gate,  in  all  ways,  by 

all  means,  always,  649,  948,  1064. 

Ch. 

A-liue,  alive,  4235,  5279.  [A.S. 
on,  life  (Mat.  27.  63),  which  are  two 
separate  words.] 

.  s.  alighted,  399,  3923. 


252 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


Alrnauns,  Germans,  1165. 
A-losed,  pp.  F.  praised,  renowned, 

f!39,  1174,  f331,  t577.     See 

Loos.    Ch. 

Alouten,v.  to  bow  down  to,  f852; 
pt.  s.  a-louted,  bowed  down,  made 
obeisance,  3721.  A.S.  hlutan. 

Als,  996,3543, 


as  quickly  as  may  be,  very  quickly, 
3158.  [A.S.  eall-swd,  whence  0.  E. 
0/-S0,  alse,  and  #/,?,  now  contract- 
ed into  as,  the  words  as  and  a/«o 
being  etyniologically  identical.] 

Alto-shiuered,    broke    in   pieces, 

3603.     See  note  to  1.  3884. 
Al-way,  adv.  all  the  while,  345. 

Alwes,  n.  pi.  S.  371.  Hal  alwes 
=  all  hallows,  all  saints. 

Amased,  pp.  distracted,  con- 
founded, 686.  See  Mase. 

Amendis,  n.pl.  amends,  488,  493, 

3919. 
A-meruailed,  pp.    F.   astonished, 

3857. 

Amiddes,  amidst,  f  834.    Ch. 
Amonges,  amongst,  f  59.     Ch. 
An,  put  for  And,  445,  884,  1538. 

An,  put  for  On,  in  phrase  wel  an 
fiue  myle=nearly  five  miles,  5110. 

And,  eonj.  if,  3803,  4168.  [In 
1.  3803  it  is  written  "  &."] 

Anger,  n.  anxiety,  sorrow,  552. 
A.S.  ange. 

An-honged,#p.  S.  hung  up,  4773. 
Ch. 

A-ni3t,2920,  }  by  night,  by  nights, 
A-ni3tes,785,  j  at  night.     Ch. 

Anker,  n.  anchor,  568. 

A-non,  Anon,  adv.  immediately, 
813,  913.  Anon  rijt,  Anon  rnttes, 
immediately,  273,  235. 

Antresse  (JAunteres),  pr.s.  adven- 
tures, ventures,  1028.  See  Aunter. 


apparel. 


pp.  pleased, 
contented 


A-paraile,  5028, 
A-parrayl,  3224, 

Aparaylde  hem,  apparelled  them 
selves,  1146. 

A-paied,  1883, 5358, 
Apai^ed,  1871, 4007,  ' 
Apayed,  1,  1314, 

See  Paide. 
Apeire,   v.   F.   to  impair,   injure, 

1 1244 ;  pp.  a-peyred,  marred,  933. 

"Appeyryn,  or  make  wore."  Prom. 

Parv.     Ch. 

Apertly,  A-pertli,  adv.  evidently, 

plainly,  1,  4706.    Ch. 
Apes,  2299. 

Arad,#p.  divined,  explained,  f  647 . 
See  Arede. 

Araie,  3367,  )  n.  F.   array, 

Aray,  1597, 1601,  j  order. 
Araie,  v.  F.  to  array,  dispose  troops 

in  order,  3561 ;  pp.  a-raied,  1926, 

1942  ;  a-raid,  1934 ;  a-rabed,  3375, 

3563  ;  arayed,  1153. 
Are,    adv.    S.    ere,  before,    226; 

superl.  arst,  q.  v.    See  Er. 
Are-blast,  n.  F.  arblast,  a  kind  of 

crossbow,  f  268.     From  Lat.  arcus 

and  balista. 

Areche,  v.  S.  to  reach,  f  441. 
Arede,    v.    to    divine,    expound, 

1 573;  to  read,  f  838  ;  pp.  arad,  q.v. 

A.S.  a-rcedian. 

A-redili,   adv.   S.   readily,  easily, 

5006,  5026,  5230. 
A-reise,  v.  S.  to  raise,  4342. 
Aren,  are;  2p.pl.  2665  ;  3 p. pi. 

615.     See  Arn  and  Ben. 
Arere,   v.  S.  to  raise,  f  360  ;  pt. 
pi  a-rered,  2645.    See  Wycl.  Gloss. 
Arewe,  n.  S.  an  arrow,  885. 
Arise.     See  A-ros. 

Armed,  pp.  fortified,  emboldened, 

courageous,  |1095. 
Armure,  armour,  3769. 
Arn,   are;   2  p.  pi.   106,   3123; 


GLOSS ARIAL    INDEX. 


253 


3  p.  pi.  1694,  5131.    See  Aren  and 
Ben. 

Arnd,  errand,  5287.    See  Erand. 

A-ros,  pt.  s.  arose,  810,  2744, 
3270  ;  arise,  2737  ;  pp.  arise,  1297. 
The  form  arise  =  arose  occurs  in 
both  texts  o/La^amon,  1.  25988. 

Artou,  5157, ) 

i  OK f\   }  art  thou. 
Artow,  1250,  j 

Arst,   snperl.    adv.    first,   before, 

2737,  3046,  4154,  4863,  5403  ;  at 

arst  =  at  first,  i.  e.  for  the  first 

time,  1028. 
As  =  has,  2029. 
A-saie,  v.  F.  to  essay,  try,  3754 ; 

pp.  a-saide,  637,  4984. 
A-saute,  Asaute,  n.  F.  an  assault, 

f95,  fl45,   f262;    pi.  a-sautes, 

2708 ;  a-sawtes,  4221. 
A-schamed,  pp.  ashamed,  1035. 
A-schape.     See  A-chape. 
Aschis,  n.  pi.  S.  ashes,  4368. 
Aschried,^.  s.  3895,    )     ., 
A-schri3ed,^...  3827,^^ 
Ascried,^.^.  3814,     )  01 

called  out  to.     0.  Fr.  escrier.     Cf. 

ascry  in  Ch. 

A-seged,  pp.  F.  besieged,  4224. 
A-segned,  pp.    F.  assigned,  581. 

Cf.  A-signed  in  1.  3627. 
Asele,  v.  F.  to  seal,  f  829. 

A-sembled,  pp.  F.  assembled, 
1120,  1288;  pt.  s.  a-sembled  to, 
attacked,  3425  ;  pt.  pi.  a-sembled, 
met  in  a  hostile  manner,  encoun- 
tered, 3409;  a-sembleden,  3815. 
Cf.  Sembul. 

A-sent,  n.  F.  assent,  1300. 

A-sent,    v.    F.    to    assent,    482, 

2692 ;  pp.  a-sented,  538. 
Asise,  n.  F.  site,  situation,  4451. 
A-slepe,  S.  asleep,  792,  798,  839. 

Spelt  a-slape,  1995. 
A-spie,  v.  F.  to  spy  after,  watch 

after,  774 ;  pp.  a-spied,  2577. 


A-spyes,  n.  pi.  F.  spies, 
Assone  as,  as  soon  as,  4345. 
Astate,    n.    F.     state,    condition, 

5376.     0.  F.  estat.     Ch. 
A-stente,  v.  S.  to  stop,  1527.   See 

Stint. 
Astit,  adv.  very  soon,  3943.    See 

Tit. 

A-stoneyd,  pp.  F.  astonished,  880. 
Astow,  hast  thou,  4724. 
A-strangeled,  pp.  strangled,  150. 

0.  F.  estraindre. 
Aswi]?e,  as  soon  as  might  be,  very 

soon,  3555,  3811.     See  SwiJ?e. 
A-teyned,^>£.  s.F.  extended,  5498. 
A-tir,  n.   F.   attire,  dress,  1721, 

3183  ;  equipment  for  battle,  1147  ; 

—  atyr,  1428. 

A-tired,  pp.  F.  equipped,  1228. 

See  A-tyred. 
A-tiryng,  n.  dress,  apparel,  1941. 

Atling,  n.  preparation,  a  getting 

ready,  f  268. 

Attele,  )  v.  to  go  towards,  ap- 
Attely,  )  proach,  205  ;  to  con- 
jecture, aim  at,  judge,  404 ;  1  p. 
pr.  atteli  (=  attele  i),  I  intend,  I 
design,  3220 ;  3  p.  pr.  attles,  goes 
towards,  f  109  ;  pt.  s.  atteled, 
guessed,  conjectured,  813  ;  att- 
lede,  861,  941,  1015  ;  attelede, 
went  towards,  1760  ;  pt.  pi.  ettele- 
den,  went  towards,  272.  North  E. 
and  Sc.  ettle,  0.  N.  atla,  to  aim  at, 
intend,  design. 

Atte,  Att,  at  the  ;  in  the  following. 
Att  best,  Atte dest,&t  the  best,  1142, 
1575,  4121  (cf.  atte  best  in  1.  4283 
with  at  te  best  in  the  line  follow- 
ing);  atte  cherche,&t  the  church, 
1961 ;  atte  de\>e,  1511 ;  atte  fulle, 
4916;  atte  last,  at  the  last,  1389  ; 
atte  roche,  at  the  rock,  2367  ;  in  all 
which  cases  the  article  seems  to  be 
comprehended  in  the  second  syl- 
lable. But  in  atte  hese,  at  ease,  3208, 
and  atte  wille,  1414,  atte  seems  to 


254 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


be  no  more  than  the  preposition  at. 
And  it  is  certain  that  atte=at  and 
no  more,  in  the  following  :  atte 
here  herte,  at  her  heart,  539  ;  atte 
J?<?  day,  1599  ;  atte  \>e  best,  4186  ; 
att  aile,  in  all  things,  wholly,  283. 
The  spelling  atte  being  adopted  to 
signify  at  te  or  at  \>e,  it  was  erro- 
neously used  instead  of  at  in  other 
cases. 

Attese,  at  ease,  1295. 

Atwinne,  adv.  S.  in  two,  asunder, 
5450.  Ch. 

A-tyred  hire,  pt.  s.  dressed  her- 
self, 1706  ;  pp.  dressed,  1997, 5043. 

Auenantli,  3784,  }  -, 

Auenauntli,  4885,  5040,  j  a 
suitably,  well,  courteously. 

Auentayle,  n.  F.  The  movable 
front  to  a  helmet,  and  through 
which  the  wearer  breathed,  3608. 
"  Ventaille,  the  breathing  part  of  a 
helmet,  the  sight  of  the  beaver." 
Cotgrave. 

Auenturre,  adventure,  4921. 

Aught,  pt.  s.  S.  possessed,  owned, 
f  14,  f  173,  f  237,  A.S.  dgan,  pt.  t. 
ic  dhte.  See  Out. 

Aught  too  long,  ought  to  belong, 

f547. 
Aunceteres,  n.  pi.  ancestors,  5133. 

Aunter,  n.  F.  adventure,  occur- 
rence, f  1017  ;  pi.  aunteres  (ad- 
ventures), f  109. 

Aunter,  v.  F.  to  adventure ;  aunter 
hem  out=to  adventure  themselves 
out,  3268  ;  pr.  s.  antresse,  1028 ; 
pt.  s.  auntred,  ventured,  went  about 
seeking  an  entrance,  f  1027  ;  aun- 
tred hym,  f  290  ;  pt.  pi.  auntred 
hem,  f  230  ;  auntred  hym  till, 
ventured  against  him,  f902. 

Auntrose,  adj.  F.  adventurous  • 
hence,  dangerous,  921.  "  Awnte- 
rows,  or  dowtefulle.  Fortunalis,for- 
tuitus."  Prompt.  Parv. 

A-vowe,  n.  F.  a  vow,  532.     Ch. 


A-wai,  735, 

A-waie,  578,         •»     o 
A-wey,1280,     «^  &  away. 
A-weye,  221,  J 

A-waked,  _2tf.  s.  awoke,  677  ;  pp. 
a-waked,  679;  imp.  pi.  a-wakes, 
2049. 

Awe,  n.  S.   in  "  for  loue  ne  for 
awe,"  5430.    Eor  this  expression, 
see  also    f  1243.     "The   phrase 
appears  at  length  in  Speculum  is- 
tius  Mundi,  MS.  Reg.  17,  B.  xvii. 
Thou  shalt  not  spare  for  no  drede, 
Nefor  loue  to.  God  nefor  Ms  aice, 
To  go  out  of  the  right  lawe."— M. 

A-wede,  v.  to  lose  the  senses, 
become  mad,  45,  1750  ;  1  p.  pr.  s. 
a-wede,  3185.  A.S.  a-wedan. 

A-weite,  v.  F.  to  observe  sedulous- 
ly, espy,  2415  ;  pt.  s.  a-wayted, 
1711,  1890;  a-weited,  791.  Cf. 
Waitc. 

A-weiwardes,  away,  2188. 

A-went,  pp.  gone  away,  1672. 

A-wondred,  872, 2389,  )  ^p.aston- 
A-wondered,310,392,  j  ished. 

A.S.  a-wundrian. 

A-wrek,  2111,  ]  v.  S.  to 

A-wreke,  1128,  3422,  j  avenge; 

pt.  s.  awrak,  wreaked,  f  934. 

Ax,  v.  S.  to  ask,  require,  f  1 41.  Ch. 

Ay,   adv.   S.    ever,  always,   615, 

2239,  2849. 
Ayme,  v.  F.  to  estimate,  compute, 

1596,   3819,    3875  ;    pp.  aymed, 

5010.  0.  F.  esmer. 

A-jayne,  adv.  S.  again, 5235  ;  a-2e, 
4256,  5172  ;— a-^en,  1837  ;-a- 
^ein,  270  ;— a-^eine,  1508  ;— a^eyn, 
1921; — a^en  lepes=runs  back,  re- 
turns quickly,  1973. 

A-^ejnes,prep.  S.  against,  towards, 
1264,  1341 ;— a-^enis,  3533  ;—a- 
2ens,  2371  ; — ajene,  12  ; — a-2e, 
f333. 

A^en-turn,    n.    retreat,    way   of 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


255 


escape,  4182.    See  ^ain-torn ;  and 
cf.  A^enturned  in  Wycl.  Gloss. 

Bacheler,  n.  F.  a  bachelor,  i.  e.  a 

novice  in  arms,  840,   1136  ;  pi. 

bachilers,  1477.  See  Bacheler  in 
Roq. 

Baden.     See  Bidde. 
Baie.     See  Abaie. 

Baili,  a.  F.  a  steward,  5387.  See 
Bailleul  in  Roq. 

Baite,  1723,  }  v.  to  set  on  a  dog, 

Bayte,  11,     )  to   bait    (a  bear). 

0.  N.  beita.  See  Abet  in  Wedg- 
wood. 

Bakkes,  n.  pi.  2096,  outer  clothes 
(?)  A  word  of  doubtful  meaning. 
Sir  P.  Madden  conjectured  it  to 
mean  "  cheeks,  from  the  Teutonic 
backe,Cz\i.  boch,  which  the  Romans 
formed  into  bucca.  Vide  Wachter 
and  Haltaus,  in  v.  and  Meusel's 
Wurzel-  Worter,  p.  216."  Stratmann 
suggests  that  it  is  another  form  of 
bac/ges,  used  for  clothes.  The  con- 
text favours  such  a  rendering  ; 
"  rent  all  his  clothes  "  is  more  likely 
than  "  rent  all  his  cheeks ;  "  but 
whether  we  are  to  connect  the  word 
with  bag  or  with  back  is  hard  to 
tell,  yet  it  may  mean  no  more  than 
a  covering  for  the  back,  as  in  Chau- 
cer, Chan.  Yem.  Prol.  1.  328,  where 
another  reading  for  bak  is  bratt.  Cf . 

— dowell  it  hatte 
To  breke  beggeris  bred  •  &  bakken 

hem  with  clotys. 

Piers.  PL  ed.  Skeat,  A.  xi.  184. 
Indeed,  the  phrase  "oure  bakkes 
that  moth-eten  be,"  as  used  in  P. 
PI.  Pass.  X.  of  Text  B  (p.  195  of 
Wright's  edition),  convinces  me 
that  this  last  explanation  is  right. 
Curiously  enough,  as  if  to  remove 
all  doubt,  the  word  bakkes,  as  there 
used,  is,  in  MS.  Laud  581,  actually 
glossed  by  the  Latin  panni. 

Bale,  n.  S.  sorrow,  misfortune, 
evil,  107,  134,  460,  741,  f  56  j 


harm,  i.  e.  a  pity,  f  1170  ;  —  bal, 
1819;  pi.  bales,  476,  1055. 

Baleful,  adj.  S.  harmful,  unfor- 
tunate, 1815  ;  —  balefull  =  harm- 
ful, f  272. 

Balfulli,  adv.  miserably,  3959, 
4261 ;— balfully  =  harmfully,  hurt- 
fully,  84,  1202. 

Bane,  n.  S.  a  ban,  proclamation, 

edict,  2252. 
Banne,  v.  S.  to  ban,  to  curse,  476, 

1644  j  pt.  s.  banned,  2100. 
Baret,  n.  embarrassment,  trouble, 

486,  5518.     Cf.  0.  P.  barat,  0.  N. 

baratta. 

Barge,  n.  a  ship,  2767,  2807.  See 

Glossary  to  Romans  of  Partenay. 
Barm,  n.  S.  the  lap,  f  1004.    Ch. 

Barn,  Barne,  n.  S.  a  child,  9,  16, 
18,  f!020;  a  man,  812,  1491; 
gen.  sing,  barnes,  100,  2230 ;  pi 
barnes,  187.  See  Burn. 

Barnage,  n.  F.  baronage,  nobles, 
4797. 

Bataile,  n.  F.  a  battalion,  squad- 
ron, 3783 ;  pi.  batailes,  3561,  3562 ; 
batayles,  1152. 

Baucynes,  n.  pi.  badgers,  2299. 
"The  term  occurs  in  Juliana 
Berners,  spelt  Bausyn,  and  in  the 
Prompt,  rarv.  is  'Bawstone,  or 
bawsone,  or  a  gray '  [see  Mr 
Way's  note].  It  is  not  uncommon 
in  writers  of  the  16th  or  17th 
century,  and  is  still  retained  in 
Cheshire.  See  Todd's  Johnson, 
Nares,  and  Wilbraham.  The  root 
is  evidently  the  Celtic  bal  or  baizhl 
(see  Bullet,  in  v.),  whence  the  F. 
balsan,  Ital.  balzano,  applied  to  an 
animal  with  a  white  streak  or  spot 
in  the  face  or  foot.  Hence  also  is 
derived  the  Sc.  bawsand,  brindled. 
See  Jamieson." — M.  Cf.  pie-bald, 
and  Bawson  in  Wedgwood. 

Bayte  on,  v.  to  set  on  a  dog  at 

anything,  11.     See  Baite. 
Be,  Bi,  prep.  S.  \>y,  passim.  "When 


256 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


compounded  with  verbs,  the  ortho-  | 

graphy  is  perpetually  interchanged. 
Be  =  been,  4103.     See  Ben. 
Beaute,  n.  F.  beauty,   4534 ;  — 

beuaute,  4074. 
Bed,  Bede.     See  Bidde. 
Bedes,  pr.  s.  offers,   f  947.    Cf. 

f  260.     A.S.  beodan.     Ch. 
Bedes,  n.  pi.   S.  prayers,  beads, 

3024.     See  Bead  in  Wedgwood. 
Be-dolue,  pp.  buried,  5252.     See 

Doluen. 
Begonne,   pp.    gone    about,    i.  e. 

surrounded,    f  698.       Cf.    Bi-go. 

See  Begone  in  Wedgwood. 
Be-hilde,  beheld,  2783. 
Behi^t.     See  Bihote. 

Be-honged,  pp.   S.   hung   about, 

5015. 

Be-houes,  2349,  i  behoves,  is  suit- 
Be-houis,  1815,  )  able  for. 
Be-kenned.     See  Bikenne. 
Be-knowe,  pp.  S.  aware,  2172. 
Belaunce,  n.  F.  balance,  948. 

Beleue,  v.  S.  to  remain,  f  69.  A.S. 
be-lifan. 

Bellyng,  part.  pres.  bellowing, 
1891.  "Dame  Juliana  Berners 
confines  the  term  to  the  noise  made 
by  a  deer,  in  which  sense  it  occurs 
in  Gawin  Douglas,  Virg.  Prol.  94, 
26.  But  in  the  Prompt.  Parv. 
we  have  '  Bellyn,  or  lowyn  as  nette 
(roryn).  Mugio?  and  c  Belly nge,  of 
rorynge  of  bestys  (bellinge  of  nete). 
Mugitus:  "  -M.  See  Bell  in  Wedg- 
wood. 

Be-maked,  pp.  made,  5060. 

Bemes,  n.  pi.  S.  trumpets,  1154. 

Ch. 
Ben,  Bene,  v.  S.  to  be,  464,  1930; 

2  p.  s.  pr.  (with  a  future  significa- 
tion), bestow,  shalt  thou  be,  344 ; 

3  p.  s.  pr.  be)?,  547 ;  2  p.  pi.  pr. 
ben,  3148,  bene,  1672  ;  3  p.  pi.  pr. 
bene,  4217,  ben,  946  ;   bu>,  4447  ; 


imp.  pi.  beth,  3797 ;  pp.  be,  1943, 
3957.  See  Bi,  Arn,  Aren. 

Be-nom,  pp.  taken  away,  2450. 
A.S.  be-niman. 

Beraften,  pt.  pi.  bereft  of,  f  81. 

Bere,  n.  a  violent  noise  ;  here  ap- 
plied to  the  barking  of  a  hound,  43. 
See  Wycliffite  Glossary,  s.  v.  bire ; 
La^amon  (glossary),  s.  v.  z'bere  ; 
Stratmann,  s.  v.  bere.  Jamieson 
refers  it  to  Su-G.  boer,  the  wind. 
Sir  F.  Madden  and  Stratmann 
refer  it  to  A.S.  ge-bare,  which, 
however,  generally  means  a  gesture. 
It  may  be  an  imitative  word,  like 
birr,  buzz. 

Bere-felles,  n.  pi.  S.  bear-skins, 
2430,  2560.  See  Fel. 

Berem-chaunce,  n.  chance  of  pro- 
geny, conception,  t  971.  For  the 
spelling,  cf.  Berem-tem  in  Genesis 
8f  Exodus,  ed.  Morris,  1,  3903. 

Bern,  n.  S.  a  man,  f  212,  f  219. 

See  Barn,  Burn. 
Be-seme,  2  p.  pi.  pr.  seem,  appear 

(to  be),  1742  ;  3».  pi.  pr.  be-semen, 

2529. 

Be-sewed.    See  Bi-sowe. 

Bestow.     See  Ben. 

Bet,^.  s.  S.  he  beat,  1073,  f  300. 

Bet,  adv.  S.  better,  172,  344, 
1012  ;— bett,  f  504;  cf.  the  phrase 
more  beter,  4279. 

Bete,  v.  S.  to  make  better,  to 
better,  repair,  3167 ;  pi.  s.  bet, 
3960.  A.S.  betan,. 

BeJ>,  it  shall  be,  547.  See  Ben. 
Be-J)out,  Be-Jjou^t.    See  Bi-J?enke. 
Beurde.     See  Burde. 
Beurne.     See  Burn. 

Be-wrapped,  pt.   s.   wrapped   up, 

1735. 

Be-wrie,  v.  S.  to  bewray,  2435. 
Bi,  Be,  prep.  S.  by,  passim. 

Bi,  be  thou,  322  ;  bi  ^iue,  be  given, 
2254.  \_As  bi,  be  (=  by)  are  of  fen 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


257 


interchanged,  in  both  places  we  should 
rather  read  be.] 

IBi-cast,  pp.  beset,  2287.  For  all  bi- 
cast  an  equivalent  phrase  is  um- 
becast.  See  1.  4693. 

Bi-cheche,   1  p.  s.  pr.  I  beseech, 

1258. 
Bi-com,  pt.  s.  became,  881  ;  pp. 

bi-come,  in  phrase  were  bi-come  = 

had  gone  to,  222  ;  it  bi-comes  =  it 

goes  to,  911. 

Bidde,  1  p.  pr.  s.  T  ask  or  pray 
for,  4754  ;  pr.  s.  biddes,  5539, 
t  947  ;  I  p.  pt.  s.  bed,  I  asked  for, 
borrowed,  f  457  (where  the  MS. 
;gloss  "  had  "  is  wrong) ;  pt.  s.  bede, 
5490 ;  pt.  pi.  baden,  4797 ;  imp. 
pi.  biddi]?,  5534;  part.  pres.  bidd- 
ande,  3024  ;  pp.  bede,  2410.  A.S. 
biddan. 

Bi-falle,  v.  S.  to  befal,  547  ;  pp. 

bi-falle,  2475,  4169. 
Bi-forn,  adv.  S.  before,  428. 
Bi-gat  him,  procured  for  himself, 

177. 
Biggen,  v.  S.  to  buy,  f  1215. 

Bi-go,  pp.  S.  beset,  f  490,  f  994. 
See  Begorine,  and  Bigoo  in  Ch. 

Bi-gunne,  pt.  pi.  began,  2555. 

Bi-hest,  600, 

By-hest,  57, 

Bi-het.      See  Bi-hote. 

Bi-hilde,  pt.  s.  S.  looked,  beheld, 
2783 ;  bi-huld,  2426 ;  pp.  bi-hold, 
683. 

Bi-hote  (spelt  by-hote),  v.  S.  to 
promise,  3688  ;  2  p.  s.  imp.  bi-hote, 
2135;  pt.  s.  bi-het,  4376,  4647; 
bihwt,  576 ;  pt.  pi.  bi-l^t,  4649  ; 
pp.  be-hi^t,  606. 

Bi-huld.     See  Bi-hilde. 

Bi-houes,  it  behoves,   729  (cf.  1. 

723) ;  pt.  s.  bi-houed,  2720. 
Bi-kenne,  v.  S.  to  commit  to  the 

charge  or  protection  of  another ; 

I/?,  s. pr.  bi-kenne,  5434  ;  pt.  s.  bi- 

kerined,  350 ;  be-kenned,  371 ;  pt.  \ 


pi.  bi-kenned,  5454.     Cf.  Bt-teche, 
and  Kenne. 

Biker,  n.  fight,  battle  ;  bedes  hem 
biker  =  offers  them  battle,  f  947. 
"  Bikyr  of  fy  tyuge.  Puyna."  Prom. 
Parv.  See  Way's  note. 

Bikering,  n.  conflict,  attack,  f390. 

Bi-komsed,  pt.   pi.    commenced, 

2523.     See  Comse. 
Bileue,   v.  transitive,  S.  to  leave 

behind,  2577  ;   pt.  s.  (intrant.)  bi- 

laft,  stayed  behind,  remained,  2385; 

pt.  pi.  bi-laft,  2890. 
Bilfoder,  81,        ) 
Bilfodur;    1838,  p-     Provisions- 

"Perhaps   from   the  S.   b>/lr/,  the 

belly,  and  fodder,  food."— M.     Cf. 

belly-timber)  food,  in  Halliwell. 

Bi-liue.     See  Bliue. 

Bi-reft,  1  p.  s.  pt.  bereaved,  de- 
prived of,  4628  ;  pp.  biraft,  f  394. 

Bi-schet,  pp.  S.  shut  up,  immured, 
2014,  Ch. 

Bi-seget,  pt.  s.  besieged,  2650  ; 
bi-seged,  2843. 

Bi-seme,  2  p.  pi.  pr.  seem,  appear 
(to  be),  1733.  See  Be-seme. 

Bi-set,  j»*.  £>Z.  beset,  2281  ;  bi-sett, 
2927;  bi-sette,  1214;  bi-setten, 
set  forth,  employed,  f  437. 

Bi-side,  adv.  S.  3,  1889. 

Bi-sowe,  v.  S.  to  sew  up,  1689; 
pp.  be-sewed,  3117. 

Bi-stint,  pt .  s.  made  calm,  f  1183. 
"  Styntytf  or  make  a  thynge  to 
secyri'  of  his  werke  or  mevyuge. 
Obsto.  Prom.  Parv. 

Bi-stode,  pt.  s.  S.  stood  near,  ap- 
proached, 175. 

Bi-teche,  v.  S.  to  commit  to  the 
charge  of  any  one,  entrust,  recom- 
mend, 5184  ;  pt.  s.  bi-tok,  66,  4167; 
pt.  pi.  bi-taujt,  5211 ;  pp.  bi-taint, 
5289.  A.S.  be-t&can. 

Bi-]?enke,  v.  S.  to  think  attentive- 
ly, consider  ;  2  p.  s.  imp.  bi-^enke, 
3057 ;pt.  s.  bi-Jjout,  2748 ;  be-^out, 


17 


258 


GLOSSARIAL   INDEX. 


290,  2370 ;  be-f>ou3t  him,  2773  ;  bi- 
Jjou2t  hire,  630,  650;  pt.  pi.  bi- 
J»out  hem,  4776  ;  be-^out,  2410. 

Bi-tide,  v.  S.  to  befal,  730  ;  pt.  s. 

bitid,   4087;    bitide,   7;  bi-tidde, 

1211 ;  by-tidde,  32. 
Eitraide,  pp.  betrayed,  t  223. 
Bitterly,  adv.  S.  painfully,  2083. 
Bi-weped,  pp.  covered  with  tears, 

661. 

Bi-3ete,  n.  S.  progeny,  2303. 
Blake-beries,n.j£  S.  blackberries, 

1809. 
Ble,  n.  S.  complexion,  3083;  — 

blee,t  202,1578. 
Blenched,    pp.    blemished,   hurt, 

2471.     "  Blemschyde,  blemysshed. 

Obfuscatus.  Blenscnyn,  blemysshen, 

Obfiaeo"      Prompt.   Parv.      See 

Blemish  in  Wedgwood. 
Blessed,  pt.  s.  1192.    Sir  F.  Mad- 
den explains  it  by   "  wounded,  in- 
flicted wounds,"  from  the  E.  blesser. 

Or  it  may  mean  that  he  waved  or 

brandished  his  sword,  as  in  Spenser. 

F.  Q.  I.  v.  6,  and  Fairfax's  Tasso, 

ix.  67. 

Blesseden,  pt.  pi.  blessed,  196. 
Blefeli.   See  Blijjeliche. 
Bleynte,    pt.    pi.    looked,    3111. 

[Lit.    blinked;     cf.   Du.    and    G. 

blinken.  Sw.  blinka.  Dan.  blwke.~] 
Blinne,  v.  S.  to  pause,  cause, 

leave  off,  55,  f  398  ?  Pf-  s-  %nd> 

t  110 ;  2  p.  g.  imp.  blinne,  322 ;  1 

p.  pi.  imp.  blynne,  f  1202. 
Blisful,    adj.    S.    happy,    1055; 

blessed,  1669. 
Blipeliche,  adv.  S.  merrily,  with 

good  will,  819 ;  blej»eli,  1144, 1994 ; 

in  the  latter  place  it  means  in  sport. 
Bliue,1705,t259,  )  ,  s  ik_ 
Biliue,  248,  )  a 

ly ; — as  bliue,  as  quickly  as  might 

be,  379;  as  biliue,  351. 
Blonk,  n.   a  horse,  3326,  3362  ; 

///.  blonkes,  5041,  f  435.     "  In  old 


Teutonic,  planchaz  means  a  white 
horse,  and  the  root  is  to  be  found 
in  the  Su.  G.  and  Franc,  blank,  still 
preserved  in  the  F.  blanc.  See  Ihre 
and  Jamieson." — M. 

Blowand,  pres.  part,  blowing, 
3358. 

Bobaunce,  n.  F.  pride,  boasting, 
presumption,  always  in  phr.  "bo- 
baunce  and  bost,"  1071,  1129, 
3358.  See  Boban  in  Roq. 

Bod,  n.  S.  abiding,  delay,  149. 

Bode,  n.  S.  a  message,  tidings,  an 
order,  2145,  2154,  3767. 

Bodiesse,  n.  pi.  bodies,  3767. 
{Should  be  spelt  bodies;  but  cf. 
Antresse,  Hayresse.] 

Bogeysliche,  adv.  S.  in  a  boasting, 
boisterous,  or  bold  manner,  1707. 
"In  the  Prompt.  Parv.  is  ' Bog- 
gyschely,  Tumide/  and  in  Ray's  S. 
and  E.  Country  Words,  ' Bogge, 
bold,  forward,  sawcy.' " — M.  See 
also  Baffffe  in  Prompt.  Parv.  and 
Bulge  in  Wedgwood. 

Boi^es,  gen.  sing,  boy's,  1705. 

Bolaces,  n.  pi.  bullaces,  a  sort  of 
plum  or  sloe,  1809.  Used  by 
Chaucer,  Horn.  Rose,  1377.  See 
Bolleche  in  Roq. 

Boles,  n.  pi.  S.  bulls,  2299. 

Bolstrau^t,  pp.  prostrate,  stretched 
on  the  belly,  1852.  From  A.S. 
balg,  the  belly,  and  streccan,  to 
stretch. 

Bonde,  pi.  adj.  S.  (put  for  bonde 
men},  bondsmen,  villains,  as  opposed 
to  the  orders  of  barons  and  burgesses, 
2128.  Cf,  "Barouns  and  burgeis 
and  bonde  men  also."  Piers  Plow- 
man; A.  prol.  96. 

Bonden,  pp.  S.  bound,  2238 ;  pt. 
pi.  bounden,  1219. 

Bone,  n.  S.  boon,  prayer,  1095, 
4410;  entreaty,  f612. 

Bonke,  n.  S.  bank,  shore,  2718. 

Bonure,  adj.  F.  courteous,  affable, 
332.  See  Debonureli. 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


259 


Bordes,  n.  pi.  S.  5070. 

Bore,  pp.    S.    born,    240 ;    spelt 

borne,  510. 
Borwe,  n.  S.  borough,  town,  1889, 

2221;  — borowe,    f  30°;    borw}» 

2835;   pi.  borwes,  2123;   borous, 

f  928.     $?<?  Burw. 
Borw^,  n.  (the  same  word  as  the 

above},  a  place  of  shelter,  9.    A.S. 

beorh.     Cf.  the  term,  "a  rabbit's 

burrow" 

Borwed,jp#.  s.  S.  borrowed,  1705. 

Bost,  n.  boast,  pride,  1141.  And 
see  Bobaunce. 

Bot,  conj.  S.  but,  unless,  except, 
497,  2008  ;  also  spelt  but,  627.  But 
^if,  unless,  472.  Cf.  Bout. 

Bot,  n.  S.  a  boat  (?)  4632.  Or  else 
boute  bot  =  boute  bod,  without 
delay,  as  in  1.  149. 

Bote,  n.  S.  remedy,  627,  741, 
959,  &c. ;  do  bote  =  provide  a 
remedy,  1378. 

Botles,  adj.  S.  without  remedy, 
134,  1819  ;— botlesse,  540 ;  botte- 
les,  896 ;  botelesse,  1539. 

Botned,  pp.   S.   bettered,   cured, 

1055.     Cf.  Bete. 
Bouf,  n.  F.  beef,  1849,  1868. 

Boun,   adj.    ready,    1088,    1138, 

1144  ;— bonne,  1 160,  f  228. 
Bounden.     See  Bonden. 

Bour,  n.  S.  bower,  chamber,  657, 
1971;— boure,  1760,  |  772.  See 
Burw^-maidenes. 

Bourde,  n.  F.  a  jest,  1705.     Ch. 

Bourdes,  n.  sing.  F.  a  tournament, 
jousting.  See  Behordeis  in  Roq. 
The  word  is  probably  (like  many 
other  war  terms)  of  Teutonic 
origin. 

Boute,  prep.  S.  without,  149,  211, 
567,  812. 

Bouwes,  pr.  s.  bows,  inclines,  948. 
Bowes,  n.  pi.  S.  boughs,  23. 


Boxumly,  adv.  S.  courteously, 
332.  See  Buxumli. 

Brag,  adj.  or  adv.  bold,  boastful, 
or  boastfully,  2352  ;  sup.  braggest, 
bravest,  3048.  Cf.  "  Hy  schulde 
nou2t  beren  hem  so  bragg"  P.  PI. 
Crede,  1.  706.  See  Braguer  in  Cot. 

Braides,  pr.  s.  moves  quickly, 
hurries,  f  1081  ;— braydes,  149  ; 
braides  him,  departs  quickly, 
1 1004 ;  ft.  s.  braid  doun,  threw 
aown  or  beat  down ;  braide,  awoke, 
started  up,  f  724,  686,  cf.  1.  2096  ; 
rushed,  3848  ;  drew  quickly,  1867. 
0.  N.  bregZa.  Cf.  Abrayde  in  Ch. 

Braundise,  v.  F.  to  fling  about 
(as  a  horse),  f 1122  »  P^  5- 
braundised,  3294 ;  pres.  part,  bran- 
dissende,  waving  (their  weapons), 
2322. 

Brayn-wod,  adj.  S.  brain-mad? 
i.e.  mad,  furious,  2096.  See  P. 
PI.  A.  x.  61. 

Bredde,  pt.  pi.  S.  went  hurriedly, 
hurried,  1782.  "  The  sense  of  breed 
is  evidently  not  admissible  here. 
Cf.  Braides."— M. 

Brede,  n.  S.  breadth,  3055  ;  a 
peny  brede,  a  penny's  breadth, 
1 1244. 

Brem,  Breme,  adj.  S.  (of  very 
common  occurrence,  and  with  many 
meanings}  notable,  bold,  strong, 
fierce,  &c. ;  (applied  to  men)  3641, 
(bears)  1689,  (beasts)  1699,  (a 
child)  18,  (a  battle)  1157,  (a  host) 
3767,  (a  duke)  1141,  (deeds)  1387, 
(blood)  3861,  (an  oar)  4700,  (a 
time)  f!020,  (a  god)  f  533,  (a 
tablet)  1 615,  &c. ;  sup.  bremest, 
1686,  2936.  Ch. 

Bremli,  adv.  S.  fiercely,  3294  ; 
exceedingly,  2158  ;  -  -  bremely, 
loudly,  23  ;  —  bremly,  fiercely, 
4343';  —bremlich,  boldly,  f  1001. 
Sup.  bremliest,  most  decisively, 
948. 

Brenne,  v.  S.  to  burn,  1133, 
2123,  4261 ;  pt.  s.  brent,  1071, 


17 


260 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


1109  ;    pp.    brent,    363-1,    4367  ; 

brend,  2646,  f  729. 
Breres,  n.  £)l-  briars,  1809. 
Bretages,  n.  pi.  F.  parapets  of  a 

wall,   ramparts.      0.  F.    bretesche 

(see  Roq.),  Low  Lat.  brestachia. 

Brejjer,  n.  pi.  S.  brothers,  2641. 
[The  nom.  pi.  in  A.S.  is  broSra, 
brofcru,  brofcor,  or  brofcur.] 

Brid,  n.   S.    a   bird,    f814;  pi. 

briddes,  29,  179,  819. 
Bridhale,  n.  S.  bridal,  4947. 
Brit,  bright,  3572. 
Brode,  adj.  S.  broad,  754,  1674; 

— brod,  1732. 
Brode,  adv.  S.  in  phr.  to  brode= 

too  wide  apart,  too  far,  11. 
Brodes,  pr.  s.   publishes  abroad, 

proclaims,  f  122. 

Brond,  1244,  \  n.     S.    a    brand, 
Bront,  1192,  )  sword. 

Broder,  n.  S.  brother,  1 56.  [Pro- 
bably miswritten  for  broker  ;  cf. 
4938.] 

Brout,  brought,  3959  ;  brou^t  of 
liue  =  brought  out  of  life,  killed, 
1159. 


Brusten,  v.  to  injure  severely, 
destroy,  154.  Cf.  Dan.  brost,  hurt, 
damage. 

Brusure,  n.  F.  a  bruise,  wound, 
2461. 

Bruten,  n.  S.  to  destroy,  3760  ; 
bruttene,  1133  ;  pt.  s.  brutned, 
1073, 1202,  t888;^./?/.bruttened, 
2647  ;  pp.  bruttenet,  206.  Swed. 
bri/ta;  Dan.  bryde;  A.S.  brylan, 
breotan. 

Bugles,  n.  pi.  F.  1154. 

Burd,  n.  S.  a  lady,  maiden, 
damsel,  f715;— burde,  683,  765, 
812,  830,  f  670  ;  beurde,  t  202, 
t  205  ;  pi.  burdes,  3669,  5017  ; 
beurdes,  f  228.  Burde  no  barn, 
neither  man  nor  maid,  1971. 


Burgeis,  n.  F.  a  burgess,  1889; 

pi.  burgeys,  2128,  5017. 
Burn,  n.  S.  a  man,  332,  510,  511, 

657,  &c.  •— burne,  444,  477 :  beurn, 

f9,  fllO;  pi.  burnes,  617,  1129; 

beurnes,  f  2. 

Bur)>enes,  n.  pi.  S.  burdens,  2555. 
Burw,   n.   S.   a  town,   5335 ;  pi. 

burwes,  1073,  1109 ;  the  same  as 

Borwe,  q.  v. 

Burwi-maidenes,  n.  pi.  S.  bower- 
maidens,  attendants,  3071.  See 
Bour. 

Buschen,  v.  to  move  about  brisk- 
ly, 173.  See  Buske. 

Busily,  adv.  S.  industriously, 
eagerly,  carefully,  650,  2181,  2210 ; 
— busili,  2577. 

Busk,  n.  F.  a  bush,  3062,  3069  ; 
busch,  3101,  3111. 

Buske,  v.  to  brush  about,  hurry 
about,  hurry,  2210  ;  busk  to  or 
buske  to,  to  hurry  towards,  1968, 
2264;  busk  of  or  buske  of,  to 
hurry  from,  1653,  1997 ;  pr.  pi. 
busken,  f  426,  f  433 ;  1  p.  s.  pt. 
busked,  f  612  ;  pt.  s.  busked,  1085  ; 
(prepared),  3196  ;  busked  to,  1707, 
2055  ;  buskede  him  or  busked  him 
(went),  21, 1863 ; pt.pl.  busked  (pre- 
pared), 1152;  buskeden  (hurried), 
2819  ;  busked  hem  (went  quickly), 
1530,  2477,  2770.  See  Buschen. 
Icel.  at  buast.  See  Busk  in  Wedg- 
wood. 

But,  conj.  S.  except,  unless,  47 6, 
627,  937,  972,  f  368,  &c.  But  aif, 
unless,  758,  939  1276.  See  Bot. 

Buj?,  pr.  pi.  are,  4447.     See  Ben. 
Buxum,  adj.  S.  tractable,  obedient, 

2943  ;  meek   (applied  to  beasts), 

2720,   2854,   3085,    4062.      A,S. 

bocsam. 

Buxumli,  3717,  4972,  |  adv.     S. 
Buxumly,  2,  510,         f  meek; 

boxumly,  332  ;    comp.  buxumlier, 

723. 

By,  prep.  S.  near  ;  by  j>at  barn 
"=  near  that  child,  220. 


GLOSS ARIAL    INDEX. 


261 


Bygge,  v.  S.  to  build,  construct, 
f  1133.  SwecL&y^ya;  Dan.dggpv. 

By-hote.     to  Bi-hote. 
By-J)an,  by  the  time  that,   220. 
Of.  A.S.  &?  p«^  ]>e. 


Cacche,  v.  to  catch,  take,  obtain, 
get,  806,  2266,  2940  ;-kaeche, 
2217  ;  jar.  s.  caccheth,  3750  ;  pt.  s. 
cau^t,  4302  ;  pt.  pi.  camt,  1053, 
1495,  2867;  kau^t,  1053,  3374; 
pp.  cau^t,  4214  ;  kau^t,  2531. 

Caire,  v.  S.  to  return,  travel,  go, 
5184;  Ip.s.pr.  cairest,  5190;  pr. 
s.  cayres,  2977  ;  pt.  s.  kayred,  373  ; 
pt.  fl.  caired,  2714,  5324  ;  cayred, 
2201  ;  kayred,  3734  ;  imp.  pi. 
kairus,  f  623  ;  pres.  part,  cairende, 
1922.  A.S.  ce'rran. 

Calles,  pr.  pi.  call,  239  ;  pt.  s. 
cald,  887  ;  calde,  1460. 

(Can)  can,  know,  acknowledge  ; 
in  the  past  tense,  could,  knew,  inf. 
kenne,  f  623  ;  —  1  p.  s.  pr.  kan, 
321,  635  ;  con,  297  ;  1  p.  pi.  pr. 
kunne,  4184  ;  pr.  pi.  konne,  3334  ; 
pt.  s.  cou]?e,  2,  174,  655  ;  kowpe, 
5055;  kouj>e,  952;  coude,  4378; 
cou^de,  120  ;  cou^e,  118  ;  kende, 
f  193  ;  pt.pl.  couj>e,  577;  kowden, 
4810;  council,  1033;  co|)en,  1576; 
kende,  f  367  ;  pp.  coup,  known, 
famous,  5053. 

Care,  n.  S.  care,  grief,  sorrow, 
regret,  496  ;—  kare,  288,  424,  726, 
743. 

Careful!,  adj.  S.  full  of  care  or 
anxiety,  anxious,  sorrowful,  t  75, 
•f  244  ;  causing  care,  woful,  \  295  ; 
—earful,  2201,  2860,  31»1  ;—  kar- 
ful,  373,  3774. 

Carestow,  carest  thou,  art  thou 
sad,  3182.  See  Kares. 

Carfti,  adj.  crafty,  skilful,  3221. 
{It  should  rather  be  crafti,  but  this 
form  is  sometimes  found.  See  Ro- 
mans ofPartenay,  1.  5708.] 

Carfulli,  adv.  S.  sorrowfully,  4347; 
—  carfuli,  152;  —  karfulli,  3734. 


Carpen,  v.  to  speak,  tell,  talk, 
t748;  carpe,  4581;  carp,  832r 
T 11 ;  karpe,  2523 ;  1  p.  s.  pr.  carp, 
f  200,  f  244 ;  karp,  f  172 ;  pr.  s. 
carpes,  f  693  ;  karpes,  f  585  ;  1 
p.  s.  pt.  karped,  5233  ;  carped, 
217;^.  *.  carped,  f  72,  990;  1  p. 
pi.  imp.  carpe,  2855  ;  karpe,  4054. 
Phrase— io  karp  (karpe,  carpp)  J?e 
soj»e,  to  tell  the  truth,  503,  2801, 
655,  f  683.  "  Carpyn  or  talkyn. 
Fabidor"  Prompt.  Parv. 

Carping,  n.  talking,  speech,  4660; 
—  karping,  3100. 

Gas,  n.  F.  chance,  hap,  fortune, 
event,  326,  915, 2919 ;— case,  f  24 ; 
bi  cas,  595 ;  for  cas,  ]037.  Cli. 

Cast,  pt.  s.  cast  away,  i.  e.  lost, 
881;— caste,  contrived,  1981.  See 
Kest. 

Castel-werk,  castellated  work, 
2220. 

Castis,  n.  pi.  events,  654. 

Catel,  n.  F.  wealth,  possessions  ; 
gen.  sing,  cateles,  f  376.  Ch.  See 
Catels  in  Roq. 

Caytif,  n.  F.  a  wretch,  person  of 
low  extraction,  710.  Ch. 

Cayreden,  pt.  pi.  carried,  2520. 

Ceput.     See  Kepe. 

Certes,  adv.  certainly,  verily,  in- 
deed, 732, 1380,  1500,  &c.  Ch. 

Chambur,  n.  F.  chamber,  685. 
[MS.  chanbur.] 

Chamly,  adv.  S.  shamefully,  2124. 
Cf.  Schamly. 

Charge,  n.  F.  load,  388. 

Chase,  chose,  f  36.    See  Chese. 

Chases,  2  p.  pi.  imp.  chase  ye, 
1207. 

Chast,  v.  to  chasten,  chastise,  729; 
2  p.  s.  imp.  chaste,  5157.  P.  PL 

Chaul,  n.  S.  jowl,  jaw,  f  1119. 
A.S.  ceole.  Cf.  chol  in  P.  PL 
Crede,  and  chall  in  Hartshorne'? 
Salopia  Antiqna. 

Chaunche,  n.  F.  chance,  137. 


262 


GLOSSARIAL   INDEX. 


Channeled,  pt.  s.  enchanted  (?) 
[But  we  should  perhaps  read 
chaunged.] 

Chauntemens,  n.  pi.  F.  enchant- 
ments, 654. 

Che,  pron.  she,  462,  641,  2317. 
Of.  Sche,  and  Hue. 

Chef,  adj.  F.  chief,  3841 ;— cheefe, 
f  1210. 

Cheffaren,  v.  to  chaffer,  bargain, 
buy  and  sell,  f  1210. 

Chepinge,  n.  S.  market,  1822 ; — 
fro  chepinge  ward,  from  towards 
market,  on  the  return  from  market, 
1844. 

Chere,  n.  F.  countenance,  look, 
appearance,  demeanour,  647,  4882, 
5263.  Ch. 

Cherl,  n.  S.  churl,  countryman, 
54,  60,  62,  &c. ;— cherle,  1675  j  pi. 
cherls,  513.  Ch. 

Cherli,  adv.  F.  cheerily,  kindly, 
62. 

Chese,  v.  to  choose,  f  770 ;  pt.  s. 
ches,  4165  ;  chees,  f  321 ;  chused, 
f  140 ;  imp.  s.  ches,  4161 ;  pp.  chuse 
of  =  chosen  by,  beloved  by,  f4>9. 
Ch. 

Cheued  forth,  £>£.s.  hastened  forth, 
f78.  Cf.  O.F.  eschever,  and  see 
esquiver  in  Cotgrave. 

Cheuesed,  pt.  s.  obtained,  pro- 
cured, f  966.  See  Chemr  and  Che- 
vissance  in  Roq.  and  CJievis  in  Ch. 
Mars  and  Venus,  st.  37. 

Cheueteyn,  n.  F.  chieftain,  3379. 

Child,  n.  S.  child,  1822.  "  It  is 
here  used  for  a  person  of  gentle 
birth,  in  opposition  to  cherl." — M. 
In  1.  541  it  is  used  of  a  person  of 
mean  birth,  but  grown  up  to  man- 
hood. 

Chipmen,  n.  pi.  S.  shipmen, 
sailors,  2811,  2818. 

Choisli,  adv.  F.  aptly,  1753;— 
choicelich,  choicely,  f  49. 

Chold,^.  s.  should,  2014. 


Choliers.  See  Kolieres. 
Chortly,  adv.  S.  shortly,  2035. 
Choys,  adj.  F.  choice,  fair,  400. 
Chul,  (ye)  shall,  3339. 
Chused.     See  Chese. 
Chylder,  n.  pi.  S.  children,  f  36. 

[The  A.S.  pi.  is  cildra,  cildru.] 
Clater<ed.   See  To-clatered. 

Clene,  adj.  S.  fair,  noble,  1083, 
1124,  1434  ;  sup.  clennest,  1609. 

Clenli,    adv.    S.    cleanly,    fairly, 

clearly,  3847;—  clenliche,  3477;— 

clanli,  3288. 
Clepe,  v.  S.  to  call,   1299,  1977, 

3181  ;  2/>.  s.pr.  clepus,  249;  pr.pl. 

clepun,  2221  ;  pt.  s.  clepud,  56,  260, 

274,   977,    1182  ;    cliped,  f  836  ; 

kleped,  f  476  ;  pp.  clepud,  1956  ; 

cleped,  f944;  y-clepud,  121.    Ch. 

Cleppende.     See  Clipped. 
Clere,  adj.  F.  fair,  fine  (colour), 

579  ;—  cler  (strength),  2037. 
Clerli,  adv.  F.  finely,  4422. 
Cleued,  pt.  s.  cleaved,  stuck,  734. 

CleymeJ?,  pr.  s.  calls  out,  calls, 
4481.  Lat.  clamare. 

Clipped,  pt.  s.  S.  embraced,  63, 
1570  ;  clipte,  672,  1265  ;  dipt, 
3205  ;  clept,  675  ;  clupte,  1587  ; 
pt.  pi  dipt,  1833,  3100;  pres. 
part,  clippend,  2808  ;  cleppende, 
2804  ;  clipping,  1396  ;  pp.  clipped, 
859. 

Clipping,  n.  S.  embracing,  1053, 
3474. 

Clou3tand,  pres.  part.  S.  mending, 
clouting,  14.  A.S.  clut,  a  clout. 
"The  verb  is  preserved  in  Belgic 
klutsen,  kluteren,  to  cobble  or 
repair."—  M.  Cf.  Du.  klotsen,  to 
strike  on  ;  and  see  Clouted  in  Ch. 

Cofli,  adv.  S.  quickly,  boldly, 
f  1009  ;—  cofly,  t  693,  f  748  ;— 


A.S.  cqflice. 
Coies,^>r.  s.  soothes,  coaxes,  f  1  1  75. 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


263 


Cf.   Acoyed.      F.   coi,  from   Lat. 
quietus, 

Col,  n.  coal,  2520  -pT.  coles,  4367. 

Colled,  pt.  s.  embraced,  3032  ;— 
kolled,  69 ;  pres.  part,  collinge, 
2984.  O.F.  acoler.  See  Spenser, 
F.  Q.  iii.  2,  34. 

Com,  pt.  s.  came,  39,  47,  61  ;— 
kom,  507  ;  pt.  pi.  come,  151,  3363  ; 
pp.  come,  80,  816  ,— kome,  504  ;  — 
komen,  513.  Com  bi  =  acquire, 
1688. 

Comande,  Komande,  commanded, 
347,  1110.  See  note  to  1.  347- 

Come,  n.  S.  arrival,  4192,  4953, 
5222  ;— kome,  807  ;— coome,  t  73  ; 

—  cumme,  1 147. 

Comen,  adj.  Lat.  common,  6.   See 

Komwne. 
Comfort,  pt.  pi.  comforted,  1495; 

pt.  s.  cumfort,  1512  ;  pp.  conforted, 

380. 

Comly,  adj.  comely,  294 ; — com- 
liche,  963,  2704 ;— comelich,  f  205  ; 

—  comeliche,  987;  —  komli,   873, 
2858  ;  —  curnlich,   1 18  ;  —  cumly, 
783. 

Comliche,a£?v.  in  a  comely  manner, 
660;— comeliche,  2220  ;— komly, 
51 ;— komeliche,  423. 

Compacement,  n.  F.  contrivance, 

stratagem,  1981. 
Compers,   n.  pi.   F.  companions, 

370.    Ch. 

Comse,  v.  F.  to  commence,  begin, 
2244  ;  pr.  s.  komses,  616 ;  pt.  s. 
comsed,  37,  194,  288,  579,  &c. ; 
comsede,  832  ;  komsed,  1430 ; 
cumsed,  424,  764.  P.  PI. 

Comsing,  n.  F.  commencement ; — 
fram  comsing  to  £>ende,  from  be- 
ginning to  end,  4869,  5092. 

Con.     See  Can. 

Confort,  n.  F.  comfort,  1408. 

Conforted,  pp.  comforted,  380. 
See  Comfort. 


Coninge,  n.  F.  cunning,  skill,  120; 

— kuuning,  f  643. 
Conseyl,  n.  counsel,  advice,  114  ; 

— cunsail,  595  ;— cunsaile,  969  ; — 

cunseil,  2126  ;— cunseyl,  2105  ;— 

c  unsay  le,  1118. 

Contenaunce,  n.  F.  countenance, 
demeanour,  1401,  3076,  4900  ; 
—  countenaunce,  t  961;  —  cun- 
tenaunce,  1397  ;  —  kuntenaunce, 
942,  3323. 

Conyng,  adj.  S.  cunning,  skilful, 
653  ;— cunning,  f  463  ; — konyng, 
2917 ;  comp.  cunnyngere,  406 ; 
sup.  konyngest,  4810. 

Conyng,  n.  pi.  conies,  rabbits,  182. 
\The*ing.  is  conyng  (JPycl.  Glox*.\ 
and  we  should  expect  to  find  conynges 
here,  as  in  P.  PI.  ed.  Wright,  p.  12. 
See  Conynge  in  Halliwell,  who  calls 
it  Anglo-Norman.  It  is  Teutonic  ; 
cf.  Du.  konijn,  G.  ka)/inchen.~\ 

Coraious,  adj.'F. courageous, 3318; 
— koraious,  3352. 

Corteys,  adj.  F.  courteous,  194, 
2704  ;  —  curteyse,  406,  601  ;  — 
curteise,  1397  ;— kurtes,  4405  ;— 
curteys,  231 ; — curtais,  t  207. 

Cortynes,  n.  pi.  curtains,  2056. 
Ch. 

Come,  pp.  carved,  cut,  3233. 

Cosynes,  n.  F.  female  cousin,  625. 
See  the  note. 

Coude.     See  Can. 

Coueiiabul,  adj.  F.  meet,  agree- 
able, suitable,  4089 ;  sup.  couen- 
ablest,  3219.  Ch. 

Coupyng,  n.  F.  violent  encounter, 
3602.  See  Acoupyng. 

Couren,  pr.  pi.  F.  cower,  crouch, 
3336 ;  pt.  s.  koured,  47.  See  Koure. 

Cournales,  n.  pi.  F.  battlements, 
t  295.  See  Kerneles. 

Coufe,  adj.  S.  kind,  affable,  3659. 

Coujje,  Cou3de,  Cou3f>e,  &c.    See 

Can. 
Couwardli,  adv.  cowardly,  3336. 


264 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


Couyne,  n.  F.  contrivance,  plan, 
3147;  —  koueyne,  952.  0.  Tr. 
convine.  See  Roq.  and  Covyne  in 
Ch. 

Coynt,  adj.  F.  crafty,  artful,  skil- 
ful, 653,  1981 ;— coynte,  2824;  — 
koynt,  4090  ;— coynte  crag  (as  we 
say  a  sly  corner},  2850. 

Coynted  him,  pt.  s.  made  himself 
acquainted,  464-1. 

Coyntise,n.F.  stratagem,  art,  448, 
1688,  1972  ;  —  coyntice,  1665;— 
coyntyse,  1670,  1825. 

Cracche,    n.    F.    manger,    3233. 

"  Cracche,  cratche,  stall,  crib,  Job 

vi.  5  ;  Lk.  ii.  7,  12,  &c."     WycL 

Gloss. 

Craft,  n.  635  ;  —  kraft,  559. 
Crafti,  adj.  S.  skilful,  clever,  1681; 

comp.  craftier,  1680.  See  Carfti. 
Craftli,  adv.  S.  prudently,  3828. 
Crep,  pt.  s.  crept,  f  1009  ;  pt.  pi. 

crepten,  2235.    See  Krepe. 
Cri,  n.  F.  proclamation,  2249  ; — 

kri,  2174  ;— kry,  5405. 
Criande,  pres.  part,  crying,  4347. 
Crie  mercy,  to  beg  for  mercy,  1276. 

Croice,  n.  F.  cross,  350,  3127  j— 
croyce,  1343,  3493. 

Cristen,  adj.  Christian,  522. 

Cumly,  Cumme,  Cumsed.  See 
Comly,  Come,  Comsed. 

Cunstabul,  gen.  sing.,  constable's, 

4212. 
Cunter,  n.  F.  an  encounter,  1344. 

Cuntre,  n.  F.  country,  6  ;  — 
kontrey,  241;  — kuntre,  1673;— 
kontre*,  722;  pi.  cuntreis,  1922; 
kuntres,  5474. 

Curtais,  Curteise.     See  Corteys. 

Curtesliche,  adv.  F.  courteously, 
233  ;  —  curteysly,  274 ;  —  curtesli, 
347  ;  —  curteisle,  353  ;  —  kurteys- 
lyche,  873 ;— kurtesliche,  1430  ;— 
kurteisly,  1986  ;  —  curteyseliche, 


2662;  — kortesliche,    1430;     &c. 
See  Corteys. 
Cuuerede.    See  Keuer. 

Dalt.     See  Dele. 

Damisele,  n.  F.  damsel,  401,  562,. 
589  ;  pi.  damiseles,  1978. 

Dar,  1  p.  pres.  s.  I  dare,  564,, 
938  ;  der,  2169 ;  Ip.s.  pt.  dorst, 
2040;  pt.  s.  dorst,  305. 

Dar,  pr.  s.  in  the  phrase  "  dar  no- 
mon  hem  wite,"  no  one  need  blame 
them,  2434.  "  It  is  equivalent  here 
to  tharf,  from  S.  \earj "an,  Teut. 
darfen,'tQ  need."— M.  See  Thort. 

Dared,  pt.  s.  looked  dazed,  stared 
as  if  stupeh'ed,  gazed  fixedly,  4055. 
See  Way's  note  on  "  Daryn "  in, 
Prompt.  Parv.  Ch. 

Darked,  pt.  s.  lay  hid,  lurked,  17,. 
44,  2543  ;  pi.  darkeden,  1834  ; 
darked,  2851. 

Dawe,  n.  S.  day,  in  phr.  brou^t 
of  dawe  =  bereft  of  life,  3818  (cf. 
f  56)  ;  pi.  dawes,  77,  3704,  4719  ;. 
daywes,  570;  daies,  5490.  [When 
the  pi.  takes  the  form  dawes. 
(daywes)  it  is  preceded  by  lif.] 

Dawe,  v.  S.  to  dawn,  3261  ;  pt.  s^ 
it  dawed,  1791,  2218,  2480. 

Debate,  n.  F.  strife,  2779  ;— 
debat,  4380. 

Debonureli,  adv.  F.  courteously,, 
meekly,  730.  Cf.  Bonure. 

Ded,  dead  ;  in  phr.  "  ded  as  dore- 
nail,"  628,  3396.  [In  P.  PI.  ed. 
Wright,  p.  26,  we  have  "  as  deed 
as  a  dore-tree,"  where  the  earlier 
text  has  "  ded  as  a  dore-nayl." 
See  P.  PI.  A.  i.  161.] 

Dedain,  n.  F.  disdain,  f  313. 
O.F.  desdaing. 

Dedaine,  adj.  F.  disdainful,  f584. 

Dede,  n.  S,  deed,  1197  ;  an  ac- 
tion, i.e.  a  battle,  1137,  1187;. 
pi.  dede,  3807  ;  dedes,  1368  ;. 
dedus,  1096,  3406,  4115. 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


265 


Dede,  n.  S.  death,  2072  ;  usually 

deth,  as  in  151. 
Dede,  did.     See  Do. 
Dedut,  n.  F.  pleasure,  4998. 
Deerne.     See  Dern. 
Defaute,  n.  F.  default,  1185. 
Defoyled,  pt.  pi.  F.  trampled  on, 

depressed,  4614. 
Degised.      See  Disgised. 

Deie,  v.  to  die,  546,  f  375 ;— dei, 
696  ; — deyen,  3353  ;  1  p.  s.  pr. 
dei^e,  4349  ;  deie,  919  ;  1  p.  pi 
pr.  deuen,  3898  ;  pt.  s.  deide,  1322, 
f  1013 ;  deyde,  113  ;  pt.  pi.  deyde, 
1407. 

Del,  n.  S.  part ;  furj>e  del  =  fourth 
part,  1284.  Cf.  Ten|>edel. 

Del,  n.  F.  dool,  sorrow,  349, 
1510  ;— dol,  781,  2054  ;— doel, 
] 909  ;— dool,  88  ;— doole,  f  242, 
f613,  f926;— dul,  2757  ;— duel, 
564.  919,  1318,  1321,  1370,  1647, 
&c. 

Delfulli,a<iy.  sorrowfully  grievous- 
ly, 1980 ;— dolfulli,  2434  ;-doole- 
fully,  f  32  ;— dulfulli,  2335,  4371 ; 
— duelfulli,  578.  3422.  See  also 
Dulfull. 

Dele,  v.  S.  to  deal,  deliver 
(blows),  1222  ;  pt.  s.  dalt,  2791 ; 
pt.  pi.  delten,  3440 ;  pres.  part. 
deland,  1235 ;  pp.  de4t,  1271. 

Deliuer,  adj.  F.  quick,  nimble, 
3596. 

Deliuerly,  adv.  quickly,  349,  776, 
1119, 1702 ;— deliuerli,  1510,1909; 
— deliuerliche,  1245.  Ch. 

Deme,  v.  S.  to  judge,  declare, 
]51, 1074;  phr.  "to  deme  be  sobe," 
151,  583,  1161,  2633. 

Demeyned  him,  pt.  s.  behaved, 
1201,  3636 ;  pt.  pi.  demeued  hem, 
1222. 

Denede,  pt.  s.  dinned,  resounded, 

5014. 
Dent.     See  Dint. 


Departe,    v.    F.    (intr.)   to    part 

asunder,  sever,  2334,  5422  ;  \p.  pi. 

pt.  departed,  2026 ;  pt.  s.  (trans.') 

departed,  3894. 
Depeinted,    pp.    painted,     pour- 

trayed,   3573 ;— depeynted,   3217. 

On, 

Der.     See  Dar. 

Deraied  him,^tf.  s.  F.  acted  madly 
(like  a  man  disordered  in  mind), 
2061  ;— derailed  him,  3741  ;— 
drayed  (read  derayed  ?)  him,  1210  ; 
— deraide  [hym  ?],  f  883.  0.  F. 
desroyer,  deroyer,  dessarroyer. 

Deraine,  v.  F.  to  make  good,  to 
sustain  a  refusal  (a  law  term}, 
1 124 ;— dereine,  \  35 6.  "  Desrener, 
to  dereine  ;  to  justifie,  or  make 

g)od,  the  deniall  of  an  act,  or  fact." 
otgrave. 
Dere,  v.  S.  to  harm,  injure,  953 ; 

— derie,  f  1240.     Ch. 
Dere,  adj.  S.  dear,  precious,  401  ; 
phr.  "  whan  30U  dere  likes,"  1050  ; 
"  him   dere  |?ou3t,"   1268  ;    "  ^ou 
dere  finkes,"  4352,  4727. 

Derk,  n.  darkness,  1285,  f  714. 

Derly,  adv.  S.  dearly,  sumptu- 
ously, 1421;— derli,  4312,  4374. 

Derling,  n.   S.   a  darling,   1538  ; 

pi.  derlinges,  2568. 
Dern,  adj.  S.  secret,  1792  ; — 

derne,  f  478  ;— deerne,  f  826  ;  pi. 

derne,  f  860.  Ch. 
Dernly,  adv.  S.  secretly,  17,  131, 

13li,  1799  ;— dernli,  1050,  2208. 

DerworJ),  adj.  S.  precious,  dear, 
585, 2585  ,— derwor]>e,  1745,  2633, 
4140,  5311 ;— dereworth,  f  613  ;— 
dereworthe,  f  431,  f  692,  fl240; 
sup.  de[r]wor|7est,  3209.  P.  PI. 

Des,  n.  F.  The  dais,  or  seat  of 
honour,  4312,  4338  ;— dese,  4011. 

Descriue,  v.  F.  to  describe,  5005, 
5025  ;  1  p.  s.  pt.  descriued,  3042. 

Deschuuer,  v.  F.  to  discover, 
reveal,  3192. 


266 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


Descuuering,  n.  discovery,  1043 

— discuueryng,  1024. 
Deseuy,  v.  F.  to  deceive,  3306. 

Desgeli.  See  Disgisili,  and  tlie  note 

on  1.  5014. 
Desrnaye  2ou,  imp.  be  dismayed, 

3040. 

Desparaged,  pp.  disparaged,  485. 

Bespit,  n.  F.  mischief,  injury, 
555,  4227  ;— despyt,  3335. 

Despitously,  adv.  mischievously, 
maliciously,  1137  ;  —  despitusl'v, 
1210. 

Dessece,  n.  F.  decease,  4101. 
Destene,  n.  F,  destiny,  315. 
Destruye,  v.  F.  to  destroy,  2930  ; 

— destrue,  4147 ;— destrye,  4262; 

pp.  destruyt,  2847;  destrued,  2646  ; 

destruyed,  2124. 

Deuel,  n.   S.   devil,    1976  ;  phr. 

"adeuelwai,"1978.     Ch. 
Deuer,  n.  F.  duty,  474,  2546  ;— 

deuere,  520.     Ch. 
Deuis,  n.  F.  device,  3222. 
Deuise,   v.    F.    to   describe,  talk 

about,  tell  of,  2985  ;— diuise,  1316, 

2635 ;  deuice,  1603  ;  nt.  pi.  deuised, 

3302. 

Deuouteliche,  adv.  devoutly,  ear- 
nestly, 2976 ;— deuoteliche,  1245. 

Deuoyde,  v.  F.  to  quit,  leave, 
2044. 

Digised.     See  Disgised. 

Dkrne,  adj.  F.  worthy,  583,  4583  ; 

—ding,  f  313.     Ch. 
Dignely,  adv.   worthily,  520  ; — 

dingneli,  4567. 
Diked,  pp.  dug  out,  2233. 

Dint,  n.  a  stroke,  blow,  1234, 
2784,  f343;-dent,  2757,  3750; 
pi.  dintes,  1222,  f  124,  fl30;— 
dentes,  1215,  3440  ;  —  dvntes, 
f295. 

Disgisecl.  pp.  disguised,  1677; — 
degised,  3888  ;-digised,  2530. 


Disgisi,  adj.  F.  in  disguise, 
masked,  mummerwise,  1620  ;— dis- 
gesye,  secret,  2715. 

Disgisili,  adv.  strangely,  extra- 
ordinarily, 485  ;— desgeli,  5014,  on 
which  line  see  the  Note. 

Diting,  an  error  for  Tiding,  1478. 
Diuise.     See  Deuise. 

Di^t,  v.  S.  to  dispose,  get  ready, 
prepare,  3253  ;  pt.  s.  (with  him), 
1119;  pt.^pl.  (with  hem),  1799; 
pp.  dijt,  i.  e.  dressed,  prepared, 
ready,  destined  (with  reference  to 
death),  151,  315,  776,  1620,  1643, 
1677,  3222  ;  1  p.  imp.  pi.  "  di^r, 
we  vs  henne,"  let  us  readily  go 
hence,  2553.  Ch. 

Done,  v.  S.  to  do,  to  cause,  320, 
860  ;  also  to  fight  (metaphorically), 
3252 ;  1  p.  pr.  s.  do,  3249 ;  3  p. 

pr.  s.  do]>,  925  ;    dos,  4202  ;  2  p. 

pr.  pi.  doj>,  1452  ;  3  p.  pr.  pi.  don, 
3244;  1  p.pt.  s.  dede,  555;  3  p. 

pt.  s.  dede,  862, 1025  ;  dude,  3427; 

pt.  pi.  dede,  2092  ;  dude,  1145 ; 
imp.  s.  do,  2127  ;  imp.  pi.  do]>, 


3807;  pp.  don,  2928;  do,  936, 
1024.  Phr.  dude  to  dethe  =  did 
to  death,  killed,  3427;  dude  hem 
for])  =  went  forth,  1145  ;  dede 
hem  on  gate  =  went  on  their  way, 
2092  ;  cf.  1119  ;  dede  him  our, 
went  out,  2061  ;  done  (pp.)  = 
dead,  937.  "When  followed  by 
another  verb,  the  latter  is  always 
in  the  infinitive  mood  (as  in  the 
case  after  all  the  other  auxiliaries) 
and  [often]  receives  a  passive  sig- 
nification."— M.  E.  g.  dede  calif  ^ 
caused  to  be  called,  1522  ;  dctfe 
clepe,  1299;  do  m>,  cause  to  be 
proclaimed,  2127,  4049  ;  do  kepe, 
cause  to  be  kept,  413,  dede  fect-lic, 
1303  ;  do  quelle,  cause  to  be  killed, 
1246 ;  dede  tmnsh/fe,  caused  to  be 
translated,  167-  The  exception  to 
this  is  when  the  verb  following  is 
neuter.  E.g.  dede  astente,  made 
to  stop,  1526  ;  dede  to  mete,  caused 
to  dream,  862  ;  dede  renne,  caused 
to  run,  3390  ;  do  vanisch,  639. 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


267 


Another  exception  is  when  do  is 
followed  by  him  (used  reflexively), 
as  in  do  him  lo\>e  mi  loue,  cause 
himself  to  loathe  my  love,  546.  An- 
other phrase  is  do  to  wife  (651, 1331, 
1459)  =  to  cause  to  know,  which 
is  still  in  use,  and  in  which  to  wife 
takes  the  place  of  the  A.S.  gerund. 

.Doel,  Dol,  Dool.     See  Del. 

Dof,  imp.  s.  doff  tliou,  do  thou 

off,  2342. 
Doluen,  pp.  (from  delve),  buried, 

4210 ;    doluen  quic,  buried  alive, 

1564;  ded  and  doluen,  dead  and 

buried,  2630,  5280,  1 1026.     Ck. 
Dom,  n.  S.  judgment,  doom,  1220. 

Ch. 

Dornayl,  Dorenail.     See  Ded. 
Dorst.    See  Dar. 
.Doted,    pp.    F.    foolish,   idiotic, 

4055.     &<?  A-doteJ>.    Ch. 
Dounes,  n.  pi  S.  downs,  2903. 
Doun  ri^tes.     See  Ki^tes. 
Douten,  pr.  pi.  fear,  are  afraid  of, 

1 168.   0.  F.  douter.    Cf.  Adouted. 
.Doubter,    gen.    sing,    daughter's, 

3152. 
Doutusli,  adv.  doubtfully,  4338. 

Cf.  Douteous  in  Ch. 
"Douati,  adj.  S.  doughty,  brave, 

1101,  1215,  1352  ;-dou3thi,  1302, 

2709  ;  —  dou^ty,      1318  ;     comp. 

douitiere,    1161 ;    sup.    dottiest, 

1197. 

Doi^tili,  adv.  bravely,  1222. 
Draiht.    See  Dreche. 
Drawe.    See  Drou$. 
Drayed.     See  Deraied. 
^Dreche,  v.  S.  to  disturb,  molest, 

t  765 ;  pt.  s.  draihte,  t  752 ;  pp. 

draiht,  t  820.     A.S.  dreccan,  pt.  t. 

drehte,  pp.  dreht,  gedreht.  Ch.    See 

Way's  note  in  Prompt.  Parv. 

Drede,  n.  S.  dread,  fear,   1909; 

miswritten  dredre,  1892. 
Dreew.  See  Drou^. 


Drem,  n.  S.  a  droning  noise,  f781 , 
|982.  See  note  to  1.  f  781. 

Dreme,  n.  S.  a  dream,  752. 

Dressed  him,  pt.  s.  addressed  him- 
self, 1237. 

Dreeing,  n  S.  suffering,  919.  Cf. 
Drie." 

Drie,  v.  S.  to  endure,  suffer,  1772, 
t373;-drye,  459,  1 1069 ;— dry, 
t!067;  \p.pr.s.  dry e,  459  ;  2  p. 
pr.  pi.  dmen,  3704 ;  pt.  s.  dried, 
t242;  drey,  2864;  drei^h,  2796. 
A.S.  dreogan.  Sc.  dree.  Cf.  Moeso- 
Goth.  dringan. 

Drift,  n.  S.  driving-power,  f  998  ; 
chasing,  onset,  f  897. 

Driuen,  p)\  pi.  "  driuen  for])  ]?at 
day,"  drive  forth  (i.  e.  pass)  the 
day,  3065;  pt.  s.  drof  (drove), 
t  891 ;  pp.  driue  (driven),  979. 

Dronked,    pp.     drenched,    i.    e. 

drowned,  3516. 
Dronken,  pt.  pi.  drank,  1906. 

Drouned,  pt.  s.  droned,  made  a 
droning  noise,  f  985.  Cf.  Mceso- 
Goth.  drunjus. 

Drou},  pt.  s.  drew,  drew  near,  ap- 
proached, 2208  ;  dreew,  t  714 ; 
drow,  1068, 1235, 1321, 1526, 1914; 
drow  him,  4338;  pt.  pi.  drou?,  781, 
3065;  drowe,  1089  ;  drowen,  1220; 
drow  hem,  1792 ;  drowen  them, 
f  795  ;  was  drawe  him=had  drawn 
himself,  44. 

Duel,  Dul.     See  Del. 

Dulfull,  adj.  doleful,  causing  dole, 
1 143  ;— duelful,  3440. 

Dupe,  adj.  S.  deep,  fl!32,  fH56. 

Duresse,  n.  F.  hardship,  constraint, 
cruelty,  1074,  1114,  1125,  1546, 
&c.  Ch. 

Dwelle,  v.  to  delay,  tarry,  701  ; 
pr.  s.  dwelles,  1989 ;  pt.  s.  dwelled, 
1966.  Dan.  dvcele.  Sw.  dvdljas. 

Dwer]?,  n.  S.  a  dwarf,  362  (see 
Note).  A.S.  dweorg,  Dan.  and  Sw. 
dverg. 


263 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


I) wined,  pt.  s.  pined,  dwindled, 
578.  A.S.  dicinan.  Ch. 

Eche,  each,  517.  "It  is  usual  to 
find  a  (for  an,  one)  used  after  this 
word,  as  eche  a  barn,  188  ;  eche  a 
,-i/nk,  1472;  eche  a  strete,  1617; 
eche  a  kuntre,  1673  ;  eche  a  gom, 
3465  ;  [eche  a  seg,  3932  ;]  eche  a 
baili,  5387  ;  eche  a  lord,  5399  ;  and 
when  combined  with  it,  is  written 
both  in  Old  English  and  Scotch, 
ilka."— M. 

Eft,  adv.  afterwards,  again,  882, 
1049,  f  552;— eft  as  fele,  as  many 
again,  3372. 

Egge-tol,  n.  edged  tool,  sharp  in- 
strument, 3755.  [It  seems  to  be  a 
compound  noun ;  cf.  A.S.  ecg-bana, 
ecg-hete,  &c.] 

Egged,  pt.  s.    S.  incited,  urged, 

1130.     A.S.  eggian.     O.N.  eggia. 

Dan.  egge.      "  Eggyn,  or  entycyn' 

to  doon'  wel  or  yvele."      Prompt. 

Jrarv. 
Egre,  adj.  F.  eager,   courageous, 

3636. 
Eiles,  pr.    s.   ails,    afflicts,    634, 

1533;— eyles,  944;  pt.   s.  eilede, 

951 ;— eyled,  831,  888. 
Eir,  n.  F.  heir,  709,  1474,  4102  ; 

—  eyr,  4641;  — eyer,  77;  — eyre. 

Eijjer  .  .  .  other,  each  .  .  .  the 
other,  i.e.  one  another,  1010, 1032, 
1613,  2505,  3032,  4889,  5200. 
Ei^er  (each),  1054 ;  spelt  ej>er, 
833;  cf.  e^er,  1240;  gen.  sing. 
eiders  (each  other's),  1014. 

Ei^en,  n.  pi.  S.  eyes,  463,  465, 
1063, 1585 ;— ebyen,  228 ;— eyuen, 
458. 

Ek,  but,  715.     See  Ak. 

Eke,  adv.  also,  473. 

Eld,  adj.  S.  old,  3498. 

Elde,  n.  S.  old  age,  5227. 

Elles,  else,  otherwise,  1132, 1571, 
2671;  — eles,  f  55,  f  209.  A.S. 
elks. 


Em,  n.    S.    uncle,    3421,    3435;. 

gen.  sing,  ernes,  3426.     Ch. 
Emperice,  n.  F.  empress,   5343, 

5400.    Ch. 

Enchaunmens,  n.  pi.  enchant- 
ments, 137. 

Encheson,  n.  F.  occasion,  cause, 
fl070,  3697,  4173 ;— enchesoun, 
1172,  f  140. 

Ender  day,  by-gone  day,  day  past, 
3042.  See?.  PI.  Crede,  1.  239,. 
and  hendre  in  Jamieson. 

Enforced,  pp.  strengthened,  forci- 
bly occupied,  f  908. 

Engines,  n.  pi.  warlike  engines,. 
|294;  — engynes,  3000. 

Enpoysoun,  v.  F.  to  poison,  4650. 

Ensaumples,  n.pl.  F.  examples,  |8. 

Entecches,  n.  pi.  F.  spots,  stains- 

(metaphorically  used),  558. 
Entent,  n.  F.  intention,  1544. 
Entres,  n.  pi.  F.  entries,  passes,.. 

f908. 

Eny,  any,  2223  ;— eni,  1077. 
Enys,  adv.  once,  1093.    A.S.  dries, 

gen.  of  an,  one.     [But  it  is  a  mere- 

expletive  in  this  placed] 

Er,  conj.  S.  before,  ere,  1612, 
2026;  — her,  1515;  — or,  f310,. 
t791.  SwEre. 

Erande,  n.  S.  an  errand,  4156 ; — 
herend,  1469  ;— herande,  1592;— 
arnd,  5287.  Cf.  Moeso-Goth.. 
airman,  to  go  on  a  message. 

Erber,  n.  arbour,  1752. 

Erden,  v.  S.  to  dwell,  5260  ;pt.  s.. 

erded,  1417. 
Ere,  adv.  S.  before,  formerly,  160,, 

3031,  4180,  5233.     Cf.  Are. 
Eritage,  n.  F.  heritage,  4097,  |464. . 
Erliche,  adv.  S.  early,  1296,2519.. 
Ern,  n.  S.  an  eagle,  3105.     Ch. 
Em  =  3erne,  f  1 09 1 .    See  3erne. 
Ert,  art  thou,  f  592.    Ch. 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


269 


Eschel,  n.  F.  troop,  company,  bat- 
talion, 3379,  3564,  3785.  O.F. 
eschelle. 

Esed,  pp.  made  at  ease,  accom- 
modated, 1632,  5338. 

Estres,  n.  pi.  F.  retreats,  recesses 
(of  a  garden),  1768.     Applied  in 
Ch.  to  the  inward  parts  of  a  house, 
&c.     See  O.F.  estre  in  Roq. 
"Like  to  the  estres  of  the  grisly 

place, 
That  higlit  the  cret  tempul  of  Mars 

in  Trace."— "Ch.  Kn.  Ta.  1113. 
Cf.  Rom.  of  the  Rose,  1448,  3626. 

Eten,^.jtf.  ate,  1906,  2515. 

Eth,  adj.  S.  easy,  3571.  Ch.  A.S. 

ed%. 

E]>er,  either,  each,  833.  See  EiJ>er. 
Etteleden,  pt.  pi.  hurried,   272. 

See  Attele. 
Euele,  n.  S.  evil,  mischief,  558, 

1065. 
Eiien,  adv.  straight,  exactly,  hard 

by,  755,  1093;— euene,  747,  762, 

811. 

Euenly,  adv.  straightway,  1747. 

Euen-while,  n.  even-time,  even- 
tide, 1747. 

Euerich,  every,  622,  1474;  — 
euereche  on,  every  one,  5412. 

Facioun.  See  Fasoun. 

Fade,  j?p.  faded,  891. 

Fader,  n.  S.  father,  241,  &c. ]  gen. 
sing,  fader,  4996. 

Faileden,  pt.  pi.  failed,  2660. 

Fain.  See  Fayn. 

Fairre,  comp.  adj.  fairer,  4437. 

Falle,  v.  S.  to  befall,  happen,  324, 
806,  1700  ;  pr.  s.  falles  me  (happens 
to  me),  439 ;  falles  (suits,  appertains, 
belongs),  14,  339,  1685,  2789;  pt. 
s.  fei  (befell),  903  ;  fel  for  (suited), 
1766 ;  him  fel  (behoved  him),  4440. 

Fantasie,  n.  F.  fancy,  apprehen- 
sion (of  evil),  f  384.  Ch. 


Fanteme,  n.  F.  a  phantom,  a  fancy, 
703,  2315,  4109. 

Fare,  v.  S.  to  go,  5079,  5142  -,pr. 
s.  fares,  1315  ;  pt.  s.  ferd  or  ferde, 
30,  1479,  2649,  (behaved)  884, 
2073,  (fared,  did)  1497,  1499, 
(befell)  1922  j  pt.  pi.  ferden,  2745, 
2809  ;  ferde,  1913  ;  ferd,  1915  ; 
farde,  f  305 ;  pp.  faren,  1514, 
5468  ;  fare,  2485,  f  224  ;  faren 
for>  =  proceeded,  advanced,  3260; 
cf.  2730,  4450. 

Fare,  n.  S.  journey ;  hence,  busi- 
ness, "goings-on,"  affair  (esp.  a 
troublesome  business),  1091,  2079, 
2802,  2943,  4580,  &c. 

Farre,  comp.  adv.  farther,  f  244. 
Faiiy.     See  Ferli. 

Fasoun,  n.  F.  fashion,  shape,  make, 
402,  934,  4440;— fason,  2836;— 
facioun,  500. 

Faujt,^.  s.  fought,  3426;^.  pi. 

fo^ten,  3414. 
Fax,  n.  S.  hair,  2097. 

Fayn,  adj.  S.  glad,  2817  ;  —  fain, 
1783;  sup.  faynest,  3933;  (adv.) 
fayn  (gladly),  858. 

Fayre,  adv.  fairly,  kindly,  347. 

Feele,  Feole.    See  Fele. 

Feffe,  v.  F.  to  enfeoff,  provide  for, 

5ive  presents  to,  1061 ;  pp.  feffed, 
93.    Ch. 

Feintise,  n.  F.  faintness,  436 ; — 
feyntyce  (cowardice),  1188  ;— feyn- 
tise  (flinching),  763  ;  phrase, 
"fei}>li  boute  feintyse,"  verily, 
without  flinching  (or  hesitation), 
1543,  3169.  Ch. 

Feib,  n.  S.  faith,  858 ;— fewb, 
275. 

Feibli,  adv.  in  faith,  truly,  777, 
828,  912,  1317;-feif>ely,  201;— 
fetyliche,  2732  ;—fei3J>li,  4793  ;— 
fei3^ely,  230  ;-fe|>li,  132  ;— fetfy, 
209  •— ieuliche  [_?  feitfliche],  261 : 
— faitly,  tSO^j-fejtly,  703. 

Fei^tful,  adj.  faithful,  337  ;  comp, 
feijrfullere,  5434. 


270 


GLOSSARIAL   INDEX. 


Fel.     See  Falle. 

Fel,  n.  S.  skin,  1720,  2361;  pi. 

bere-felles  (bear-skins),  2414, 2430, 

2560. 
Felachipe,  n.  S.  fellowship,  777, 

1317,  4510;  — felachip,  1479. 
Felawe,  n.  S.  i'ello\v,  companion, 

275,  339;  pi.  felawes,  186,.  193, 

360,  &c, 
Feld,  pr.  s.  felt,  1  ;  feld  foute  = 

perceived  the  scent,  33  ;  pp.  feled, 

638. 
Feldfares,  n.  pi   fieldfares,   183. 

Ch. 
Fele,  adj.  S.  many,  5,  186,  388, 

801,  &c ;— fel,  t  46  ;— feele,  1 880  : 

— feole,  t  12. 
Fell,  adj.  S.  fierce,  cruel,  f  364, 

t  946.      Comp.  feller  (of  a  fever}, 

897;  (of    a  sickness),  609;    (of  a 

battle),  3614 ;  (of  a  man),  t  42.  Ch. 

Felled,  pt.  s.  feUed,  killed,  f  85  ; 
pt.  pi  t  387,  3415  ;  feld,  f  352  ; 
pp.  felde,  3638. 

Felli,  adv.  fiercely,  3274  ;— felly, 

3451. 
FelJ>e,   n.    S.    filth  ;    hence     (by 

metaphor)  a  low  fellow,  a  wretch, 

2542,  2545. 

Fend,  n.  S.  a  fiend,  3130. 

Fende,  v.  to  defend,  3650 ;  fende 
mee  =  defend  myself,  fight,  1 1201. 

Fenkes,  pr.  s.  vanquishes,  con- 
quers, t  323  ;  pp.  fenked,  t  HI, 
t  305,  f  890;  ifenked,  t  117. 
Probably  a  modification  of  F.  vain- 
ere,  as  the  spelling  venkud  occurs 
in  The  Seuen  Sages,  2024.  Cf. 
"  For  haddest  thou  fenked  the  fon 
(foes),"  &c.  Alexander,  ed.  Steven- 
son, p.  208, 1.  339. 

Fer,  adv.  far,  2546,  2781  ;  com.p. 

ferre,    2613,    5167,    5397;    sup. 

ferrest,  2433,  5079. 
Ferche.     See  Fers. 
Ferd,#p.  afraid,  3366. 
Ferd,    n.    S.    a   troop,   company, 

386,  5326.     AS.fyrd. 


Ferden.     See  Fare. 

Fere,  n.  S.  a  companion,  364,. 
1639,  2866;  (a  spouse),  t  960. 
Cf.  I-fere. 

Fere.  adj.  entire,  sound,  1583.  Cf.. 
IeeLt/2wrJ  Su.-Go.  foer.  Dan.  and 
SW./OA 

Fere,  f  413.  I  can  only  suggest 
that  to  fere  may  mean  for  fear 
(which  seems  a  forced  construction), 
or  that  we  should  read  to-fore,  be- 
forehand. Cf.  To-fore.  Line  f  415 
also  seems  to  be  corrupt,  and  for 
]pei  we  might  read  \>en. 

Ferefull,  adj.  S.  terrible,  f  291r 
f411. 

Ferforf,  adv.  far  away,  209. 

Ferke,  v.  to  drive,  drive  onwards 
by  beating,  to  press  hard  upon, 
3630  ;  pt.  s.  ferked,  1 85,  1 1221 ; 
pt.  pi.  firked,  t  67.  "  Firk,  to 
whip,  to  beat."  Halliwell. 

Ferli,a<#.  S.  terrible,  fearful,  2449, 
3186,  3934.  A.S./6-&?. 

Ferli,  sb.  a  wonder,  3280,  4531  ; 
— ferlich,  t!015;— farly,  1 1050. 
See  preceding  word. 

Ferliche,  adv.  terribly,  wonder- 
fully, 3238. 

Fers,  adj.  F.  fierce,  severe,  436, 
3351,  3641 ;— ferse,  t  70,  t  276  ;— 
ferche,  3796. 

Fersche,  adj.  fresh,  3633.  A.S, 
fersc.  See  Fresch. 

Fersly,  adj.  fiercely,  1766; — 
fersli,  3348  ;— ferslich,  t  115  ;— 
ferselich,  f  253 ;— ferscheli,  3426.. 
Also  spelt  fresly,  1190. 

Ferst,  adv.  first,  648;  adj.  1163.. 

Fesauns,   n.  pi   pheasants,   183. 

Ch. 
Festened,  pt.  s.  fastened,  1720  ;. 

festned,  1239  ;  pp,  festened,  447, 

3437,3593;  fest,  1650. 

Fet,  n.  pi  S.  feet,  1766. 
Fetis,  adj.  F.  well  made,  lovely, 
pretty,  genteel,  126,  1447,  4095  ; 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


271 


—  fetys,  225,  4435  ;    fetyse,  393  ; 

—  fetise,  f  188.    Q.^.fetis.   Low 

Ch. 


Fetisliche,  adv.  fairly,  neatly,  pro- 

perly, 98. 

Fettes,  pr.  s.  fetches,  f  628. 
Fetures,  n.pl.  features,  857,  2886. 

Feuer,   n.   F.   fever,  897.     In  1. 

1239,  for  of  feuer  {as  in  MS.)  read 

on  fe  uter.     See  Feuter. 
Feute,  n.  scent,  trace,  90,  2189  ; 

—  foute,33.    "Fewte.  Vestigium." 
Prompt.  Parv.    "  Fewt,  trace  of  a 
fox  or  beast  of  chase  by  the  odour." 

—  Morris. 

Feuter,  n.  F.  the  rest  for  the  spear, 
3437,  3593.  From  Lat.  fulcrum. 
Cf.  f  ant  re  in  Roq.,  and  see  Morte 
Arihure,  \.  1366.  Sir  F.  Madden 
points  out  that  this  is  obviously  the 
meaning  in  Wallace,  \\\.  168  (where 
Jamieson  renders  fewtir  by  rage, 
from  the  Icd.fudra,  efflagro  !) 

Feye,  adj.  fated  to  die,  unlucky, 
J397.  A.S./^.  CLMorteArth. 
121,4253. 

Feyntice  (1239),  Feyntise,  Feyn- 

tyce.     See  Feintise. 
Feyre,  n.  F.  a  fair,  1822. 

Feyrye,  n.  F.  race  of  fairies,  230. 
"  See  Keightley's  Fairy  Mythology, 
vol.  i."  —  M. 

Fe3tly,  Fefli.    See  Feifli. 
Fifte,  fifth,  1322. 

Fin,  adj.  fine,  great  (applied  to 
force},  1117,  1  128  ;  —  fyn,  1217. 
Finched,  pp.  finished,  3934. 
Findestow  =  findest  thou,  132. 
Finliche,  adv.  finely,  768,  f!201. 
Firked.    See  Ferke. 

Flagetes,  n.  pi.  F.  flagons,  1893  ; 

—  flaketes,  1888. 

Flebled,  pt.  pi.  became  feeble, 
2660,  \_But  we  should  rather  read 
i'ebled.  Ct.febul  in  1.  5227.] 


Flecchinge,  n.  F.  flinching,  turn- 
ing aside.  See/efc/«>  in  Cotgrave. 

Fleete,  v.  S.  to  float,  f532.  Ch. 

Flen,  v.  S.  to  flay,  1682;  pp. 
flayne,  2607. 

Flen,  v.  S.  to  flee,  to  fly,  3872  ; 

—  fleue,  1856,  3879,  3892  ;  pt.  s. 
flei,  1896  ;  imp.  pi.  flej>,  3366. 

Flet,  n.  S.  floor  of  a  cottage; 
hence,  on  mi  net  =  in  my  cottage, 
5368.  A.S./^.  $ez  My rk's  In- 
structions for  Parish  Priests,  ed. 
Peacock ;  1.  273,  note. 

Flite,  v.  S.  to  chide,  debate,  2545. 

Flitte,  v.  S.  to  drive  away,  banish, 
623. 

Flon,  n.pl.  S.  arrows,  f  269. 

Floriched,  pp.  flourished,  clothed 

with  verdure,  2438. 
Floungen,  pt.  pi.  flew  as  if  flung, 

were  thrown,  f  269. 
Fode,  n.  a  man,  f  209.    Cf.  Sw. 

foda,  to  bring  forth. 
Fodest,  2  p.  pr.  s.  thou  feedest, 

i.  e.  suppliest,  1646  ;  pt.  s.  foded, 

57;  imp.pl.  fodes,  2050.  Cf.  Mceso- 

Goth.fod'jan. 

Fold,  n.  S.  earth,  ground,  5382. 
Fold,  pp.  folded,  858. 
Folili,  adv.  foolishly,  4596  ;  — 

folliche,  1557. 
Folwe,  v.  S.  to  follow,  189  ;  pr.s. 

folwes,  436  ;   fulwes,  33 ;  pt.  pi. 

folwed,  3351,  3631;  imp.pl.  folwefc 

3344. 
Fomen,   n.  pi.   S.   foemen,  foes, 

3274,  3372,  t  98. 
Fon,  n.  pi.  S.  foes,  3269,  3338 ; 

—  fone,  f  271,  t  332,  f  866. 
Fonden,   v.  S.  to  try,   seek,    at- 
tempt,  f  108  ;       -  fonde,   1019, 
3387,    t  246,    1 385  ;    fond,    777, 
3599  ;   1  p   pr.  s.  fonde   (I  seek, 
ask),  f!054;  3  p.  pr.  s.  foundes 
(goes),  f!21,  pr.pl.  fonden  (are 
busy),  1682 ;  pt.  s.  fonded,  t  740  ; 
pt.pl.  fondede  (busied  themselves), 


272 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


3629;  imp.  pi.  fondes,  1114;  pp. 

t'onded,  623,  801 ;  pres.part.  found- 
ing (going),  1749.   KS.fandian. 
Fond,  .p*.  ft  found,  293,  422,  2730, 

4847  ;  pi.  fond  him  =  found  for 

him,  73. 

Foos.    See  Fos. 
For,  prep,  on  account  of,  1691  ; 

as  suited  for,  294,  506  ;  in  spite 

of  (?),  1226.     {But  we  should,  in 

the  last  place,  read  fro.] 
For,  conj.  in  order  that,  746, 2751 ; 

because,  1319,  1668. 
For — ,  an  intensive  prefix.    A.S. 

for  — .     Moeso-Goth.  fra  — .     G. 

ver  — .     See  below. 
For-barre,  v.  to  bar  up,  enclose 

forcibly,  3333;  pt.  pi.  for-barred 

(parried),  1217. 
For-brenne,  v.  S.  to  burn  up,  1188; 

pp.  for-brent,  2621,  2831,  3001. 
Forcer,  n.  F.  a  casket,  coffer,  4432, 

f628.  See  Way's  note  on  Poor  cere 

in  Prompt.  Parv. 
For-dede,  pt.  s.  killed,  destroyed 

(=  should  kill),  2972  ;  pp.  fordon, 

1563. 
Fordedes,  n.  pi.  previous  deeds, 

325  ;  —  fordede,  5182.    See  note 

to  1.  325,  and  cf.  1.  2076. 
Fore,    adv.    beforehand,     2076, 

4142.    Cf.  To-fore. 
Fore,  prep,  for,  2941. 
Forfare,  v.  S.  to  kill,  2762. 
For-fouten,  pp.  exhausted   with 

fighting,  3686.   See  Jamieson. 
For-frete,  $p.  eaten  up,  2376.  See 

Fret. 

For-gaf,  pt.  s.  gave  up,  4418. 
For-gete,  pp.  forgotten,  5156. 
For-go,  v.  to  forego,  lose,  5187. 
For-hungred,  pp.  exhausted  with 

hunger,  2515. 
For-left,^.  left,  2497. 
For-lete,^.j;Z.  left, forsook,  2311; 

pp.  for-lete,  f  679. 


For-lore,  pp.  wholly  lost,  2955, 

4571. 
Formest,  adj.  first,  foremost,  1191, 

5079,  t  40 ;  —  formast,  2324 ;  adv. 

(at  first,  first  of  all),  939,  1362, 

2324. 

For-oute,  prep,  without,  2681. 

Fors,  n.  force,  1117.  See  Fin. 
Phrase,  "no  fors  bei  ne  leten,"  they 
little  cared  for,  3651.  Cf.  I  do  no 
fors,  I  don't  care,  \\\Chaucer  (Aldine 
edition),  vol.  vi.  p.  305. 

Forschop,  lp.pt.  s.  I  transformed, 
misshaped,  4394*;  pp.  for-schaped, 
2639.  Ch. 

For-sake,  v.  to  deny,  1358.  A.S. 
for-sacan. 

Fort,  put  for  Forto,  788.  See  note. 

Forperes,  pr.  s.  proceeds,  5397. 

Forf-fare,  pp.  departed,  5266. 

Forjn,  For-J>i,  conj.  S.  on  that 
account,  therefore,  723, 1051, 1624, 
&c. 

Forjjinkes  me,  pr.  s.  wipers,  it 
mislikes  me,  grieves  me,  5422  ;  pt. 
pi.  reft,  forthoughten  hem,  repent- 
ed, t  446.  Ch. 

For]) ward,  adv.  S.  forward,  3630. 

For-waked,  pp.  exhausted  with 
waking,  worn  out  for  want  of 
sleep,  785,  793,  1797  ;— al  for- 
waked,  790 ;— al  for- walked,  2236. 
"  Chaucer  uses  it,  Cant.  Ta.  5016, 
and  Wyntoun,  viii.  16.  141."— M. 

ForwandreJ),  pr.  s.  wanders  long, 
739.  "In  Chaucer  is  the  pp.  for- 
wandred,  Rom.  Rose,  3336." — M. 
See  also  P.  PI.  A.  prol.  7. 

Forward,  n.  S.  a  compact,  1451 ; 
pi.  forwardes,  1557,  1568,  1650. 

For-wept,  pp.  worn  out  with 
weeping,  2868.  "  In  Chaucer's 
Dreme,  1833,  and  King's  Quair,  ii. 
54."— M.  Cf.  Bi-wept. 

For-wery,  adj.  exceeding  weary, 
2443.  "In  Chaucer,  Rom.  Rose, 
I  3336."— M.  Cf.  Dan.  laiigcarig. 


GLOSSARIAL   INDEX. 


273 


For-wounded,  pp.  much  wounded, 
3686.  "In  Chaucer,  Rom.  Hose, 
1830."— M. 

For-:jeten,  pt.  pi.  forgot,  1909 ; 
pp.  for^ete,  4934.  See  For-gete. 

Fos,  n.  pi.  foes,  1190; — foos, 
2699.  See  Fon. 

Fostredes,  2  p.  pt.  s.  didst  foster, 
5376. 

Fote,  n.  S.  a  foot  (used  as  a 
measure),  4033. 

Fouche,  in  phrase,  "  sauf  wol  I 
fouche,"  I  will  vouch-safe  or  gua- 
rantee, 4352. 

Foule,  adv.  fully,  1646. 

Foules,  n.  pi.  S.  birds,  822  ;  gen. 
foulen,  805. 

Foundes,  Founding.  See  Fonden. 

Fourteni^t,  n.  S.  a  fortnight,  2681 ; 
—  fourtenenirt,  1337 ;  —  fortenijt, 
2423  ;  gen.  fourteni^tes,  2683. 

Foute.     See  Feute. 

Fou3ten.     See  Fau^t. 

Fowlye,  n.  folly,  f  1103. 

Frakes.     See  Freke. 

Fram.     See  Fro. 

Frau3t,  pp.  freighted,  2732. 

Frayne,  v.  S.  to  ask,  inquire,  250 ; 
1  p.  pt.  s.  freyned,  2034 ;  pt.  s. 
freyned,  1303,  3587;^.^.freyned, 
394.  "Somner  says  that  in  his 
time  this  word  still  prevailed  in 
Lancashire." — M. 

Fre,  adj.  S.  liberal,  generous, 
noble,  337,  386,  1061,  3277 ;  used 
as  sb.  505  ;  opposed  to  ]>ewe,  5514. 
See  Sir  F.  Madden's  Reply  to  Mr 
Singer's  Remarks  on  Havelok,  p.  15. 

Fredom,  n.  S.  liberal  disposition, 
189. 

Freke,  n.  S.  a  man,  402,  1117, 
1 193,  &c. ;— frek,  264,  897,  934, 
&c. ;  gen.  frekes,  3886  ;  pi.  frekes, 
442,  2286  ;— frakes,  3504.  Applied 
to  a  young  boy  in  1.  4078.  The 
A.S./ra?  is  chiefly  used  "in  a  bad 


sense,  but  the  root  exists  in  the 
Su.-G.  /rack,  Isl.  frek,  strenuus, 
ferox."— M.  Cf.  Sw.  frack,  Dan. 
frdk. 

Freliche,  adj.  S.  noble,  genteel, 
428,  822,  3876;— freli,  5329;— 
frely,  124,  366,  500  ;— freyliche, 
360  ;  —  freelich,  f  209,  f  1003, 
f!245. 

Freli,  adv.  S.  nobly,  honourably, 
5329.  Generally  in  phr.  "freliche 
schapen,"  finely  shaped,  126,  225, 
393;  "freli  schapen,"  1447;  sup. 
"  frelokest  i-schapen,"  2634.  "  In 
the  Isl.  frdligr  is  alacer,  celer, 
strenuus.  Orkneyinga  Saga" — M. 

Fresly.     See  Fersly. 

Fresch,   adj.   fresh,   3640.      See 

Fersche. 
Fret,   pt.   s.    gnawed,    87  ;   pp. 

freaten  (rather  readheteti),  f  1159. 

A.S./reto.     G.fressen.     Cf.  For- 

frete. 
Frij),  n.  a  thicket,  wood,  forest, 

822;  pL  frizes,  2216,  f!5.    "W. 

ffridd.     Cf.  0.  Hi.fraitis  in  Roq. 

Fro,  prep,  from,  13,  &c.  ;  — 
fromme,  425  ;— fram,  5373. 

Frobroder,  n.  younger  brother 
(apparently  contr.  from  from- 
brother),  f  23.  [J  cannot  find  the 
word  elsewhere. ~\ 

Frond,  n.  F.  front,  3584. 

Frotus,^?r.s.  rubs,  strokes,  f  1174. 

Ful,  adv.  very,  983. 

FulnUen,  v.  to  fulfil,  1451 ;  pp. 
fulfulled,  4319. 

Fulsumli,  adv.  S.  plenteously, 
4325. 

Fulwes.     See  Folwe. 

Fundeling,    n.   foundling,     481, 

502,  2077. 
Fur,  n.  S.  fire,  1188,  4773;  — 

fure,  907,  3759. 

Fur]?e  del,  fourth  part,  1284. 
Fy,  inter j.  fie!  481. 


18 


274 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


Gabbe,  jpr.  jrf.  S.  talk  idly,  1994. 
Ch. 

Gadere,  v.  S.  to  gather,  30  ;  — 
gader,  1022. 

Gaf.     See  Gif. 

Gailiche,  adv.  gaily,  2591 ; — gayli, 
1625,  2597  ;— gayly,  2731. 

Gainli.     See  Gaynli. 

Gainelich,  adv.  f506.  It  is  doubt- 
less an  error  for  garaelich  :  the 
parallel  passage  in  MS.  Ashm.  44 
is,  "  A  lowde  latter  he  k>3e."  See 
Gamely. 

Gainus,  n.  pi.  javelins,  f  292.  Cf. 
"  Ganye,  Gainye,  Genye,  Ganyhe,  an 
arrow,  javelin."  Jamieson.  Cf.  Ir. 
gain,  an  arrow ;  W.  gaing,  a  chisel 
or  wedge.  {In  MS.  miswritten 


Gamely,  adv.  playfully,  joyfully, 
laughingly,  427 ; — gamelich,  f  506 ; 
— gamli,  3383 ;— gameliche,  2591. 

Gamsum,  adj.  S.  joyful,  4193. 

Gan,  Ganne.     See  Gin. 

Gan,  pr.  pi.  they  go,  811. 

Gapand, pres.  part,  gaping,  2372  ; 
— gapande,  2875  ;  — gapind,  3503. 

Garisun,  n.  F.  provision,  reward, 
5073  ;  —  garissoun,  2491.  Cf. 
Warissoun. 

Garnemens,  n.pl.  garments,  3207, 
4460.  P.  PI.  Crede,  ]&%,  foot-note. 

Gart,  pt.  s.  caused,  made,  1248, 
2082,  2168,  &c. ;— garte,  1365  ;— 
"  gart  HS  do  make,"  caused  this  to 
be  done,  5529.  See  also  2900. 

Gat.     See  Gete. 

Gate,  n.  S.  road,  way ;  on  gate, 
on  his  way,  on  their  way,  1119, 
2092,  4014  ;  on  his  gate,  372 ;  on 
here  gate,  1912  ;  on  oure  gate, 
2800 ;  on  hur  gate,  f  379  ;  pi.  gatis, 
gates  ;  heie  gates,  high-roads, 
1691 ;  gey  nest  gatis,  nearest  ways, 
4189 ;  o\>er-gate,  otherwise,  3761. 

Gayne,  v.  impers.  to  avail,  help, 
profit,  598  ;  pr.  s.  gayne|>,  3109 ; 


geinef>,  3899  ;  pt.  s.  geyned,  3891 ; 
pr.  s.  subj.  geyne,  3107.  Dan. 
game.  Sw.  gagna. 

Gayned,^?£.  s.  in  "  na  gref  gayned 
to  his  ioye,"  no  grief  accrued  to 
his  joy,  2473.  Ct.  0.  F.  gaagner. 
A.S.  gynan. 

Gaynest,  adj.  sup.  nearest,  readiest, 
3465  ;— geynest,  4189.  Cf.  Gayne ; 
and  Gane  in  Jamieson. 

Gaynli,  adv.  readily,  well, 
thoroughly,  636,  2665,  2706,  3135  ; 
—gaynliche,  369 ;—  geinli,  3448  ;— 
geinliche,  744  ;— geynliche,  1030  ; 
— geynli,  3553,  &c.  Cf.  Gaynest. 

Gelt,  n.  S.  guilt,  2339,  4403. 
Gemetrie,   n.   geometry,    f  548, 

t  644.    P.  PI.  A.  xi.  153. 
Genge,  n.   S.   gang,   assemblage, 

1600, 1625. 
Gerd   him,  pt.   s.    girt    himself, 

3291. 
Gerde)?,^.  5.  strikes,  1240.     See 

Girde  in  Ch.     "But  perhaps  we 

should  read  qrete]>" — M. 


Gere,  n.  S.  gear,  clothing,   1716, 

2588  ;  stelger,  steel  armour,  t  416. 

Ch. 

Gergeis,  Greeks,  2200. 
Gerles,  girls,  816. 
Gest,  n.  F.  geste,  romance,  5033 ; 

pi.  deeds,  adventures,  2780.     Cf. 

Spenser,  F.  Q.  ii.  2,  16. 

Gestes,  n.  pi.  S.  guests,  4904. 

Gete,  n.  S.  to  get,  obtain,  644  ; 
1  p.  pt.  s.  gat  (begat),  4191 ;  pt.  s. 
gat,  2895  ;  lp.pt.  pi.  gete,  4077; 
.   gaten,   1592  ;  pp.  geten, 


L030 ;  gete,  799. 

Gie.     See  Gye. 

Gif,  v.  S.  to  give,  5539  ;— giif, 
1169;  1  p.  pr.  s.  giue,  531,  gif, 
536,  1000  ;  pt.  s.  gaf,  395,  992, 
1559  ;  pt.pl  goue,  4781 ;  pp.  giue, 
5075.  God  gif  (God  grant),  2157  ; 
God  goue,  1648  ;  God  gof,  2348. 
See  also  under  3eue. 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


275 


Ginne,  1  p.  pr.  s.  begin,  1929; 
pr.pl.  ginneK  H85,  2080;  pt.  s. 
gan,  691,  736 ;  pt.  pi.  gonne,  4009  ; 
1  p.  imp.  pi.  ginne,  5104.  Also,  as 
an  auxiliary  verb;  pr.  s.  ginnes 
ride  (doth  ride),  1189  ;  pt.  s.  gan, 
71,  647,  831,  &c. ;  pt.  s.  subj.  gun, 
290  ;  pt.  pi.  gonne,  1961,  2200, 
t  292  ;  gun,  1154,  3274  ;  gunne, 
1164, 1272, 1530, 1600 ;  gon,  3825. 

Ginnes.     See  Gynne. 

Gist,  adv.  (?)  justly  (placed), 
exactly  (set),  f  294.  The  gloss  iust 
seems  correct. 

Glade,  v.  S.  to  gladden,  824,  827  ; 
intr.  to  rejoice,  351 ;  pp.  gladed, 
600,870,1593.  Ch. 

Gle,  n.  S.  melody,  824. 

Glede,  n.  S.  a  burning  coal,  f  729. 
Ch. 

Gleming,  pres.  part,  looking  a- 
skance,  f  506.  See  Glime  in  Jamie- 
son. 

Glimerand,    pres.    pt.     shining, 

1427. 
Glisiande,    pres.  pt.    glistening, 

shining,    f  180,  f  534,  f  H96  ;— 

glisiing,  f  698. 

Glod,^.  s.  glided,  f  279. 

Glosed,  pt.  s.  spoke  coaxingly, 
persuaded,  60. 

Go  \ve,  let  us  go,  used  for  let  us, 
1184.  Cf.  "gowe  dyne,  gowe." 
P.  PI.  A.prol.  105. 

God,  n.  S.  goods,  riches,  possess- 
ions, 1731,  3523,  5071. 

God,  Gode,  adj.  S.  good,  1765, 
&c.  "  Used  substantively,  504, 
1334,  3777.  In  the  first  and  last 
instances  parentage  or  birth  is 
understood,  and  lady  in  the 
second." — M. 

Godli,  adv.  S.  goodly,  well,  fairly, 
1305, 1450, 1461 ;— godliche,  1270, 
2444,  5031 ;  -godly,  169,  2916  ; 
— goddeli,  306. 

Godelyche,  adj.  S.  goodly,  fair, 
355. 


Godmen,  n.  pi.  good  men,  strong 

men,  1069. 
Gof.     See  Gif. 
Gome,  n.  S.  a  man,  670,  824,  851, 

t  221,  t  252,   &c. ;  —  gom,   747, 

1007, 1092,  &c. ;— gum,  4441 ;  gen. 

sing,  gomes,  346,  1687 ;  pi.  gomes, 

1169,  1939. 

Gon,  v.  S.  to  go,  4902; — gone, 
2600 ;  pr.  s.  gob,  271,  747,  &c. ; 
pr.  pi.  gon,  1687 ;  gan,  811 ;  imp. 
pi.  goK  263. 

Gon,  Gonne.  See  Ginne. 

Gost,  n.  S.  spirit,  breath  of  life, 

992,  1559, 2120  ;  a  phantom,  1730. 
Goue.     See  Gif. 
Gradden,  pt.  pL  cried  out  ;  grad- 

den  hur  grty,  cried  out  for  peace, 

made  a  treaty,  1 151.    P.  PI.  A. 

ii.  59. 

Graith,   adv.    straight,    at    once, 

f863.     Cf.  GreiJ>. 
Graijjed.     See  GreiJ>e. 
Graithlich.     See  Greijjli. 

Grame,  n.  S.  anger,  wrath,  2200. 
Ch. 

Gras,  n.  S.  grass,  herb,  644,  799, 

1030  ;  pi.  grases,  27. 
Grathly.     See  Greifli. 
Greate,  v.  to  greet,  f  705. 
Grece,  n.  S.  grass,  636.  See  Gras. 

Grece,  n.  F.  a  flight  of  steps, 
stairs,  811.  See  Way's  note  in 
Prompt,  Parv. 

Gref,  n.  F.  grief,  2473  ;  vexation, 
anger,  4418  ;— greefe,  f  264 ;  pi. 
greues,  778,  868,  956,  &c. 

Greeny,  adv.  grievously ;  greefly 
bigoy  grievously  beset,  f  490,  f  994. 
Gregoyse,  n.  pi.  Greeks,  5104. 

GreiJ>,  adj.  ready,  5296  ; — greyt, 
2731.  \These  seem  to  be  adjectives 
rather  than  from  GreiJ>e.] 

Greijje,  v.  to  dress,  prepare,  make 
ready,  array,  1719,  3558,  4274; 


276 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


pr.  s.  graipes,  f  254  ;  pt.  s.  grei)?ed, 
3288  ;  graythed,  f  77  ;  pt.  pi. 
greibed,  1931,  3207  ;  pp.  greibed, 
1945,  3766,  3768  ;  grayth< 
grained,  f  258,  2933  ; 


grefea.     [For  gre}>and,  1427,  read 
gre}>ed.~]     Cf.  A-gre]>ed. 

Greijjli,  adv.  readily,  quickly,  984, 
3492,  4257  ;—  gre}>li,  998;—  graith- 
lich,  f  858  ;—  grathliche,  f  562  ;— 
grathly,t711. 

Gremjje,  n.  S.  anger,  fierceness, 
2080,  f  221,  f  279.  "  In  Isl. 
grind  ;  see  Gautretfs  Saga,}*.  251." 
—  M.  Cf.  Grame. 

Grendes,  2  p.  pr.  s.  thou  grindest, 

1510. 
Gresli.     See  Grisli. 

Grete,  adj.  great;  used  (in  pi.) 
substantively  (as  at  present)  for 
persons  of  rank,  1107,  1595,  1936  ; 
comp.  gretter,  1859  ;  sup.  grettest, 
928  ;  miswritten  grettes,  1196. 

Grete,  v.  S.  to  greet,  accost,  1430  ; 
pr.  s.  gretes,  233  ;  pis.  gret,  1393, 
1986  ;  grett,  873,  4532  ;  grette, 
369  ;  pt.  pi.  gretten,  1334  ;  grette, 
•\  920  ;  imp.  pi.  gretes,  355  ;  grete]>, 
359  ;  pres.  part,  gretand,  8816. 

Greteli,  adv.  greatly,  1292  ;  — 
gretliche,  975,  2444  ;  —  gretly, 
600;  —  grettli,  2665  ;  —  gretteli, 
4872. 

Gretyng,  n.  S.  salutation,  234. 

Greue,  n.  S.  a  grove,  3634. 

Greue,  v.  F.  to  vex,  injure,  689, 
2875,  4028  ;  pr.  s.  greues,  530, 
608,  889,  899  ;  pr.pl  greuen  (sub. 
•wounds),  1378  ;  imp.  s.  greue, 
2793. 

Greues.     See  Gref. 

Grewes,  Greeks,  2080. 

Grim,  n.  S.  anger,  fury,    f  904. 

A.S.  grim,  fury. 
Grint,  pt.  s.  S.  ground,  pierced 

through,  1242,  3443. 


Giipt,pt.s.  S.  gripped,  seized,  744. 

Grisli,  adj.  S.  formidable,  fright- 
ful, 1730  ;  —  grisiliche,  4343 ;  — 
grissiliche,  4935  ; — grislich,  f  434; 
—  gresli,  1687. 

Grip,  n.  S.  peace,  security,  3891, 
3899  ;  gradden  hur  gri\>,  sued  for 
peace,  fl51;  graunted  him  grty, 
granted  him  peace,  3927. 

Grocching.     See  Grucching. 

Groin,  n.  S.  groom,  man,  1767. 
"Evidently  the  representative  of 
gome  and  formed  from  it,  as  bride- 
groom  is  from  brid-guma." — M. 

Grot,  n.  groat,  4257.  "It  may 
also  mean  a  thing  of  no  value,  from 
S.  greot,  pulvis."— M. 

Growen,  pr.  pi.  grow,  1812. 

Grucche,  v.  F.  to  murmur,  be  un- 
willing ;  2  p.  pr.  subj.  grutche, 
4257;  imp.  s.  grucche,  1450;  pt.  s. 
grucched,  3927 ;  pres.  part,  grocch- 
ing,  271.  Ch.  J 

Grucching,  n.  S.  murmuring,  1461, 
2687. 

Grunt,  pt.  pi.  groaned,  f  388. 

Gryffouns,    Greeks,    1961.  "    Cf. 

Griff ouns  in  Halliwell. 
Gult,  1  p.  pt.  s.  injured,  1172. 

See  A-gult. 
Gum.     See  Gome. 
Gun,  Gunne.     See  Ginne. 

Gye,  v.  F.  to  guide,  lead,  govern, 

1105,  2664,  +316,  f  328  ;  —  gier 

|287.    Ch. 

Gye,  n.  F.  guide,  2727,  2849. 
Gyled,  pp.  beguiled,  cheated,  689. 

Ch. 
Gynne,    n.    a    contrivance,    art, 

f  1135  ;  pi  ginnes,  f  548,  f  644. 

Ch. 

Hache,  n.  S.  ache,  pain,  905  ; — 
hacche,  847  ;  pi  haches,  615, 
1575  ;  —  hacches,  826,  902.  "  Still 
pronounced  etitch  in  Cheshire.  Tide 
Wilbraham's  Glossary."— M. 


GLOSSARIAL    INDEX. 


277 


Hacclies,  n.  pi.  hatches  (of  a  ship), 
2770,  2776.  Ch. 

Hadden,  Hadestow.     See  Haue. 

Hakernes,  n.  pi.  S.  acorns,  1811. 

Hal,  adj.  all,  323,  371. 

Halde,  v.  S.  to  hold,  1304 ;  pr.  s. 
haldes,  905,  932 ;  pr.  pi.  holden, 
2711  ;  pt.  pi*  helden,  946  ;  pp. 
holde  (bound,  beholden),  317  ; 
hold,  4722 ;  holde  (considered  as, 
esteemed),  2833,  3773,  4158  ;  hold, 
1355  ;  imp.  s.  hald,  343;  imp.  pi. 
haldes,  106. 

Half,  n.  side,  3971  ;  on  goddes 
halue,  on  God's  side,  in  God's  name, 
2803. 

Halp.     See  Helpes. 

Hampris,  pr.  s.  hampers,  impedes, 
troubles,  668  ;  pp.  hampered,  441 ; 
hampred,  4694 ;  imp.  pi.  hampres, 
1115.  Cf.  Su.-Goth.  hamma,  Dan. 
hemme,  to  hem  in. 

Han.     See  Haue. 

Hange,  pp.  hung,  5479.  [Better 
hanged.  Cf.  Honget.] 

Hap,  n.  chance,  fortune,  414, 
440,  1794,  1798  ;  —  happ,  806  ; 
—  happe,  32  ;  pi.  happes,  1815, 
1840,  1885,  &c. ;— vp  happe  (per- 
haps), 2722.  Icel.  happ.  W.  hap. 
Ch. 

Happe,  v.  F.  to  get,  receive,  light 
on,  3340.  Cf.  F.  hopper,  to  seize. 

Happili,  adv.  haply,  by  chance, 
2774,  4130  ;— happiliche  (luckily), 
2495. 

Hard,  adj*  used  substantively  to 
denote  dan